Table of Contents
Canada's international assistance programming aligns with the core interests and values that guide all of our country's international involvement. The Government's foreign policy aims to promote prosperity and security, while reflecting such values as democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Our government continues to deliver on its commitments to international development, while taking concrete steps to make Canadian development assistance more effective, focused and accountable. In this way, we ensure that Canadian public funds are making a real difference in the lives of the world's poorest and most vulnerable people.
Canada's Official Development Assistance is delivered by a number of federal departments and is focused on advancing five thematic priorities: increasing food security; stimulating sustainable economic growth; securing the future of children and youth; advancing democracy; and ensuring security and stability. The majority of Canada's Official Development Assistance is delivered through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). Over the past five years, CIDA has significantly improved the way it works. For example, all of Canadian food assistance has been untied, so that desperately needed food can be purchased from local suppliers, reducing costs and helping build local economies. CIDA has also greatly increased its impact by focusing 80 percent of bilateral aid on 20 countries of focus, selected on the basis of their need, capacity to manage development programs, and alignment with Canadian foreign-policy priorities.
CIDA focuses its programming on three of the thematic priorities: increasing food security for the nearly one billion people who lack basic access to adequate food and nutrition through sustainable agricultural development, provision of food assistance and nutrition, and research and development; stimulating sustainable economic growth by providing poor people with the stepping stones they need to generate their own wealth and pull themselves out of poverty; and securing the future of children and youth, recognizing that young people in the developing world - when given access to quality education, security from violence and exploitation, and healthy environments and adequate care - can play a pivotal role in ending the cycle of poverty and helping turn societies and economies around.
One of the most significant examples of CIDA's work in the developing world is the Muskoka Initiative, a global effort aimed at reducing maternal, newborn and child mortality that was launched in 2010 under Prime Minister Stephen Harper's leadership. In 2011-2012 CIDA worked with Canadian, international and developing-country partners to provide vaccines to children, help mothers deliver babies safely, provide contraception, combat malnutrition, improve community healthcare systems and train front-line health workers.
Other Canadian federal departments deliver important components of Canada's Official Development Assistance. The Department of Finance, for example, offers substantial debt relief to highly indebted poor countries that, even if they could overcome the immediate problems of poverty, would otherwise remain burdened by crushing debt. The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) works to advance democracy and stability around the world, principally through the Global Peace and Security Fund, which provides financial and operational resources to facilitate timely, effective and accountable conflict interventions in fragile states. Citizenship and Immigration Canada helps to alleviate humanitarian crises by supporting the resettlement of refugees.
Government departments providing development assistance work hand in hand in numerous ways, but this partnership is most visible in fragile states. In Afghanistan, for example, the Government has identified four key areas to guide its work until 2014: children and youth; security, the rule of law, and human rights; regional diplomacy; and humanitarian assistance. As part of this collective effort, CIDA has contributed to a significant increase in the performance of girls in school and in immunization against polio. The Department of National Defence has reinforced the authority of the Afghan government in Kandahar Province and facilitated security reform. And DFAIT has contributed to the promotion of regional diplomacy and the decrease of cultivation, production, trafficking and consumption of illicit drugs. We see similar cooperation amongst departments and agencies in the area of disaster relief. In 2011-2012, Canada responded rapidly and effectively to a number of humanitarian crises in the world, including the Horn of Africa.
Canada is making a difference. I was recently in Burkina Faso and Nigeria, the Sahel region of Africa, where millions of men, women and children are suffering from a food crisis. It was here that I saw first-hand, the difference that Canadian assistance does make. With Canada's support over 10 million people have been provided with life-saving food assistance, and 250,000 children suffering from severe acute malnutrition have been treated. Canada's work is important, and it will have positive impacts for years to come.
In the Fall of 2012, I attended the 67th Assembly of the United Nations where I met with officials from target countries in which Canada invests, with leaders of United Nations bodies, and with the NGOs that help us produce tangible results on the ground. The Government of Canada proves time and again that its commitment to international development delivers concrete results, on the ground, for the people who need our help the most.
The many examples found in this report show that Canada's Official Development Assistance is at work in a variety of situations around the world, delivering effective solutions for the poor. The Government of Canada remains committed to eradicating poverty, while promoting our core interests and values. All Canadians should be proud of our efforts to make the world a better place.
The Honourable Julian Fantino, P.C., M.P.
Minister of International Cooperation
This is the fourth report on Canadian official development assistance since the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (the Act) came into force on June 28, 2008.
This report meets the reporting requirements of subsections 5(1) and 5(3) of the Act.
The statistical report required under subsection 5(2) of the Act, with details about disbursements counted as official development assistance, will be published by the end of March 2013 on CIDA's website.
The Official Development Assistance Accountability Act came into force on June 28, 2008. The Act applies to all federal departments providing official development assistance and requires the Government of Canada to report annually to Parliament on its development assistance activities.
The Act lays out three conditions that must be satisfied for international assistance to be considered as official development assistance (ODA). Assistance must:
Ministers must be of the opinion that these conditions have been met in order to report activities as Canadian official development assistance.
Canada's official development assistance advances Canada's foreign policy objectives: 1) increasing economic opportunity through international engagement; 2) mitigating security risks; and 3) promoting Canadian principles and values such as freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Within the context of these foreign policy priorities, and with an overarching goal of reducing poverty, Canadian international assistance focuses on five priorities:
These priorities are implemented by a number of federal government departments and agencies (see Table 1, ODA Disbursements by Department, 2011-2012, working in close collaboration with partners in Canada and abroad.
The following is a sampling of the major results in ODA achieved by the Government of Canada in 2011-2012 and described in this report:
The following pages summarize the activities undertaken with these funds under the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act. Additional details will appear in a statistical report, to be published by the end of March 2013.
|Canadian International Development Agency||3,931.57|
|Department of Finance Canada||503.65|
|Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada||280.55|
|International Development Research Centre||199.9|
|Citizenship and Immigration Canada||130.86|
|Department of National Defence||0.13|
|Royal Canadian Mounted Police||38.69|
|Natural Resources Canada||2.73|
|Services supporting CIDA activities Note 3||24.76|
The Canadian International Development Agency's (CIDA) ODA for fiscal year 2011-2012 totaled $3,931,574,287. Note 4, Note 5 CIDA is the government's principal organization responsible for managing Canada's official development assistance. CIDA supports programs and projects that have poverty reduction as their primary objective. It also engages in policy development in Canada and internationally to support Canada's development objectives in a manner consistent with Canadian foreign policy.
CIDA's programs reflect the global consensus on international development agreed to by developing countries and the many national and international development partners with which Canada works. This consensus includes agreement on the key objectives of development assistance—the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)Note 6—which set targets and deadlines for progress in food security, education, the health of mothers and children, gender equality, environmental sustainability, HIV/AIDS, and malaria reduction.
They also take into account internationally recognized principles of aid effectiveness, which include ownership, focus on results, inclusive development partnerships, and transparency and accountability.
