There are two tragedies in international development. The first is that so much of the world lives in poverty, and the second is that development assistance does not always deliver the results we want for those in developing countries.
The Government of Canada, through the Canadian International Development Agency, is determined to respond to both tragedies, and we are committed to efficiency and transparency in the way we deliver international assistance.
This report tells Canadians how CIDA has invested some $3.6 billion (between April 2008 and March 2009)—where it was spent and how it makes a difference.
This was a memorable period for CIDA. Canada doubled its assistance to Africa, making us the first G8 country to deliver on this commitment, and we continued to increase our assistance overall. We also put more CIDA staff in the field, where they can do a better job at assessing local needs and developing responses. Perhaps our single most important innovation was to untie our food aid. This means that our assistance no longer has strings attached, and that we can stretch our dollar further using local sources and local goods. All our development aid will be untied by 2013.
The following pages show how CIDA is indeed making a difference. We are improving the lives of people in some of the world's poorest countries. We are also addressing the tragedy of inefficient assistance by targeting our work where it will do the most good.
The Honourable Beverley J. Oda,
Minister of International Cooperation
Our quality of life is linked to helping the poorer communities, countries, and regions of the world.
We do this because we care about global poverty, and because our support for countries that are less fortunate helps make the world more stable and secure for all. We believe in working together with partners to address international development issues and challenges.
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is responsible for the majority of Canada's international assistance budget. For the period covered by this report, between April 2008 and March 2009, Parliament allocated $3.6 billion to CIDA.
The Canadian government has just announced that it will completely untie aid. This is a tremendous milestone. Without increasing development spending a cent, Canada has added roughly $90-180 million to our aid spending, simply by eliminating the inefficiencies of tied aid.
- Danny Howard
Director of Outreach and Advocacy
Engineers Without Borders
Canada is making its international assistance programs more efficient, more focused, and more accountable so that they better deliver help to the people who need it most. That is why CIDA is taking steps to use these funds in a focused and effective manner.
We reviewed our options during the period covered by this report, and announced in May 2009 that Canadian aid will focus on three priority themes:
The Government of Canada also announced that CIDA would invest 80 percent of its bilateral resources—about half its budget—in 20 countries of focus. These countries were chosen because of their needs, their capacity to benefit from aid, and their alignment with Canadian foreign policy priorities.
And, of course, Canada and Canadians will continue to play a vital role in the international community by helping when disaster strikes.
This report aims to demonstrate to Canadians how their international assistance dollars have been put to work. Canadians want to know whether we are spending their money in the best way. They want to know whether we are helping the most people we can, and whether we have been effective in stretching our aid dollars. They want to know that people around the world are living better lives and have hope for the future because of our work.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that for the first time in human history, more than a billion people around the world do not have enough food to meet their daily needs.
There is, however, room for hope: the World Bank predicts that an increase in gross domestic product (GDP) as a result of growth in agriculture benefits the incomes of poor people two to four times more than GDP growth in other sectors. When more food is produced, not only are more people fed, more people see their incomes grow.
CIDA is working with Canadian, international and local partners to increase food security by improving the productivity of smallholder farmers, and by supporting research and development in nutrition and agriculture.
In 2008-2009 the world faced a food crisis on top of a global economic crisis. Natural disasters in Asia and in the Caribbean destroyed years of work while elsewhere, conflict struck countries that had been peaceful for decades. The poorest and most vulnerable struggled to survive in fragile states.
The rising costs of food, transportation, and other inputs contributed to the food crisis.
In response, Canada exceeded its annual commitment to the Food Aid Convention, providing a total of $318 million, which helped feed more than 102 million people in 78 countries.
We untied our food aid budget, meaning that we enabled the aid to go toward the purchase of local supplies and services. This helps stretch aid dollars further, and delivers the help faster, while promoting the development of regional and local markets. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development estimates that untying aid can increase cost efficiency by 35 percent.
Canada is a true champion of the poor and the vulnerable, and one of the pioneers of international development. CIDA demonstrated once again its lead and strategic role as one of the first to respond to the WFP's appeal for dealing with high food and fuel prices, and by making the important decision to fully untie food assistance.
Canadian contributions in 2008-2009 had a lifesaving impact for more than five million people after the hurricanes in Haiti and Burma [Myanmar], during the droughts in the Horn of Africa and Southern Africa, and through enduring conflicts in Sudan, Afghanistan, and other countries.
