Amount in $M
|Partnerships with Canadians||0.57|
Following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Sudan People's Liberation Army in 2005, a referendum on self-determination of southern Sudan was held in January 2011. During this referendum, the citizens of southern Sudan voted massively in favour of independence. The Government of Sudan recognized the result of the referendum, and the Republic of South Sudan became independent on July 9, 2011.
Canada was pleased with the holding of the peaceful and credible referendum and, on February 8, 2011, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced Canada's intention to recognize the Republic of South Sudan.
For more information visit Canada: Active in Sudan and South Sudan on the Departnment of Foreign Affairs and International Trade website.
The Republic of Sudan is located north of the Republic of South Sudan and has its capital in Khartoum. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, the Republic of South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest.
The Republic of South Sudan is located south of the Republic of Sudan and is bordered by Ethiopia to the east, Kenya, Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, and the Central African Republic to the west. Juba is its capital city. According to 2008 census figures, the population of the Republic of South Sudan is roughly 8.3 million.
The former country of Sudan was geographically the largest country in Africa. The region has abundant mineral and oil resources, as well as productive land that grows cotton, sesame and wheat and provides grazing for livestock. However, the area has experienced years of unrest, civil wars, and natural disasters. This situation has left an estimated five million internally displaced persons in need of assistance. Much of the infrastructure is disintegrating. On the United Nations Development Programme's 2011 human development index, the former country of Sudan, ranks 169 out of 187 countries.
Civil war, which had racked Sudan since its independence from the United Kingdom in 1956, continues. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005 ended the north-south conflict, but the situation is fragile and must be reinforced to avoid a relapse. Separate conflicts have occurred elsewhere throughout all of Sudan and in the Darfur region in particular. The Darfur conflict is still unresolved, leaving 2.7 million persons displaced. Challenges are becoming increasingly regional in scope and are fuelling instability in eastern Chad. Both countries now face large refugee influxes from neighbouring countries, including Chad.
The impact of these conflicts is staggering, given chronic food and water shortages and drought. Life expectancy only averages 57 years, and literacy rates are just 61 percent for adults over the age of 15. Both countries now face a critical time in history.
In 2009, as part of Canada's new aid effectiveness agenda, Sudan was selected by CIDA as a country of focus. After the referendum, Canada's engagement in Sudan and South Sudan continues to follow key foreign policy priorities of freedom, democracy, human rights, and rule of law. It also continues to respond to Canadian public and international interest in having the Canadian government play a diplomatic role, provide development assistance, and contribute to peace and stability in the two countries.
Canada's whole-of-government approach comprises:
Canada's approach on all of Sudan is to coordinate its actions through a task force, of which CIDA is a member, along with Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, the Department of National Defence, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Together they are making a contribution toward helping the people of Sudan and South Sudan to:
CIDA's objective is to support efforts to create the conditions for long-term peace, stability and prosperity.
CIDA's program is directly aligned with the Government of Canada's whole-of-government strategy.
CIDA focuses on increasing access to integrated basic services, such as education and health services, for at-risk older children and youth where needs are greatest, in a conflict-sensitive manner.
CIDA provides vulnerable households with a way to generate income by providing employment skills that lead to improved food production and increased market access for agricultural products and livestock.
CIDA focuses on helping to establish government institutions in South Sudan. This includes strengthening the core skills of public servants and improving public financial management.
The principles of aid effectiveness, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's and CIDA's guidelines for fragile states, and the Millennium Development Goals will continue to direct CIDA's program in both countries.
Canada co-ordinates with other donors through a number of mechanisms, including a joint donor office established in South Sudan, mandated to improve aid effectiveness. The only one of its kind, the office is shared by Canada, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom. CIDA responds to humanitarian assistance appeals, such as the US$2.29 billion United Nations and Partners: 2009 Work Plan for Sudan.
To promote aid effectiveness, CIDA's program has a dual approach of working through pooled funds on large-scale projects and directly with non-governmental organizations on focused projects.
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