Within this context, CIDA has concentrated its efforts in the sectors and countries where it can make the most difference. Of the five priorities for international assistance, CIDA has chosen the following three for its development assistance program:
CIDA integrates environmental sustainability, equality between women and men, and strong governance, including respect for human rights, into all its programming and contributes to the other two Government priorities of advancing democracy and ensuring security and stability. CIDA also plays a significant leadership role in the Government of Canada's response to a variety of critical humanitarian needs around the world, working in coordination with other government departments and key humanitarian partners.
CIDA remains committed to inclusive consultations with Canadians and with our stakeholders overseas, including partner governments, other donors, and civil society. In 2011-2012, CIDA held more than 100 consultations, engaging more than 3,300 stakeholders, partners, and experts.
The consultations covered a wide range of topics including:
|Increasing food securityNote 7||836,680,798|
|Securing the future of children and youth||1,138,616,890|
|Stimulating sustainable economic growth||1,098,074,378|
|Ensuring Security and Stability||23,784,865|
|International Humanitarian AssistanceNote 8||293,161,481|
|Not Assigned to a Thematic Priority|
|Health, Education and Social ServicesNote 9||25,991,991|
Canada has been a leader in combating global hunger through the implementation of CIDA's Food Security Strategy, which was released in 2009. This strategy focuses on sustainable agricultural development, food assistance and nutrition, and research and development.
As part of the G-8 l'Aquila Food Security Initiative in 2009, Canada committed $1.18 billion over three years for sustainable agriculture development, helping to increase agricultural productivity and access to markets, particularly for smallholder farmers. As of April 2011, Canada had fully disbursed its Aquila Food Security Initiative commitment, becoming the first G-8 country to do so. Significant results in 2011-2012 included:
CIDA's Children and Youth Strategy, released in 2009, focuses on child survival (including maternal, newborn and child health; see Box 1: Maternal, Newborn and Child Health), access to quality education, and safe and secure futures for children and youth. Significant results in 2011-2012 included:
Box 1: Maternal, Newborn and Child Health
In 2010, Canada used its G-8 presidency to champion the Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health which aims to improve the health of mothers and children in the world's poorest countries. CIDA is now focusing its efforts on implementing its commitments, and in 2011-2012 the following results were achieved:
CIDA's Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy, released in 2010, is a key element CIDA's approach to poverty reduction. This strategy focuses on three paths: building economic foundations, growing businesses, and investing in people. In 2011-2012, efforts focused on progress in the areas of natural resource governance, women's economic empowerment, and inclusive value chain Note 13 development. Significant results in 2011-2012 included:
Freedom, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law are values that enable people to hold their governments to account, lead a life of dignity, and participate in decision-making that affects them. For CIDA, Advancing Democracy is seen as a means of reducing poverty, by enabling people to realize their own capacities and goals, and by reducing barriers that limit people's political participation in decision-making that affects them.
CIDA's Advancing Democracy programming includes activities to support the electoral cycle, legislatures and other representative bodies, independent media, civil society, the promotion and protection of human rights and the rule of law and the reform of judicial institutions. Significant results in 2011-2012 included:
Humanitarian needs remained high in 2011-2012, due to the continued impact of rising food and energy prices, new and ongoing conflicts, and the increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters. Among the results achieved by CIDA and its partners were:
Box 2: A Strategic Role in Afghanistan and Haiti
CIDA's Afghanistan program for 2011-2012 focused on investing in children and youth through health and education and helping deliver humanitarian assistance. These programming areas are aligned with Government of Afghanistan priorities and support the advancement of women and girls in all of CIDA's Afghanistan investments.
In Haiti, CIDA support for reconstruction and development following the January 2010 earthquake continued:
Preliminary figures in C$ millions
Amount in M$ Can
Overall, CIDA's projects and contributions spanned Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Of CIDA's total ODA disbursements of $3,932 million, $2,872 million was in the form of bilateral aid in 2011-2012 (as per the OECD definition Note 15 of bilateral aid and excluding administrative costs, approximately $239 million). The balance consists of CIDA's contribution to global initiatives, international humanitarian assistance, and multilateral development institutions as well partnerships with Canadians in development sectors such as health and education, economic growth and environmental sustainability and governance. Of the total amount provided bilaterally, approximately $1,201 million was channelled through geographic programs to 49 countries. Eighty-five percent of this was concentrated in CIDA's 20 countries of focus.
CIDA has committed to increasing its efficiency. A number of functions are being streamlined, including financial, human resources, and information technology management services. New rules and tools are being introduced to simplify Agency processes. All of these measures have contributed to reducing CIDA's operating budget as a percentage of the Agency's total budget.
A key pillar of CIDA's efforts to modernize its business is the decentralization of management and delivery of country programs to the field. By the summer of 2012, 12 of the Agency's 15 country programs identified for decentralization had complete management teams in the field, supported by HQ operations.
|Spending||Amount ($ millions)|
|Bilateral aid (program branches' country or region-specific initiatives, humanitarian assistance)||2,872.13|
|Multilateral aid (long-term institutional support to multilateral institutions)||820.91|
Paragraph 5 (1) (e) of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act specifies that a summary of the Departmental Performance Report (DPR) of the Canadian International Development Agency must be part of this report.
The summary of CIDA's 2010-2011 DPR is provided in the appendix to this report.
Finance Canada's official development assistance for fiscal year 2011-2012 totalled $503,645,739.Note 16
During the fiscal year 2011-2012, the Department made the following ODA disbursements:
The International Development Association (IDA) is the World Bank Group's principal financing tool for the world's poorest countries, providing them with interest-free loans and grants. Beginning in 2011-2012, the Government of Canada will provide $1.3 billion to IDA in total over three years, as part of its 16th replenishment round. This funding allows IDA to enhance its focus on effective aid delivery and provide special assistance for fragile states such as Afghanistan and Haiti while ensuring countries do not take on unsustainable levels of debt.
More information is available on the International Development Association (IDA) website.Note 17
In response to the recent financial crisis, a series of coordinated capital increases were granted to all of the major multilateral development banks. The members of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development authorized a general capital increase of USD $86 billion, of which Canada's share is $1.6 billion, comprised of:
Members have five years over which to subscribe to the shares allocated in this increase. Canada has chosen to front-load a significant portion of its share purchase, having contributed $954 million ($57 million paid in and $897 million callable capital) in 2011-2012.
Bilateral and multilateral debt relief disbursements contribute to poverty reduction by freeing up resources (which would otherwise be used to service sovereign debts) for use in more productive investments (e.g. health, education, infrastructure, etc.) that support long-term economic growth and development. Further, debt relief recipients self-direct additional resources based on their individual Poverty Reduction Strategies, one of the eligibility requirements for debt relief.
Canada has been an international leader in the area of poverty reduction by forgiving more than $1 billion in debt owed to it by the world's poorest and most indebted countries. Specifically, Canada is a committed participant in the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) Initiative, which cancels up to 90 percent of the debts of eligible countries, with an aim to reduce these countries' debts to sustainable levels. Canada delivers this debt relief through its participation in the Paris Club. Moreover, Canada goes beyond the requirements of the HIPC Initiative through the Canadian Debt Initiative, under which Canada forgives all remaining debt owed by eligible HIPCs, resulting in complete bilateral debt cancellation.