- Josette Sheeran, Executive Director
World Food Programme
CIDA works with its partners to provide long-term solutions to food security by helping developing countries become more self-sufficient. This is an essential step to reduce poverty.
We are committed to increasing the availability of high quality, nutritious food; increasing the stability of food supplies; and supporting the improved governance of the global food system.
According to the World Bank, micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals offer the best opportunity to improve lives at a low cost and in a short time. Canada is a world leader in providing the world's children with essential nutrients critical to healthy physical and mental development. With CIDA support, the Micronutrient Initiative fortifies foods with iron, iodine, vitamin A, folic acid, and zinc, and provides supplementary doses of these micronutrients to the most vulnerable.
CIDA has been a leader in insisting that food aid going to refugees and poor people is fortified with vitamin A, and other countries are now following.
- Sue Horton, Professor of Economics
Wilfrid Laurier University
Beans are one of the most popular crops in Africa. They grow quickly, contain iron and zinc, and help make the soil more fertile.
CIDA supports the Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance (PABRA), which brings together research organizations and farmers—mainly women—in 24 countries. They develop, test, and make available varieties of beans that are nutritious and are resistant to pests, diseases, and drought.
A woman in the Tanzanian village of Ivwanga has benefited from this partnership. Ms. Kambona's family was finding it increasingly difficult to feed themselves, so she bought 30 kg of the fortified beans and planted them. To her surprise, the yield was about 30 percent larger than usual—almost 320 kg. She was not only able to feed her family, she sold some of the surplus beans. Ms. Kambona continues to plant the fortified beans.
PABRA has released more than 101 varieties of beans to more than seven million African households, representing about 35 million people.
Studies show that hungry children have trouble learning.
In 2008, CIDA's support to the WFP's school meals project in Honduras helped feed more than 300,000 children in 2,000 schools.
Beyond offering students nutritious meals at midday, the program gives students take-home rations for the family.
Canada contributed $32 million to feed schoolchildren worldwide. The project increases enrolment and attendance rates, decreases dropout rates, and helps improve nutrition.
Two out of three Bolivians live in poverty. Flavio Duran was one of them as there were no buyers for his extra produce: potatoes, cornand onions.
Today, he is a successful oregano farmer, along with nearly a thousand others in 93 communities in southeast Bolivia. The farmers' cooperative GROCENTRAL worked with SOCODEVI, a Canadian non-governmental organization (NGO) supported by CIDA, to develop markets for the wellknown herb oregano.
The crop brings farmers like Flavio an extra $205 per year on average. "I can now buy food such as rice and cooking oil, buy clothes for my children, and send them to school," he says. "I could not do this before!"
In Canada's 20 countries of focus, more than half the people are under 25 years old. Worldwide, one billion children live in poverty. One of the most appalling tragedies of our time is the death of millions of children each year from diseases that would have been preventable if only they had access to 12¢ medicines and $4 mosquito nets. But keeping children alive is only part of the equation: we also want them to grow and prosper.
Over the next decade, the poorest countries will have the world's largest youth populations. This provides opportunities as well as challenges. With help, this generation can break long-standing cycles of poverty and build effective, stable, and prosperous societies.
By making health systems stronger, we help make basic health care accessible to the most vulnerable. Newborn deaths can often be prevented if skilled health workers are present during childbirth and can provide care for newborns during their first week of life.
Through the African Health Systems Initiative, Canada provides $450 million over 10 years to train, equip, and employ new and existing health workers on a continent that carries more than a quarter of the global disease burden, yet has only 3 percent of the world's health care professionals. The Initiative to Save a Million Lives has begun to train thousands of community health workers and provide treatment for malaria, measles, and malnutrition.
Most child deaths are due to pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, or HIV/AIDS. Canada is investing $60 million to increase access to the treatment for malaria and pneumonia at the community level. Because these two diseases can lead to death in 24-48 hours, community health workers who can diagnose and treat children are—again—the key to saving young lives.
CIDA is committing as much as $20 million to Save the Children Canada's community program for malaria and pneumonia. Health workers will be trained to assess, prioritize, and treat children who show signs of infection. Families will be educated to recognize signs of serious disease in their children. More than one million children under the age of five will benefit, and an estimated 45,000 African children's lives will be saved.
