When our government took office five years ago, we set out to make Canada's international assistance more effective, focused, and accountable so that our country could make a meaningful difference to people living in poverty around the world and ensure that we are giving Canadians value for their money. We have made tremendous strides in this direction.
In 2010-2011, for example, international development was at the centre of the government's agenda as the Prime Minister championed Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health (MNCH) at the G-8 Leaders Summit in Muskoka. The Muskoka Initiative announced commitments totalling $7.3 billion in new funding to save the lives of mothers and children and put families in a position where they can better determine their future. The commitments included $1.1 billion in new Canadian funding between 2010 and 2015.
Canada's leadership in the G-8 Muskoka Initiative on MNCH also helped shape the accountability framework for the UN Secretary-General's Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, launched as part of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals in September 2010.
This led to the creation of the UN Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health, which the Prime Minister co-chaired with the President of Tanzania. The commission held its first meeting in January 2010 in Geneva, Switzerland, and its second and final meeting in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in May 2011. Its report was released on May 19, 2011.
Under Canada's co-chairmanship, the commission made significant progress on maternal, newborn, and child health by reaching an agreement on a shared model for monitoring results and tracking resources.
Meanwhile, Canada supported assistance efforts in some of the most challenging places in the world, including Haiti after the devastating January 2010 earthquake. Canada played a leadership role by providing immediate assistance to Haitians in the earthquake-affected areas, as well as longer-term support for Haitians through Canadian and global organizations, and support to Haiti's public, electoral, security, and financial institutions.
In Afghanistan, the Canadian International Development Agency continued to make progress on Canada's signature projects, such as the Dahla Dam, and maintained its leading role in education and in maternal and child health.
In Pakistan, Canada contributed significantly to relief and early recovery efforts following the severe monsoon floods in summer 2010. In Sudan, Canada played a key role in a successful referendum as part of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which led to the independence of South Sudan.
These are only some of the products of Canada's official development assistance. Other, longer-term results reflect the efforts of people in many departments and agencies across the Government of Canada who are often working in remote villages and rural areas, and in the company of other donor nations, building knowledge, markets, infrastructure, and ecosystems—and above all, livelihoods—in developing countries.
Canadians can take pride in these efforts, encapsulated here in the Report to Parliament on the Government of Canada's Official Development Assistance 2010-2011, as required by the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act.
The Honourable Beverley J. Oda, P.C., M.P. Minister of International Cooperation
This is the third report on Canadian official development assistance since the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (the Act) came into force on June 28, 2008.
This report meets the reporting requirements of subsections 5(1) and 5(3) of the Act.
The statistical report required under subsection 5(2) of the Act, with details about disbursements counted as official development assistance, will be published by the end of March 2012 on CIDA's website.
The Act is available online.
Canada is contributing to global efforts to meet the needs of those living in poverty in developing countries by using a variety of instruments that deliver on its commitment to provide effective official development assistance.
A number of Canadian federal government departmentsNote 1 disbursed official development assistance (ODA) funds in 2010-2011.
ODA disbursements by department in order of amount
|Canadian International Development Agency||3,591.74|
|Department of Finance Canada||846.56|
|Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada||308.35|
|International Development Research Centre||172.8|
|Citizenship and Immigration Canada||135.71|
|Department of National Defence||16.53|
|Royal Canadian Mounted Police||36.86|
|Natural Resources Canada||1.75|
|Services supporting CIDA activitiesNote 2||28.39|
The following pages summarize the activities undertaken with these funds under the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act.
Additional details will appear in a statistical report, to be published by the end of March 2012.
The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is the government's principal organization responsible for managing Canada's official development assistance (ODA) program. It supports programs and projects whose primary objective is poverty reduction. It also engages in policy development in Canada and internationally to support Canada's development objectives in a manner consistent with Canadian foreign policy.
CIDA's aid program has three thematic priorities: increasing food security, securing the future of children and youth, and stimulating economic growth.
Each theme is linked to poverty reduction and takes into account the perspectives of the poor. For women, men, and children in the developing world, a lack of sufficient, safe, and nutritious food undermines their health and limits their ability to learn at school or earn a living. A lack of food security is a central obstacle to reducing poverty.