More information is available on the following websites:
Canada has also been very active in the development and financing of multilateral debt relief through the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI). Canada has committed to provide the IMF, World Bank, and African Development Fund (ADF) with $2.5 billion in order to cover Canada's share of the costs over the life of MDRI, which extends until 2054.
In 2009, with the passage of Bill C-59 (The Economic Recovery Act), the Government of Canada modified and strengthened the payment mechanism for its annual MDRI payments. The modification places Canada's MDRI payments under statutory authority and provides further reassurance to the IMF, World Bank, and ADF that Canada is fully able to honour its $2.5-billion commitment. This legislation enabled the Government of Canada to sign new MDRI instruments of commitment with the ADF and IDA in February, 2011.
More information is available on The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative website.
Canada has been a leader in innovative approaches to development challenges. At the 2012 G-20 Los Cabos Summit, Canada announced $40 million over five years to launch AgResults, an innovative initiative that will use pull mechanisms such as advance market commitments to leverage private sector investment and innovation toward addressing global agriculture challenges. Food security is an essential element of poverty reduction, and innovation will be critical to achieving agriculture productivity gains required to meet growing global demand. Initial pilot projects will target improved harvest management and nutritional fortification of staple crops. Innovators are paid only once results are achieved. Canada provided $9 million in grant support to the World Bank in 2011-2012, as part of the total $40-million commitment, to develop and fund pilot projects.
The information below is in response to specific requirements of the Act regarding Canada's interactions with the Bretton Wood Institutions.
In 2011, Canada contributed to a number of notable initiatives at the World Bank Group and the IMF, including:
For more details, please see the Canada at the IMF and World Bank 2011 report.
For Canadian statements at the International Monetary and Financial Committee of the Board of Governors for the IMF, please refer to the Canada at the IMF and World Bank 2011 report (Canada's Engagement at the IMF) .
For Canadian statements at the Development Committee of the Boards of Governors of the World Bank and the IMF, please refer to the Canada at the IMF and World Bank 2011 report. (Canada's Engagement at the World Bank Group)
For Canada's voting record in 2011 at the IMF and World Bank, please refer to the Canada at the IMF and World Bank 2011 report (Canada's Engagement at the IMF and Canada's Engagement at the World Bank Group) .
For a fuller description of Canada's commitments and goals at the IMF and World Bank, please refer to the Canada at the IMF and World Bank 2011 report.
(Amount in thousands of dollars)
|Services rendered abroad||77,471.4||28|
|Security & stability||61,367.552||22|
|Children and youth||12,465.568||4|
|Voluntary Support to Francophonie||6,961||2|
|Sustainable economic growth||4,201.05||2|
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) disbursed a total of $280,553,848 in official development assistance Note 18 for fiscal year 2011-2012. An additional $185,005,068 in non-ODA was also disbursed for a total of $465,558,916 in international assistance.
Of the five thematic priorities of Canada's International Assistance Envelope (IAE), DFAIT's broad range of international assistance programming focused on the following four: 1) Security and Stability; 2) Advancing Democracy; 3) Children and Youth; and 4) Sustainable Economic Growth. In addition, DFAIT provided crosscutting international assistance through assessed contributions to multilateral organizations, as well as through services rendered to CIDA personnel at Canada's diplomatic and consular missions abroad.
The Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) supports the operations of the Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START) which conducts international assistance programming in fragile and conflict-affected states such as Afghanistan, Haiti and Sudan. START and the GPSF fill a policy, institutional, funding and programming gap between CIDA humanitarian and long-term development assistance, and DND's military and training assistance. START has established itself as an internationally-recognized platform for whole-of-government engagement and policy development in security and stability programming. START also provides the Government with an effective rapid response mechanism offering timely responses to humanitarian or political emergencies, natural disasters or armed conflicts overseas. An increasing number of other government departments such as Public Safety (PS), the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) and Justice Canada have actively participated in stabilization and reconstruction initiatives as well as crisis response activities in partnership with DFAIT/START.
GPSF programming supports coherent and effective initiatives in support of conflict prevention, crisis response, peacebuilding, civilian protection and stabilization by providing focused and accountable international assistance that advances Canadian interests and is aligned with Canadian foreign policy priorities. START works closely with federal departments to provide beneficiary states and civilian components of multilateral peace operations with critical expertise in the areas of security and justice system reform.
Despite programming in some of the most difficult environments in the world, highlights of START's programming activities and results for 2011-2012 include:
In addition to ODA, DFAIT's non-ODA international assistance programming focused on ensuring security and stability reached $180.7 million in 2011-2012. While not defined as ODA by the OECD-DAC, this programming complements the department's ODA programs and contributes to achieving Canada's overall international assistance objectives. For instance, during 2011-2012, START contributed $8.6 million in non-ODA to initiatives such as disaster response in non-ODA eligible countries. The majority of DFAIT's non-ODA support for security and stability is centred around four programs:
Through the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF), DFAIT funds activities that advance democracy around the world through support for democratic participation and civil society, legal and judicial reforms, elections, human rights, media and information flows and non-partisan support for legislatures and political parties.
The largest proportion of GPSF democracy support focused on the priority countries/regions of Afghanistan, Sudan, Haiti, DRC, Guatemala, Colombia and the Middle East Peace Process. Projects supported in 2011-2012 included the deployment of international experts to assist with legal and judicial reform; increasing the capacity of civil society organizations to engage effectively with governments to influence decision makers and create more inclusive environments; and the training of judges and support to improve national laws and regulations.
In addition to the support provided to priority countries, the GPSF allocated close to $1.6 million under the Democracy Envelope of the Glyn Berry Program to support democracy around the world. The Democracy Envelope is used to support democracy in authoritarian contexts and states in transition, including in the Middle East and North Africa, Burma, Pakistan, Belarus, Zimbabwe, and the Americas. In 2011-2012, these activities included training on social media for political bloggers and independent journalists in Egypt; increasing youth participation in elections in South America; addressing new threats on freedom of expression violations globally; strengthening legislative assemblies in Bolivia; and supporting independent media in repressive regimes. DFAIT's Democracy Unit provides strategic policy support that aims to ensure coherence across DFAIT's democracy initiatives, and facilitates coordination with other departments programming in this area.
DFAIT also provided core funding to the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development (Rights & Democracy Note 19). Rights & Democracy's work served to advance Canadian support for human rights and democracy, with projects focused on democratic development, economic and social rights, and the rights of women and indigenous populations in 15 countries (including Egypt, Afghanistan, Haiti, Burma, and Zimbabwe).
The international scholarship program facilitated by DFAIT funds higher education and advanced technical and managerial training. In 2011-2012, DFAIT funded more than 830 scholarships for students from ODA-eligible countries. The scholarship program supports human capital development and creates institutional linkages with Canadian and regional post-secondary institutions in order to foster research collaboration and institutional agreements. Also, the scholarship program contributes to poverty reduction by contributing to the development of a skilled workforce, leading to economic growth and development. DFAIT's scholarship structure provides opportunities for students to spend one semester in Canada while remaining registered in their home institution, thereby minimizing brain-drain, which is a key challenge for developing countries.