Canada has helped create global partnerships such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM). These three devastating diseases cause some five million deaths per year in the developing world. Prevention and treatment programs are available, but until recently, have not been accessible by poor people.
In 2008, CIDA committed $450 million to the GFATM, bringing the total commitment since 2002 to nearly $1 billion—the largest ever made by Canada to an international health organization. With this help the GFATM has provided medical services, education, and community care to 4.5 million AIDS orphans; given support to 790,000 HIVpositive women to prevent the transmission of HIV from mothers to newborns; and distributed nearly 104 million insecticide-treated bed nets to families with young children to prevent malaria.
Afghanistan is one of only four countries in the world where polio is still endemic. Canada has committed as much as $60 million to vaccinating more than seven million children younger than the age of five against polio through the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the Government of Afghanistan. More than 350,000 children living in the southern region of Kandahar province were vaccinated in 2008-2009.
One out of six people in Mozambique has HIV/AIDS. In the city of Massinga, in the southeast province of Inhambane, there is only one doctor for 250,000 residents.
Cipriano Dyeja is working hard to increase awareness of HIV/AIDS, treat those who have it, and train a new generation of health care workers to continue the fight. At the Massinga Centre for Continuing Education in Health, supported by CIDA and the University of Saskatchewan, Mr. Dyeja and his staff work double time teaching students to work as health care specialists in rural communities.
The Massinga training centre stands across the street from a hospital where HIV/AIDS patients receive antiretroviral therapy. In 2005 fewer than 20,000 people per year received treatment; by 2008, with CIDA's support, the number had grown to nearly 120,000.
In Canada one woman in 11,000 risks dying while pregnant or giving birth; in Bolivia the ratio is one in 89. But the mortality rate is dropping dramatically in Bolivia, thanks to Canada's support for maternal and infant health programs.
CIDA funds a clinic that combines modern medicine with traditional health practices provided by local midwives. The clinic is funded in partnership with the Center for International Studies and Cooperation, a Canadian NGO. In 2006 only 15 percent of birthing women in the community used the clinic; by 2008, 85 percent of the women came to the clinic to give birth.
In the mountain village of El Edén, bloodsucking bugs spread Chagas' disease. There is a direct link between Chagas' disease and extreme poverty, and a whole series of measures is required to eliminate it.
"The whole village is helping to fight it," says Isaac López, an environmental health technician.
Nurses identify cases among schoolchildren. Experts then spray houses with insecticide. An army of community workers make people aware of the disease's causes and symptoms. To get rid of the bugs, the thatched roofs in the village must be replaced with tin.
CIDA has helped eliminate the disease in this village and in three regions of Honduras. By 2008, 50,000 children had been inspected for the disease, and 170,000 homes in 178 municipalities had been protected.
"The process doesn't end by fumigating houses or treating the disease," says Dr. Carlos Ponce." It ends when living conditions genuinely improve."
Providing basic education for young people is one of the smartest investments any country can make.
The benefits take many forms: increased community participation, more employment opportunities and higher incomes, less crime and more community stability, and better health. Studies show, for example, that girls with even basic education marry later, have fewer and healthier children, are better able to provide for their families, and contribute more to economic growth.
With more than half of the world's population under the age of 25, CIDA places a strong emphasis on basic education, particularly increasing access for girls.
CIDA also improves the quality of education by supporting the recruitment and training of teachers, development of the curricula, and delivery of textbooks, and by strengthening the connection between school and work. In areas affected by conflict, CIDA focuses on creating a safe learning environment.
Canada has made enormous improvements in its support for basic education in the developing world, more than doubling overall official development assistance for this purpose since 2000.
- Dr. Karen Mundy, Professor
Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
In the past ten years CIDA has worked with Canadian, international and local partners to reform some 2,500 primary schools in Senegal, improving the quality of basic education. Enrolment in primary school has increased from 69 percent in 2002 to 90 percent in 2008.
Across Senegal, CIDA has played a key role in improving the primary curriculum, which is inspired by the Canadian competency-based model. CIDA has also helped train 8,000 teachers in the new curriculum, and produce and distribute textbooks and other school supplies.
Ten-year-old Shanta Akher must work to support her family, like some 7.4 million other children in Bangladesh. Unlike many others, however, Shanta also goes to school—one of some 6,500 funded by CIDA, the Government of Bangladesh, UNICEF, and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.
