Government of Canada

Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada


Gross domestic product (GDP) is the total value of all goods and services produced within a country during a given year. It is also a measure of the income generated by production within a country. It is sometimes called annual economic output or just output. To avoid counting the same output more than once, GDP includes only final goods and services—not those which are used to make another product. For example, GDP would not include the wheat used to make bread, only the bread itself.

Gross national income (GNI) is made up of GDP plus net income earned from investments abroad (minus similar payments made to non-residents who contribute to the domestic economy).

GNI per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) is GNI converted into a rate of exchange that allows a standard comparison of price levels between countries. One PPP dollar has the same purchasing power in the domestic economy that the U.S. dollar has in the U.S. economy.

Ecological footprint is a measure of how much productive land and water an individual, city, country, or humanity needs to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb all the waste it generates. It is expressed in global hectares, or units that correspond to one hectare of biologically productive space with world average productivity.

The human development index (HDI) measures human development by combining three dimensions of development: longevity (life expectancy at birth), access to knowledge (mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling) and a decent standard of living (gross national income per capita).

The gender inequality index (GII) measures reproductive health (maternal mortality), empowerment (education and share of parliamentary seats) and labour market participation taking into account the inequalities between women and men.

Net primary school enrolment rate is the number of children enrolled in primary school, expressed as a percentage of the number of children of official primary school age.

Population using improved drinking water sources is the percentage of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of drinking water from improved sources.