In the Caribbean and the Americas, the scholarships align with the priorities of Canada's Americas Strategy, including the promotion of prosperity, rule of law as well as democracy and good governance. While not exclusively focused on the thematic priority of increasing food security, in some countries priority is given to research related to sustainable resources, including agricultural water resources and food-crop production sources.
The Investment Cooperation Program (INC) provides support to Canadian businesses making responsible investments in developing countries. In 2011-2012, it contributed $3.9 million toward the cost of feasibility studies, technology transfers, and the planning and implementation of human resources and environmental plans related to such investments.
A revitalized INC was transferred from CIDA to DFAIT in 2010. Expected results of some recently approved projects include: $59,000 in funding towards a $1.6 million electrical equipment facility for the mining sector in Burkina Faso that is expected to create 25 local jobs; $60,000 in funding towards a $3.8 million facility in Vietnam to adapt technology to manufacture non-cosmetic electrical components for automobiles; and $54,000 towards a $1.5 million eco-tourism centre in Malawi that would create 90 local jobs, mostly for women.
Through the International Environmental Contributions Program, DFAIT contributes to climate change and environment-related initiatives, including funding for a variety of multilateral organizations and specific regional projects.
During 2011-2012, DFAIT supported multilateral organizations, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Rio+20 Secretariat. DFAIT's regional projects also included furthering the development and distribution of clean cook-stoves in Senegal, the Gambia, and Mexico.
Assessed contributions are transfer payments by the federal government occasioned by Canada's membership in a bilateral or multilateral international organization. An OECD-DAC-determined portion of these contributions is considered ODA. The twenty-four bilateral and multilateral organizations to which Canada provided ODA-eligible assessed contributions in 2011-2012 include, but are not limited to:
In order to maintain our status as a member in good standing, Canada is legally required to fund its assessed share of the operations costs of an international organization of which we are a member. This not only fulfils Canada's obligations as a member of these organizations, but also allows Canada to advance its foreign and development policy priorities in key multilateral forums.
DFAIT's voluntary contributions to the Fonds Multilatéral Unique (FMU) of the International Organization of La Francophonie (IOF) were used, among other objectives, to fund cooperation initiatives aligned with commitments made by the IOF at Francophonie Summits. Four principles guided these initiatives: 1) promoting the French language, cultural and linguistic diversity; 2) promoting peace, democracy and human rights; 3) supporting education, training and research; and 4) developing cooperation for sustainable development. These priorities were pursued through the cooperation of four specialized operators including the Agence universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF), the international TV channel TV5, the Association internationale des maires francophones (AIMF), and the Université Senghor of Alexandria. Canada's contribution to the development of TV5 in Africa, and to the re-structuring of the education system in Haiti following the 2010 earthquake, are examples of projects that enhanced Canada's presence on the international stage for La Francophonie, an integral part of Canadian foreign policy.
(Amount in thousands of dollars)
|Security & stability||242,018.48||52|
|Services rendered Abroad||80,738.3||17|
|Children & youth||13,241.097||3|
|Sustainable economic growth||4,298.984||1|
|Voluntary contributions to Francophonie||6,961||1|
In accordance with the Treasury Board Common Service Policy, the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Act and the Interdepartmental Memorandum of Understanding on Operations and Support at Missions, DFAIT manages the procurement of goods, services, and real property in support of diplomatic and consular missions, including the provision of common services to partner departments. CIDA transfers funds to DFAIT for those common services provided to CIDA personnel, both Canada-based and locally-engaged, at Canada's diplomatic and consular missions abroad. These funds help to facilitate the presence of development officers in the field, supporting international assistance project implementation.
For fiscal year 2011-2012, DFAIT's ODA disbursements totalled $280.6 million, and supported four of the five thematic priorities of Canada's IAE. Activities ranged from international crisis response and peacekeeping efforts to climate change mitigation, scholarships, and private sector investment. Complementing DFAIT's ODA programming was an additional $185.0 million in non-ODA international assistance, predominately in security and stability programming (including anti-crime capacity building, counterterrorism capacity building, and weapons of mass destruction threat reduction), as well as international scholarships to non-ODA eligible countries and services rendered abroad, among others. This diverse range of programming, totalling $465.6 million in international assistance for 2011-2012, reflects the broad scope of DFAIT's work.
In fiscal year 2011-2012, Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) spent $241,994,086Footnote 21 towards official development assistance, of which parliamentary appropriations accounted for $199,898,900 (82.6 percent of the total).
IDRC is a Crown corporation that supports researchers and innovators in the developing world as they work to improve lives, promote growth and lift communities out of poverty. The remainder includes contributions from other funders, such as the Canadian International Development Agency, OECD governments, and private foundations.
IDRC provides researchers in developing countries with the funds, support and connections they need to find solutions to the pressing problems affecting their societies. IDRC also enables many of the brightest minds in Canada and the developing world to collaborate on cutting-edge projects. IDRC's programs and initiatives focus on four thematic areas: Agriculture and Environment; Global Health Policy; Science and Innovation; and Social and Economic Policy. At the end of 2011-2012, IDRC was supporting 879 applied research activities and 742 institutions, of which 97 were Canadian. The following examples attest to the Centre's commitment to making knowledge a tool for creating prosperity and opportunities throughout the developing world. More information on IDRC is available at IDRC Web site.
On behalf of the Government of Canada, IDRC administers a fund that is generating excitement around innovations for tackling specific diseases. The $225-million Development Innovation Fund supports the work of Grand Challenges Canada, which aims to enable global health breakthroughs by Canadian and developing-country scientists and the private sector. In 2011-2012, the fund awarded close to 30 grants to innovators to develop diagnostic tools, treatments, and preventive care strategies. The latest grand challenge, called Saving Brains (announced in October 2011), aims to encourage healthy brain development in children in developing countries.
Mathematics underpins much of modern life, including information and communication technology, medicine, and finance. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences seeks to provide the training and space in which Africa's brightest graduates can be taught by the world's best mathematicians—including Canadians—and access the full power of new technologies to address their countries' challenges. IDRC is responsible for managing the Government of Canada's $20-million contribution, which supports the establishment of five AIMS centres across Africa by 2015. The first AIMS centre was established in South Africa, and a second one opened in Senegal in September 2011.
The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund, established with CIDA in 2009, brings together Canadian and developing-country researchers to work on practical, applied research aimed at improving food production and increasing access to nutritious food. The Fund provides a way for scientists and students from across Canada to tackle food-security challenges with counterparts in the developing world. By the end of 2011-2012, 19 teams involving 11 Canadian universities were working on livestock vaccines and improved farming methods, among other innovations, as part of the $62 million, five-year program.
Seven African Adaptation Research Centres, managed by IDRC and funded by the Government of Canada, are supporting innovative research to help African communities deal with the impacts of climate change. For example, an early warning system in Benin advises two million farmers about impending droughts and floods, and how to safeguard crops. The goal of the $10 million AARC project is to support better-informed policies and targeted investments.