Along with 200,000 urban working children, Shanta attends school for 2.5 hours, six days a week, for three years. She learns to read and write in Bengali, and she learns basic mathematics in English. A life skills program also teaches how to make better decisions, avoid risky behavior, and cope with the pressure of daily life.
Sameh Sei'id is 14, but until recently, he was not able to read—or even write his own name. Today, he and 15,000 other adolescents can read and write, thanks to CIDA's contribution to UNICEF 's Adolescent Learning Spaces project in Hebron. He is getting ready to start math classes.
The project helps disadvantaged Palestinian youth in an extremely stressful and turbulent environment. They have access to a safe area, free of the violence and poverty that surrounds them. They improve their literacy and information technology skills, learn music, and play sports. Project organizers report that they are becoming constructive members of their community, able to express themselves without resorting to violence.
Ten-year old Jossy Lopez walks an hour from her rural village to attend the La Quemazon school in the Piura region of northern Peru. She and her classmates now have access to better quality education through Agriteam Canada, a private firm working on CIDA's behalf to train hundreds of teachers, principals, and local government officials.
"Before the project, many Grade 5 students could only read simple texts," said Jossy's teacher, Marilú Yovera. "We learned how to make classrooms a better space for learning and how to motivate students. We also made our curriculum more relevant to rural life in Peru."
The community posted signs on roads, public buildings, and stores for the first time to surround children with words and reading. As a result, the reading comprehension of Grade 6 students went from 10 percent to 74 percent, and their problem-solving abilities in mathematics increased from 10 percent to 45 percent. This innovative model is being used in 125 schools in Piura, benefiting more than 4,650 students, and those in other districts of Piura and regions of northern Peru.
Countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa have shown that improving the economy is the best way to help people lift themselves out of poverty permanently. Sustainable economic growth means increasing and strengthening business and industry through better access to financial services and investment, developing regulatory frameworks and laws, training a skilled workforce, and improving business skills.
CIDA supports initiatives to increase the growth rate of an economy, particularly through the private sector, which generates 9 out of 10 jobs in developing countries.
In 2008, the World Bank's Report of the Commission on Growth and Development outlined three features that characterize countries with sustainable economic growth rates:
In financial services, CIDA has worked with Canadian, international and local partners to help small entrepreneurs gain access to financial services, including providing credit to very small enterprises that have proven their business abilities.
In skills and business training, CIDA introduced a $95-million Skills for Employment Initiative for vocational and technical training in developing countries to enable youth to enter the formal economy and seek out employment opportunities.
CIDA helps governments develop regulatory and legislative frameworks to promote economic growth. According to the World Bank, even small improvements in these areas can lead to big economic improvements. A stronger justice system can lead to faster growth for both small and large firms. Well-functioning courts can help restore confidence in potential investors and entrepreneurs.
A CIDA project led to the improvement of the judicial system in Ukraine to reduce the time taken to write judicial decisions, streamline court processes, and provide information on Ukraine's provisions for equal rights and opportunities. Companies now find it easier to resolve disputes: in the first six months of 2008, more than 400,000 cases heard in the general courts involved a business.
Meanwhile in Pakistan, CIDA has been working for 25 years with the Aga Khan Foundation to bring together communities in local village organizations and help them define priorities and work toward them. Communities began to invest in small infrastructure projects to increase agricultural productivity and link their villages to markets. They started modest savings programs and lending activities, and made education a priority—especially for girls. Within that quarter century, incomes tripled, infant mortality dropped by 25 percent, and literacy outpaced indicators in other parts of the region.
Canada is helping communities in the developing world lift themselves out of poverty with their dignity and pride intact. These contributions have helped Canada to be seen not only as a generous ountry, but as a thoughtful and human global leader.
- Khalil Z. Shariff, Chief Executive Officer Aga Khan Foundation Canada
With CIDA's support, New Brunswick Community College of Bathurst is working with Mali's Education Ministry to provide practical and technical knowledge to students who are finishing their basic education to help them find work or start a business. As of March 2009 more than 50 teachers and a dozen technicians were trained, and these people in turn trained 250 students in carpentry, electrical construction, graphic design, informatics, masonry, metal construction, painting, and sewing. Seven new laboratories were established to train future students. The Government of Mali wants to extend the training program developed in this project throughout the country.