Around the world, children's pain is often under-estimated and inadequately treated. With a grant from the Global Health Research Initiative, a partnership of federal agencies including IDRC, researchers from Dalhousie University in Halifax and Khon Kaen University in Thailand have developed tools to measure and treat children's pain. Seven hospitals in northeastern Thailand now use the standardized approaches. The new practices, already adopted by some Brazilian hospitals, have led to the creation of the ChildKind Initiative, a program to reduce pediatric pain in health facilities worldwide. Since 2001, GHRI has enabled more than 250 Canadian researchers to work on innovative research with counterparts in more than 60 countries.
Climate change poses a particular threat to indigenous people, who often live in remote areas and depend on the environment for their livelihoods. An international research team is studying the health impacts of climate change in indigenous communities in Canada's North, the Peruvian Amazon, and southwestern Uganda. Country teams bring scientists, indigenous organizations, and governments together to assess risks and develop responses. The project is supported through the International Research Initiative on Adaptation to Climate Change, with joint funding from IDRC, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.
In early 2011, IDRC convened an expert working group to identify ways to promote the transition to democracy in Arab states. As a result, IDRC has been supporting the Arab Reform Initiative, International Crisis Group, and Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in their efforts to generate evidence to inform homegrown democratic reforms. This research also supports civil society and human rights organizations' participation in the transitions. These initiatives complement IDRC's deep engagement in the region and build on its experience in political transitions, notably in Chile and South Africa.
The social media that helped Egyptians protest for democracy is now driving another social transformation. Women in Cairo seldom reported sexual harassment in the past, but they are now using mobile phones to report catcalls, stalking, and assaults. HarassMap displays these reports on a searchable map, and identifies hotspots where extra caution and police protection is required. IDRC supports research that helps verify the crowd-sourced reports. The website won a 2011 World Summit Youth Award in the "Power 2 Women" category.
Francophone Africa is short of economists with advanced training to analyze and devise solutions to local development problems. Overcoming that shortage is the goal of the IDRC-funded Nouveau programme de troisième cycle interuniversitaire en économie. The Burkina Faso-based program has graduated more than 1,500 master's and 100 doctoral students in 18 countries since 1994. Most are now working in universities, government, and the financial sector in their home countries. A new phase of the program will build links with Canadian institutions and recruit more female students.
A tough tobacco-control law passed in August 2011 was a breakthrough for Lebanon, where more than 40 percent of the population smokes. The new law bans smoking in enclosed public places and tobacco advertising, and requires a large pictorial warning on tobacco packages. IDRC-funded research carried out by the American University in Beirut provided evidence to support the law. For instance, AUB found that the state spent more on tobacco than it earned: the annual health and environmental costs of tobacco consumption exceeded the US$55 million in revenues generated from tobacco taxes and other sources.
Citizenship and Immigration Canada's official development assistance for 2011-2012 totalled $130,858,138 Footnote 22 amounting to the federal support provided to refugees in their first 12 months in Canada.
As a member of the international community, Canada helps find solutions to new and prolonged refugee situations and helps emerging democracies to solve the problems that result in forced displacement of peoples. Canada provides assistance to refugees overseas, through multilateral and bilateral channels, and to refugees who arrive in Canada, either as asylum seekers or through the refugee resettlement program.
In accordance with the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, the asylum system exercises Canada's international responsibility to provide protection to asylum seekers who have landed in Canada and have been determined to be in need of protection. In 2011-2012, Canada granted protection to more than 12,500 asylum seekers who received positive determinations by the Immigration and Refugee Board.
The refugee resettlement program is part of Canada's managed immigration plan. In 2011-2012, Canada resettled nearly 7,100 government-assisted refugees and nearly 5,100 privately-sponsored refugees, from more than 60 different nationalities. Particular focus was placed on Iraqi refugees in the Middle East, Bhutanese refugees in Nepal, vulnerable religious minorities and members of the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) community. Resettlement spaces were also used for Afghans who supported the Canadian mission in Kandahar and were in a compelling humanitarian situation in Afghanistan. Canada is a global leader in refugee resettlement and has committed to increasing the number of refugees resettled to as many as 14,500 refugees per year by 2013.
Citizenship and Immigration Canada provides funding to a variety of programs that support refugees' settlement and adaptation into Canadian life. Through the Settlement Program, refugees are eligible for services including needs assessments, language training, employment counseling, community orientations, translation services, and referrals to other programs. Refugees also access basic health services through the federally funded Interim Federal Health Program and/or provincially funded health care. Refugees who arrive as government-assisted refugees also receive support through the Resettlement Assistance Program, which provides income support for up to 12 months (up to 36 months in exceptional cases), and immediate settlement support including initial reception services at the port of entry, assistance with finding accommodation, financial orientations, community orientations, and referrals to other settlement programs.
The reporting as ODA of assistance to refugees during their first 12 months in Canada is consistent with guidelines provided by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. For developing countries, which host the majority of refugees, caring for refugees implies a significant additional burden to an already fragile economy. Providing asylum and resettlement to refugees in Canada therefore contributes to poverty reduction in developing countries. By providing refugees with settlement services and, in some cases, income support, Citizenship and Immigration Canada ensures that refugees have the support they need to overcome challenges, realize their potential, and become full contributors to Canadian social and economic life.
Citizenship and Immigration Canada works closely with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to ensure that Canada's resettlement program is able to offer protection to those most in need and is used strategically to relieve the responsibility of refugee protection on host states in the developing world. In addition, the Department frequently discusses the assistance provided to refugees during their first year in Canada with stakeholders including provinces and territories, the community of private sponsors known as Sponsorship Agreement Holders, the Resettlement Assistance Program Working Group, Service-Providing Organizations, and the Canadian Council for Refugees.
For more information on Canada's refugee programs, please visit Citizenship and Immigration CanadaRefugees.
The official development assistance of the Department of National Defence (DND) for 2011-2012 totaled $128,038.Footnote 23.
DND's ODA activities consisted of the following:
Between August 2005 and August 2010 Canada was responsible for the Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) which sought to reinforce the authority of the Afghan government in Kandahar Province, monitor security, promote Afghan government policies and priorities among local authorities, and facilitate security-sector reforms. Following the transition of responsibility for the Kandahar PRT to the United States in August 2010, Canada maintained the deputy director position until Canadian operations at the PRT ceased on 22 June 2011. DND disbursements represent ODA-attributable close-out activities during the first quarter of fiscal year 2011-2012.
The official development assistance provided by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) during 2011-2012 totaled $38,689,685.Footnote 24.
The RCMP, on behalf of the Government of Canada, deploys police officers to peace operations around the world. In 2011-2012, the RCMP's International Peace Operation Branch (IPOB) deployed Canadian police to 16 separate missions in 12 countries. The police assist in rebuilding and strengthening police services in countries that have had, or are currently experiencing, conflict or upheaval. By building the capacity of foreign police to maintain law and order, Canadian police, in cooperation with international partners, help create a safer and more stable environment. This in turn paves the way for long-term development, and can also prevent illicit activities from spilling across borders into other countries, including Canada.
Foreign requests for Canadian police assistance come from organizations such as the United Nations, the European Union or from specific countries. The decision to deploy Canadian police is made within the framework of the Canadian Police Arrangement (CPA) a partnership between DFAIT, CIDA, Public Safety Canada, and the RCMP. Funding for salaries, benefits, and operations and management (O&M) is provided by the RCMP, while funding for incremental costs is provided by the GPSF (as discussed in Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada's "Security and Stability" section of this report).
Under the CPA, the RCMP is responsible for all operational activities. As such, IPOB is responsible for managing every stage of deployment, from selection and pre-deployment training, to ongoing medical and logistical support, to reviewing results and reintegration of returning personnel. More information on the CPA and IPOB is available on the RCMP website.
Canadian police participated in the following operations and organizations during 2011-2012:
|Mission||Total RCMP A-Base including EBP|
|Afghanistan Kabul Embassy||532,069|
|Afghanistan Prt||1 948,835|
|Geneva Centre For The Democratic Control Of Armed Forces (DCAF)||7,476|
|Sudan—Rule of Law||383,560|
|Peacekeeping A-base total incl. EBP||38,689,685|
The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) serves as the Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, as well as the technical health agency of the Organization of American States. PAHO's mission is to lead strategic collaborative efforts among member states and other partners to promote equity in health, combat disease, and improve the quality of life and lengthen the lifespan of peoples of the Americas. Canada's assessed contribution to PAHO, estimated at $12,375,290Footnote 25 supports this mission.
Canada has been an active member of PAHO since 1971, playing a leadership role in advancing governance and program policy issues at the organization. Through PAHO, Canada advances multilateral and bilateral relations in health, and provides technical cooperation and capacity building.
Canadian technical experts are regularly called upon to participate in regional meetings and initiatives. Small-scale health projects are also supported through the PAHO-Canada Biennial Workplan Budget, managed by Health Canada and PAHO. This allows for partnerships between Canada and Latin America and the Caribbean to advance strategic health priorities.
For example, support from PAHO and Health Canada has deepened and secured important new ground in health and health care. The cooperation strengthens health systems and includes health human resources, access to primary health care, e-health technologies, and strengthening national regulatory authorities in pharmaceuticals, medical devices, biologics, and food safety. Regional mental health initiatives, together with substance-use reduction, are priorities that have involved efforts to strengthen primary health care services, health human-resource curriculum development and training, and design of culturally specific interventions to tackle indigenous well-being.
More information on Canada's cooperation with PAHO is available on the PAHO-Canada Portal website.
In fiscal year 2011-2012, Environment Canada provided a total of $5,998,000Footnote 26 in official development assistance through three types of activities: support for multilateral environmental organizations; climate change actions in developing countries supported by Canada's fast-start financing; and bilateral technical cooperation and capacity-building with developing countries.
Environment Canada recognizes that international cooperation on environmental issues is of growing importance, and environmental sustainability is an essential element for global economic and social well-being. For developing countries that must depend on ecosystem goods and services for their livelihood, environmental changes caused by over-exploitation of natural resources and degradation of the environment directly harm their most vulnerable populations. However, efforts to preserve and improve the environment in developing countries lead to enhanced fulfilment of basic needs, improved living standards, and a safer, more prosperous future.
Environment Canada provides support to various multilateral organizations to assist developing countries in improving environmental conditions and, therefore, improving the livelihoods of vulnerable populations in these countries. The Department provides annual support to the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, which works to ensure that the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances does not adversely affect the economies of developing countries. Environment Canada also provided financial support to specific-purpose funds managed by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), specifically: the UNEP Global Environment Monitoring System Water Programme, the primary source for global water quality data, and the trust fund supporting the negotiations process to prepare a global legally binding instrument on mercury.
Support to other multilateral organizations included funding to: the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan to implement projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America that integrate poverty reduction with environmental sustainability; the Group on Earth Observations to support the provision of comprehensive and coordinated Earth observations. And finally, the Department also provides Canada's annual contribution to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), as well as voluntary contributions to WMO-managed trust funds, which support developing countries in strengthening their national meteorological and hydrological services.
As part of Canada's commitment to support developing countries' efforts to address and adapt to climate change, and to provide its fair share of fast-start financing, Canada is contributing $1.2 billion in new and additional climate change financing over the three-year fast-start financing period (fiscal year 2010-2011 to fiscal year 2012-2013).
Of this amount, more than $1 billion has already been committed to programs that will support developing countries' efforts to address and adapt to climate change. So far, the Government of Canada has issued $400 million to delivery partnersFootnote 27 in fiscal year 2010-2011, and more than $394 million in fiscal year 2011-2012.
In fiscal year 2011-2012, Environment Canada supported projects designed to tackle emissions from short-lived climate pollutants through: the development and implementation of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in Mexico, Chile and Colombia; and the deployment of clean cookstoves in Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Ghana, through the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves. The Department also provided funding to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Supplementary Fund to support developing countries with technical activities that help them implement their goals and commitments under the UNFCCC, as well as an initiative to build the capacity of Honduran officials to assess the vulnerability of public infrastructures to climate impacts.
Environment Canada also engages in technical cooperation and capacity-building with various developing countries on environmental issues that directly affect the environment and well-being of developing-country citizens. This included support for international training events and capacity building initiatives on key environmental issues, including bilateral workshops with China on environmental-emergency management as well as mercury.
Environment Canada, through the Canadian Wildlife Service, also provided support to countries throughout the Caribbean, Central and South America to provide capacity development to enable the long-term monitoring and conservation of waterbirds. Projects included the characterization of shorebirds in the Patagonia region, training and waterbird monitoring in the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta Ecoregion and support to the Southern Cone Grasslands Alliance.
Finally, cooperative activities were undertaken with Chile and Peru under bilateral environment agreements. The Department provided support to Chile within the context of the 1997 Canada-Chile Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, related to parks management, enforcement of wildlife trading regulations, pulp and paper effluent monitoring, and conservation of shared migratory birds. Environment Canada also provided support to Peru under the Canada-Peru Agreement on the Environment, to increase capacity and enhance environmental protection regarding issues of mutual concern, including migratory birds and environmental enforcement.
Labour Canada's Official Development Assistance (ODA) for fiscal year 2011-2012 totalled $1,674,000.Footnote 28.
The Labour Program negotiates and administers Canada's Labour Cooperation Agreements (LCAs), which are signed alongside Free Trade Agreements. LCAs include commitments to protect internationally recognized core labour rights and to enforce domestic labour laws. LCAs are intended to protect workers' basic rights and improve working conditions and standards of living in the signatory countries. These agreements also ensure fair competition for Canadian industry in a globalized world. Canada's latest generation of LCAs contains mechanisms to receive and investigate complaints and impose penalties, where warranted.
In addition to negotiating and administering LCAs, the Labour Program provides technical assistance to developing countries. This assistance funds capacity-building projects that support the modernization of labour policy and administration. Such projects foster better enforcement of national labour laws and greater respect for internationally recognized core labour standards.
Through its technical assistance program, the Labour Program seeks to strengthen institutions of democratic governance; promote economic growth while respecting workers' rights; and improve the quality of working conditions in partner countries. To achieve these goals, grants were provided to international organizations and regional non-governmental organizations (NGOs):
Natural Resources Canada's official development assistance for fiscal year 2011-2012 totalled $2,726,435.60Footnote 29 delivered through the African Model Forest Initiative, a follow-up to Canada's commitments made at the 2008 Francophonie Summit in Quebec City.