Oxfam-Québec works with partners to set up business development offices in rural Vietnam. Vu Thi Ha owns a factory that makes terracotta pots and employs 10 people. She attended a course offered by the local office to learn how to create business and marketing plans, and obtain financing. The course also enabled her to connect with other entrepreneurs, and explore new technologies to help her with her business.
"I'd like my small business to expand and use new technology instead of doing things by hand," she says. "We would then be more competitive."
Through CIDA's efforts, more than 1,100 small and mediumsized enterprises have improved their businesses.
Since the 1980s, Africa has doubled its gross domestic product. In the last five years, it has decreased poverty rates by 5 percent. These are encouraging development results, but the global recession threatens these and other gains. Canada remains committed to Africa's development, and will continue to help its countries become strong, self-sufficient, and resilient.
In 2008-2009, Canada delivered $2.1 billion in assistance to Africa, reaching its commitment to double its aid there. We were the first G8 country to meet this goal.
The results are impressive across each of CIDA's sectoral aid themes, for example:
Canada has also stepped forward with emergency humanitarian assistance when needed. In 2008-2009 we provided more than $200 million, including more than $61 million to help feed more than eight million people in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia). CIDA helped 5.5 million people affected by the conflict in Sudan, and Sudanese refugees in Chad, with $52 million in humanitarian assistance. CIDA also provided support to people affected by crises in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and in Zimbabwe.
Furthermore, CIDA played a part in helping the democratic process in some African countries. After the closest vote in its history, Ghana celebrated the peaceful transfer of power from one democratically elected leader to another from an opposing party. Canada supplied election support, including training candidates, polling agents, and electoral officers.
Textbooks play a central role in learning, and are vital to basic education. In 2000 the average student in Mali had no textbook; today each pupil has three.
"When every child has a textbook, he or she can follow what the teacher is saying in the classroom and can also study at home," says education specialist Modibo Diarra.
As of March 2009, CIDA worked with Mali's Ministry of Education to purchase and distribute more than 6.4 million textbooks—more than 1.25 million in the past year alone. Malian writers, illustrators, and publishers have worked with CIDA to produce and print textbooks in Mali's national languages.
CIDA has also helped create a new trade: textbook repair.
"You must understand the particular conditions in which these books are used," explains Mr. Diarra. "The glue cannot withstand the great heat of the climate: it melts! Books do not last very long if they are poorly stored or eaten by termites."
Today, trained workers repair up to 350 books per month—almost 40,000 textbooks so far.
Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the world, and in recent years, has been hit by a series of natural disasters, as well as the dramatic rise in global food prices in 2008.
The devastation brought on by the catastrophic earthquake of January 2010, and Canada's response, lie beyond the scope of this report, and will be covered in next year's report. However, during the 2008-2009 period, Haiti was hit by hurricanes, tropical storms, and flooding that led to the destruction of thousands of homes and businesses.
CIDA provided more than $10 million in emergency relief aid to respond to the destruction caused by hurricanes and tropical storms, and $15 million to respond to the food crisis, in addition to CIDA's country support of $110 million in 2008-2009.
One of CIDCIDA's top priorities is to strengthen the Government of Haiti's ability to provide health services for its people. In 2008-2009, we helped immunize 620,000 children and youth against preventable diseases such as polio, measles, and rubella. As well, 22,000 women were able to access free medical services for prenatal care and childbirth in 47 institutions. More than 320,000 schoolchildren in 642 schools received a nutritious meal every day.
CIDA worked with Canadian, international and local partners to train government employees, and improve planning and delivery in key institutions, including Haiti's Office of the Prime Minister. After six years, the National School for Magistrates was reopened, with 70 justices of the peace trained and more than 40 courthouses rehabilitated. The public gained access to legal services, including legal aid. CIDA also helped register another 600,000 adults on the voters list. In 2005 only 60 percent of eligible voters were on the list; today 92 percent are registered.
In economic development and food security, the industrial sector is weak and two thirds of the population is unemployed. In 1973, CIDA worked with the Congregation of the Brothers of the Sacred Heart to establish the Haiti Vocational Training Centre. In 2008, CIDA launched a six-year program to update the centre's curricula, improve facilities and workshops, and meet labour-market opportunities for both women and men.