The African Model Forest Initiative (AMFI) aims to improve the conservation and sustainable management of forest resources in Francophone Africa, including the Congo Basin and Mediterranean region (Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria) through Canada's Model Forest approach.
The AMFI supports good governance, human resource and local economic development, and the sustainable management of forest-based landscapes. Bilateral assistance is provided to local, regional and national organizations to support local initiatives aimed at enhancing ecological and community sustainability through Model Forest development. Activities undertaken by the AMFI make a positive contribution toward constructive dialogue processes related to natural resource management and land use among both government and civil society stakeholders.
The African Model Forest Network (AMFN) was established in 2009 as a subset of the International Model Forest Network with support from NRCan. The AMFN's mission is to facilitate the development of a pan-African network of Model Forests representative of the continent's wealth and diversity. The African Network currently includes Model Forests at various stages of development in Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, Rwanda, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The latter three are also involved in a Mediterranean Model Forest Network, along with other initiatives in countries such as Spain, France, Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey.
Through the AMFI, NRCan supports partnerships developed between the African Model Forest Network and Canadian Model Forests, universities and NGOs in areas of participatory governance, community and economic development, research and capacity building.
Since 2010 NRCan has actively supported, along with CIDA and DFAIT, the Government of Canada's Facilitation of the Congo Basin Forest Partnership. NRCan views the AMFI Program as a key contribution to the success of the Facilitation. The Program also works with Canadian organizations with views to integrating and complementing programming where possible. The Congo Basin is one of the regions with the most severe illegal logging and deforestation problems in the world, causing serious economic, social, and environmental problems.
Canada's voluntary contribution to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) for fiscal year 2011-2012 totalled $6,461,251 CAD and 18 percent ($1,163,025Footnote 30) is ODA-applicable.Footnote 31
ITU membership includes 193 Member States as well as some 700 Sector Members and Associates representing a cross-section of the telecommunication and information technology industry and a multitude of international, regional, scientific, and development organizations in the communications field.
Industry Canada is Canada's official representative and serves on the Governing Council of 48 Member States. Canada has served as an elected Council member since 1947.
Some 20 Canadian organizations participating as paying industry members/associates include: Ericsson Canada, Research in Motion, Telesat Canada, Bell Canada, Telus Communications, MBNA Canada, Microsoft Canada, Rogers Communication Partnership, Ebrisk Video, Institut de Recherche d'Hydro-Quebec, etc. (The list of members is available on the ITU website, under "ITU Membership"). Private sector organizations, including Sector Members, Associates, and Academia, make substantial monetary contributions to the ITU which represent approximately 14.6 percent of the ITU's contribution income.
The mandate of the ITU is to enable the growth and sustained development of telecommunications and information networks, and to facilitate universal access so that people everywhere can participate in, and benefit from, the emerging information society and global economy. The ability to communicate freely is a pre-requisite for a more equitable, prosperous and peaceful world. The ITU assists in mobilizing the technical, financial and human resources needed to make this vision a reality.
All the elements of ITU's work are centred around the goal of putting every human being within easy and affordable reach of information and communication and to contribute significantly towards the economic and social development of all people. This is carried out through the development of standards to create infrastructure to deliver telecommunication services on a worldwide basis. A key activity is the equitable management of the radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits to help bring wireless services to every corner of the world. It also provides support to countries as they pursue telecommunication development strategies.
The ITU also concentrates on strengthening emergency communications for disaster prevention and mitigation. While both developing and developed countries are equally vulnerable to natural disasters, poorer nations are hardest hit because of their already fragile economies and lack of resources.
The ITU's dual responsibility, as a United Nations specialized agency and an executing agency for implementing projects under the United Nations development system or other funding arrangements, consists of:
In 1997, an ICT Development Fund was established for specific telecommunication development projects primarily in the least-developed countries, small-island developing states, landlocked developing countries, and countries with economies in transition. Of the 92 projects commenced within the program, 60 were successfully completed.
Parks Canada's official development assistance for the 2011-2012 fiscal year amounts to $553,703.Footnote 32
These contributions have been identified and tabulated consistent with both the Government of Canada's Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and with reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the OECD.
Overall, Parks Canada provides official development assistance at two levels, multilaterally and bilaterally. Its multilateral funding includes its annual core contribution to UNESCO's World Heritage Fund and its membership dues as Canada's representative to the World Conservation Union (IUCN), in the amounts of $108,857.32 and $418,845.69 respectively.
Bilateral ODA work was undertaken by Parks Canada in 2011-2012 under an MOU with the Kenya Wildlife Service. It consisted of funding for a workshop in the amount of $26,000 to establish a framework for engaging stakeholders in park-management planning.
Transport Canada's official development assistance for the 2011-2012 fiscal year amounts to $426,093.Footnote 33
In order to address a need to improve flight safety, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) established the Cooperative Development of Operational Safety and Continuing Airworthiness Project (COSCAP).
Since 2003, Canada has been a participant in COSCAP's North Asia (COSCAP-NA) program, which includes the People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mongolia, and the Republic of Korea as recipient countries.
Transport Canada's overall contribution to COSCAP takes two forms: grants and in-kind contributions. The monetary contribution in 2011-2012 was $130,000.00.
In addition, the Canada Post Corporation makes an annual assessed contribution to the Universal Postal Union. These contributions have been reflected in previous reports on official development assistance. The assessed contribution for 2011 was 1,671,520 Swiss Francs; for 2012 it is 1,670,800 Swiss Francs (or approximately $1.8 million Canadian).
CIDA contributed in 2010-2011 to ensuring food security, generating sustainable economic growth, giving children and youth a better future, and responding to humanitarian crises.
To carry out its mandate and maintain its operations in 2010-2011, CIDA planned $3,247,997,000 in spending, with total authorities of $4,029,966,364. Actual spending for that period was $3,614,580,474. The variance between 2010-2011 planned and actual spending mainly reflects the supplementary funding received for programs and initiatives such as the Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) and delivery of humanitarian assistance following the floods in Pakistan.
CIDA's Report on Plans and Priorities for 2010-2011 set out three indicators of progress in poverty reduction.
1. Percentage of population below the international poverty line of US$1.25 per day
Strong economic growth across the greater part of the developing world reduced the number of people living on less than $1.25 a day by almost 500 million people between 2005 and 2010. However, poverty has increased in some countries where CIDA engages in international development. In Tanzania, for instance, although the country has seen strong economic growth, its rapid population growth has meant poverty still affects one third of the population and has kept it dependent on foreign aid. Indonesia has also experienced strong economic growth countered, however, by regional disparities and environmental threats that have left many in poverty and vulnerable to reversals.
2. Gender Inequality Index in countries where CIDA engages in international development
Progress in global gender equality is mixed. The Gender Inequality Index (GII) shows the loss to potential achievement in a country due to gender inequality across three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment, and the labour market. The low-income countries where CIDA engages in international development continue to rank between 83rd (Rwanda) and 137th (Democratic Republic of the Congo) on the GIIFootnote 34; for fragile states, the formerly unified Sudan ranks 106th, Haiti 119th and Afghanistan 134th. Of the countries in which CIDA engages, middle income countries are faring better in terms of addressing gender inequality, with the best ranking in that category going to China in 38th place and the worst at 108th for Egypt.