A CIDA-supported program helped 212,000 members of 50 savings and credit unions increase their access to financial services, including microcredit loans. Some 40,000 farmers and their families have increased their food security and improved their economic situation. CIDA funding also helped build a new road between Le Borgne and Limbe, so a trip that once took 4.5 hours now takes only 45 minutes.
I would like to salute the continuous action and cooperation of CIDA over forty years to make this planet more equitable and fair by reducing the gaps between the rich and poor.
- Jean-Max Bellerive
Prime Minister of Haiti
Bel Air was once known as one of the most dangerous areas of Port-au-Prince, patrolled around the clock by an international police force.
It is gradually transforming into a more peaceful, self-sustaining community. CIDA and Viva Rio, a Brazilian NGO, brought community leaders together in a forum to discuss these issues. It was an important first step towards providing alternatives for young people in the area. For instance, youth now have an alternative to street gangs and violence: a martial arts and dance program called Capoeria.
"Youth from different communities that once engaged in gang violence now meet in a positive environment and learn to develop self-expression and self-confidence," says social worker Éline Joseph. She notes that violent deaths in the district have dropped 66 percent since the previous year.
Residents are also managing small-scale projects that help improve conditions in Bel Air. A group of women now manages water stations that pump out more than 13,000 litres of clean drinking water daily, for example. Residents also plan to plant 3,000 trees.
Canada is part of a major UN-led international effort to rebuild Afghanistan, Canada's largest bilateral aid recipient.
CIDA delivered approximately $224 million in reconstruction and development assistance in 2008-2009, contributing to strengthening Afghanistan's institutional capacity to promote economic growth and deliver basic services, provide humanitarian assistance and advance its capacity for better governance.
As part of Canada's engagement in Kandahar province, the following three signature projects are prominent among CIDA's development work in Afghanistan:
These are examples of Canada's commitment to change the lives of Afghans and to help bring them the promise of a brighter future.
Canada has led the way in the fight to eradicate polio from the face of the world. I congratulate the government for its generosity, which is strategically directed to Nigeria and Afghanistan, two of the four remaining polio-endemic countries in the world.
- Wilfrid Wilkinson, Past President, Rotary International
Chair, Rotary's Polio Advocacy for Canada
Originally built in the 1950s, the Dahla Dam and its irrigation system support the agricultural water needs of 80 percent of Kandahar's population. Decades of war and lack of repair have left the dam and canals operating far below potential. Precious water is wasted, undermining agricultural productivity.
Canada has committed to rehabilitate the dam and its canals. In 2008, a new concrete bridge was built, as well as a new road to provide access to the project. Heavy equipment can now reach the site to begin the repairs. When the project is completed, residents of Kandahar province will benefit from a more sustainable and efficient distribution of water. This will lead to improved resource management, farm production, and employment growth.
In 2008, Canada made a commitment to support the eradication of polio in Afghanistan. Since then, CIDA has made a significant contribution to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative through the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF, and to the assistance of these organizations in Afghanistan's national polio-immunization efforts.
Nationwide immunization campaigns target an estimated 7.1 million children younger than the age of five, including approximately 400,000 children in Kandahar province.
Although transmission of the disease has been stopped in the north, 31 cases were reported in the rest of the country in 2008. New approaches to polio eradication are being developed, including the targeting of cross-border transmission from Pakistan.
Seven years ago, only 700,000 children attended formal schools in Afghanistan—none of them girls. And there were only 21,000 teachers—few of them women.
Today, almost six million children attend schools, one third of them girls. The number of teachers has grown to more than 145,000—30 percent of whom are women. By 2009, more than 9,400 schools across the country provide formal education.
Social attitudes toward educating girls remain a concern. Families face persistent threats—even attacks—to deter the participation of girls in formal education.
CIDA supports models to provide girls and boys with safe access to learning. Through the Girls' Education Project of BRAC, a Bangladeshi NGO, more than 2,500 communitybased schools have been established in 11 provinces. About 80,000 children are attending school as a result—85 percent of them girls.
Work remains to build, expand, and/or repair schools. During 2008-2009, as one of Canada's three signature projects, 5 schools were completed, and another 28 were under construction. We are on track to meet Canada's goal of 50 schools constructed or rehabilitated in Kandahar province by 2011.
With support from Canada and other countries, the World Food Programme delivered food supplies to Kandahar province while giving special attention to returning refugees and internally displaced persons. CIDA provided more than 300,000 tonnes of food to some six million Afghans. In Kandahar province alone, 15,000 tonnes of food were distributed to more than 580,000 people.
In Afghanistan, women and girls face barriers to education, health care, and other necessary services. In Kandahar, CIDA helped build an obstetrical unit at the Mirwais Hospital run by the International Committee of the Red Cross. This facility was the first of its kind in Afghanistan, and it is part of an initiative to increase the number of women giving birth with the help of trained attendants. The newly opened facility is expected to receive a thousand patients a year.
CIDA has also helped the Mirwais Hospital develop a new surgical emergency department, operating theatre, triage room, and lab facilities.
CIDA supported hygiene promotion and health care training, including the operational costs of nine Afghan Red Crescent basic health centres and six rehabilitation centres.
Through access to microfinance loans, Canada has helped many Afghans start up new businesses. Having money to buy a sewing machine or start a bakery, for example, has created jobs and revenue for male and female entrepreneurs in Kandahar province.
More than two thirds of communities in key districts of Kandahar province have completed some 28,000 small infrastructure projects. These projects include 180 km of irrigation systems, 170 km of roads, and 30 km of electrical power lines. Canada helped set up a new service to enable local firms to bid on local procurement contracts funded by government and international agencies.
Canada supports initiatives that help renew traditional Afghan arts and architecture while providing jobs and renewing economic opportunities.
Beginning in 2006 the Turquoise Mountain Foundation brought together Afghan carving and joinery masters so they could pass on their skills to a new generation of young craftspeople—men and women—to preserve this tradition. Through its programs the Turquoise Mountain Foundation is preserving historic buildings in Kabul and constructing a new bazaar and galleries for Afghan craft businesses, as well as providing basic services for its staff.
Women in Afghanistan are among the most disadvantaged people in the world, but they are slowly gaining better access to the marketplace and have more opportunity to achieve their economic potential. This is generating hope for a brighter future for Afghan women and their families. Canadian organizations such as War Child and MEDA (Mennonite Economic Development Associates) work with CIDA to provide microloans and vocational training. In 2008-2009, approximately 1,600 women were helped in these ways. MEDA also helps women develop home-based gardens.
CIDA is the top donor of the Microfinance Investment Support Facility for Afghanistan (MISFA). Created in 2003, MISFA is now one of the world's largest microfinance programs, providing small loans and savings services to more than 440,000 people—more than two thirds are women—across 23 provinces. By 2008-2009, more than a million loans had been disbursed, totaling more than US$384 million.
In January 2009, about 10,000 Afghans-about 80 percent of them women-graduated from a UNICEF-WFP literary program, supported by CIDA. The following month, more than 450 adults completed a 10-month vocational training course.
Both across the country and in Kandahar province, CIDA worked with partners to strengthen the ability of the Afghan government to respond to the needs of its people. Through the Canadian Governance Support Office, a civilian-led team provided expert technical support and advice to the Afghan government in Canada's six priority areas. Canadian experts are deployed in Afghan ministries in key areas such as policing services, human rights law, elections operations, vocational programming and education and engineering.
Most MISFA clients use loans to invest in small retail businesses or in agriculture or livestock. One of MISFA's beneficiaries is Nasreem, who together with her daughters, wanted to use their skills in embroidery and carpet making to start a business. With an initial loan of $700 she bought supplies and got to work. She has since received two more small loans, which have allowed her to hire 20 women. "It's a great honour for me, and I really am happy that I'm helping these women," said Nasreem.
When natural disasters strike, Canadians have proven time and again that they will help those in need. Whether it was an earthquake in China, a cyclone in Burma, or a hurricane in Haiti, Canada has provided emergency assistance when and where it is needed most. CIDA's humanitarian assistance program saves lives and provides food, water, shelter, and health care.
In 2008-2009, Canada's natural-disaster response was $73 million—part of a broader contribution to our overall humanitarian assistance of $546 million—and was delivered through organizations such as UN agencies, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, and Canadian NGOs.
Cyclone Nargis hit Burma (Myanmar) in May 2008, leaving nearly 140,000 people dead or missing. Working with our partners, CIDA delivered 2,000 emergency shelter kits to Burma (Myanmar) aboard a Canadian Forces aircraft. A partnership with Save the Children Canada extended CIDA's relief efforts and provided mobile health services to 90,000 people.