3. Status of children and youth in countries where CIDA engages in international development
Child mortality rates in CIDA's 20 countries of focus dropped 19 points from 2005 to 2009, to an average of 74 deaths per 1,000 live birthsFootnote 35. The majority of CIDA's countries of focus are on target to meet Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 2, i.e. providing universal access to primary education, but globally 69 million girls and 28 million children living in conflict-affected and fragile states still remain out of school.
In 2010-2011, CIDA made progress in all of its five program and management priorities.
1. Canada's strategic role in Haiti and Afghanistan
CIDA made some progress on this priority in 2010-2011, applying its experience to strengthen Canada's role in the reconstruction and development of those two countries:
2. Increasing food security
In line with its Food Security Strategy, CIDA made significant progress in this priority:
3. Securing the future of children and youth
CIDA has been working to ensure the full implementation of the Children and Youth Strategy through all investment channels. Children and Youth has been identified as a thematic priority for 16 of CIDA's countries of focus and relevant programs have been designed and launched. For example:
4. Stimulating sustainable economic growth
Launched in 2010, CIDA's sustainable Economic Growth Strategy intends to harness the potential of sustainable economic growth to reduce poverty in developing countries. In 2010-2011, efforts focused on creating a solid basis from which to implement the Sustainable Economic Growth approach across relevant programs. Great results were seen in Bolivia with the establishment of a tax collection unit that administers hydrocarbon taxes and in Pakistan with the Capacity Building and Women-Focused Value Chain Development project.
5. Achieving management and program delivery excellence
Turn-around time in assessing proposals to Canadian Partnership BranchFootnote 36 has been cut by more than half. Lessons learned are influencing the development of Agency-wide programming processes that are being piloted in the 2011-2012 fiscal year. In addition to more efficient business processes, over the next five years the Agency will continue the process of decentralizing management of bilateral programs to the field.
CIDA defined six core program activities that support its strategic outcome in its Program Activity Architecture (PAA).
These program activities are based on the PAA in effect during the 2010-2011 reporting period.
1. Fragile countries and crisis-affected communities ($955,192,839)
There was significant progress in two of its performance indicators: 1) effectiveness of humanitarian assistance delivery to crisis-affected populations, and 2) level of access to key services for women, men and children. This progress enhanced the responsiveness of humanitarian assistance to address the immediate needs of crisis-affected populations and increased the effectiveness in responding to basic needs and providing better access to key services.
In 2010-2011, CIDA achieved results through investment in key sectors:
2. Low-income countries ($890,074,740)
During the year, CIDA support contributed to significant progress in two of its performance indicators: 1) evidence of improved access to key services and economic opportunities stemming from CIDA-funded endeavours, and 2) evidence of policy improvements and increased capacity stemming from CIDA-funded endeavours. With partner countries, CIDA undertook activities and initiatives that directly benefit poor communities, and in particular, those that can take advantage of targeted opportunities to improve people's lives. These are some of the specific results:
3. Middle-income countries ($321,050,289)
Significant progress was recorded in 2010-2011 toward country development goals such as health and education under the children and youth thematic priority. Some progress was also made in supporting food security and economic growth as well as improving democratic governance. The success of CIDA's initiatives, based on needs defined by the partner country, provides continuing evidence of the importance of the country-led approach. These are specific results:
4. Global engagement and strategic policy ($1,078,059,884)
This program activity shapes international development policy in Canada and globally and contributes to greater aid effectiveness among our multilateral and global partners. Among the major activities during the year was the launch of the Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health at the G-8 Summit in Canada. CIDA is contributing $2.85 billion over five years to this initiative, of which about 80 percent will support country-led efforts in African countries. This provided critical momentum to the UN Secretary-General's Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, which has resulted in an estimated $40 million in commitments from all partners. Among the main results of this program activity were the following:
CIDA's multilateral funding is highly focused, with 95 percent of its long-term institutional support going to 15 multilateral and global organizations. Among the results these organizations have achieved, thanks to support from the international community including Canada, are:
5. Canadian engagement ($251,493,972)
This program activity supports overseas initiatives of Canadian organizations, promotes international development in Canada and informs the Canadian public. CIDA's goals included improved effectiveness of Canadian organizations and increased participation by Canadians in international development efforts. Among the main results of this program activity were:
6. Internal Services ($118,708,751)
Internal services provides support to CIDA programming for the delivery of the Canadian aid program. It includes governance and management support, human and financial resources management services, and asset-management services. In 2010-2011, the Agency made progress in two areas:
The term "department" is used here for any Canadian federal entity that reports ODA, as per the Act.
The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
In order to carry out its activities, CIDA receives services without charge from various federal departments: Public Works and Government Services Canada, Justice Canada, Treasury Board Secretariat, and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.
The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Of CIDA's $3,932 million in total ODA, $3,693 million was through aid programs in the form of grants, contributions, and other transfer payments, and $238.5 million was for administrative costs.
Includes emergency food assistance ($305,773,538).
Does not include emergency food assistance, which is included in Food Security spending.
Includes health, education and social services not targeting children or youth.
Includes activities such as debt forgiveness, relief of multilateral debt or debt buy-back.
GAVI Alliance—Formerly the "Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation".
A value chain is the system of activities required to bring a product or service from its conception, through different production steps, to its delivery to consumers, and ultimately its final disposal after use.
In total, CIDA contributed $161.1 million to this cause, from December 2010 to May 2012.
The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
On April 3, 2012, it was announced that Rights & Democracy would be closed and its functions transferred to DFAIT.
On May 18, 2012, the Minister of International Trade ordered the suspension of the INC program. The program will remain suspended until at least the completion of a fundamental review of the program, expected later in 2012-2013, which will now also include a review of the system of internal controls within the program.
Details on partners and disbursements can be found in the 2012 Canadian Submission on Fast-Start Financing to the UNFCCC available at http://www.climatechange.gc.ca/default.asp?lang=En&n=5F50D3E9-1
The overall budgetary appropriation is only divided by section (not activities) in accordance with the financial regulations.
Data are from the 2010 United Nations Human Development Report. The GII is based on 2008 data. Ranking are for 169 countries in total. Data are unavailable for the Caribbean and six other countries in which CIDA engages in international development.
The child mortality figures are taken from the 2011 UNICEF State of the World's Children Report, which is based on 2009 data, and the 2007 UNICEF State of the World's Children report, which is based on 2005 data. The gross enrolment rates for primary education are taken from the 2011 UNESCO Education for All Global Monitoring Report, which is based on 2008 data, and the 2010 UNESCO Global Monitoring Report, which is based on 2007 data.
Since the publication of the 2010-2011 Departmental Performance Report, the name of this branch has been changed to Partnerships with Canadians Branch.
Report to Parliament on the Government of Canada's Official Development Assistance 2011-2012 (PDF, 54 pages, 1.42 MB)
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