Ten days after Cyclone Nargis struck Burma (Myanmar), a massive earthquake hit China, centered in Sichuan province. Through CIDA, Canada sent 700 tents from its emergency stockpile to provide temporary shelter for 3,500 people.
Canada also announced it would match dollar for dollar the contributions of individual Canadians to eligible Canadian charities supporting relief efforts in both Burma (Myanmar) and China. As a result, CIDA provided more than $31 million for food, shelter, and drinking water for more than a million survivors in China. In Burma (Myanmar), CIDA provided an additional $26 million, including 70,000 tonnes of food for a million people in remote areas.
CIDA also works with regional organizations to reduce the potential impact of future disasters. In the Caribbean, we have supported the Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency, and have funded programs to help communities prepare in advance for the hurricane season.
Help after hurricanes and floods In 2008 the people of Haiti were battered first by rising food costs, and then by a series of hurricanes and tropical storms that led to massive flooding. More than 800,000 people were affected, and losses were estimated at US$900 million.
In Gonaïves, the region most devastated by the storms, nearly 7,000 people have benefited from a project to help small-scale farmers add nutritious vegetables such as sweet potatoes, tomatoes, and eggplants to their family diets, and to augment their meagre income by selling surplus vegetables.
In a short time, this effort has helped local residents move from a state of emergency to a state of active reconstruction and participation in rebuilding.
- Miranel Pierre
Former Humanitarian Project Coordinator
After the 2004 tsunami swept away homes, communities, and the ability to earn a living, the people of Indonesia started to rebuild. In Banda Aceh, Mona Saroinsong worked with GenAssist, a local aid organization.
"When we started, people had nothing—no electricity, no water, no homes. We were housed in barracks and tents," she recalls." When we told them that we would build houses for them with Canadian help, their eyes were shining, they were so excited."
By March 2009, more than 6,800 homes had been built. Now the scene has been transformed from devastation to a vista of tidy new houses. "People tell me that their new concrete houses make them proud. They have their dignity restored," says Ms. Saroinsong.
She says that the new homeowners gave her a message to relay to Canada: "They pray that the people who gave money to help them will be blessed."
Canada's humanitarian NGOs appreciate the work that CIDA does, without which we could not achieve all that we do.
- Kevin McCort, President and CEO
CIDA is the Government of Canada's agency for international development, but it does not act alone. CIDA works with dozens of departments and hundreds of civil society organizations in Canada. CIDA also counts on the compassion and volunteer spirit of individual Canadians who contribute time, expertise, and money.
In the developing world, CIDA works with communities and organizations, and local and national governments. Around the world, it works with other agencies and governments, as well as international, multilateral, and civil society organizations.
A key to CIDA's success is to engage Canadians. The Agency draws from a broad range of expertise and resources across the country, so that Canadians contribute in hundreds of ways to help the world's poorest people.
CIDA supports the development of classroom resources to help a new generation play their part. A million Canadian students and educators explore international development issues, get to know their global neighbours, and learn to appreciate different views of the world.
In 2008, CIDA's Youth Internship Program participants shared their skills and enthusiasm by serving in some 55 organizations in 60 developing countries. They gained first-hand experience of the challenges facing poor people around the world. Another 2,500 Canadians contributed their skills through the Volunteer Cooperation Program.
These volunteers make a difference in many ways. They share their skills and knowledge to help build the knowledge and capacity of people in partner countries. They foster linkages with other countries, and help fight poverty on the ground. In Canada, they also raise public awareness and build a better understanding of international development issues so that more Canadians can do their part to make the world a better place.
It is hoped that this glimpse of development results achieved in the past year has given you an appreciation of some of the tangible results of effective aid, and the tremendous difference that Canadian assistance is making in the developing world.
*Other sectors include higher education, promotion of development awareness, support to civil society.
These figures include administrative costs and changes in value of investments in IFIs due to exchange rate fluctuations.
Preliminary amount ($ millions)
1. The term "geographic country / regional program only" refers to CIDA's main instrument for bilateral aid targeted to a specific country or region. Excludes the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives.
2. Concentration, expressed as a percentage, is calculated as a proportion of CIDA's country/regional programming through the geographic programs disbursed to CIDA's countries of focus.
Development for Results 2009
CIDA in 2008-2009 (PDF 462 KB, 2 pages)
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