Because Canada recognizes the immense worth and hope that children and youth bring to developing countries, it works to help them reach their potential. CIDA, through its Children and Youth Strategy, is supporting the world's young people to become healthy, educated, and productive citizens-giving them the chance to avoid poverty. At a time when as many as 2.6 billion people worldwide are living on less than $2 a day, there is ample evidence that sustainable economic growth is also critical to reducing poverty. In fact, countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America have shown repeatedly that growing the economy is the best way to help people permanently lift themselves out of poverty.
CIDA has a long-standing and deep tradition of consultation in Canada and abroad. This includes extensive consultation with partner governments, other donors, and civil society. In 2010-2011, CIDA held more than 100 consultations in Canada and overseas with more than 7,300 stakeholders and partners on a vast range of topics. These consultations are valuable for sharing information, engaging stakeholders, and informing CIDA's work. CIDA also ensures that consultation takes place at program and project levels. The variety of formal and informal processes in place to ensure that this happens include participatory approaches in project and program design, ongoing consultations with local partners and beneficiaries as project implementation progresses, and collaborative evaluations to learn lessons together.
CIDA's assistance is also consistent with international human rights standards. CIDA supports human rights activities in many countries. It also ensures that its programs do not contribute, directly or indirectly, to violations of human rights.
CIDA produces sustainable development results in collaboration with partners in developing countries, other donor nations, multilateral organizations, and Canadian government and non-governmental organizations.Although the outcomes of Canada's investments in 2010-2011 will be realized over many years, CIDA is monitoring its initiatives and witnessing results today. These are specific results:
As part of its aid effectiveness agenda, the Government of Canada has identified five thematic priorities for its international assistanceNote 5 to sharpen the focus of Canada's international assistance:
Within this enhanced focus, the majority of CIDA's efforts went to increasing food security, securing the future of children and youth, and stimulating sustainable economic growth. This approach also reinforces CIDA's efforts to integrate environmental sustainability; improve equality between women and men; and support strong governance practices and institutions, including human rights, in all areas of its work.
CIDA activities by thematic priority
|Number of Projects Funded
(new and ongoing)
|Increasing food security||736.1||400|
|Securing the future of children and youth||1038.4||545|
|Stimulating sustainable economic growth||824||688|
Increasing food security
In October 2009 the Minister of International Cooperation released CIDA's Food Security Strategy, with the objective of addressing the extreme hunger and malnutrition of the world's most vulnerable people.
CIDA's food security portfolio is strategically diverse and robust. CIDA is implementing effective programs under each of the Food Security Strategy's three pillars: sustainable agricultural development, food aid and nutrition, and research and development. Over the past year, Canada has taken a number of significant steps to address food security:
CIDA's new approach to increasing food security is helping communities to address immediate food needs and to find ways to achieve lasting food security so they can escape the cycle of poverty.
Securing the future of children and youth
CIDA's 2009 Children and Youth Strategy guides the Agency's efforts to meet the needs of the world's most vulnerable and help them to become resourceful, engaged, and productive adults. Since the launch of the strategy, Canada has made important progress in addressing the health of children and of mothers of infants, as well as pregnant women, and also in providing quality basic education, and building a safe and secure environment for children and youth in developing countries. Over the past year, Canada has taken these significant steps:
In addition, Canada led the launch of the Muskoka Initiative to save and improve the lives of mothers, newborns, and young children. Canada is now leading efforts to deliver results, concentrating on strengthening health systems, improving nutrition, and preventing and treating severe illnesses and diseases. It has committed $1.1 billion over five years in new money to the initiative, and will maintain $1.75 billion in existing funding, for a total commitment of $2.85 billion over the next five years.
Together, the international commitments made at the 2010 Muskoka Summit are projected to:
Canada is also leading international action on accountability for resources and results. Prime Minister Stephen Harper co-chaired, along with President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete of Tanzania, the UN Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health, launched in January 2011. The commission agreed on a framework that tracks whether maternal and child health results are being achieved and whether resources are being spent wisely and transparently.
Stimulating sustainable economic growth
In October 2010 the Minister announced Stimulating Sustainable Economic Growth, a strategy to guide CIDAS efforts to establish long-term, sustainable economic growth that will increase revenue generation, create employment, and reduce poverty in developing countries. Over the past year, Canada has taken a number of significant steps to address sustainable economic growth:
The Stimulating Sustainable Economic Growth strategy will also build government capacity to promote responsible and sustainable investment-particularly in the extractive sector in recognition of the sector's importance, as well as its potential social and environmental risks.
In promoting sustainable economic growth, CIDA recognizes the central role of women, as income earners, to lift their families and communities out of poverty, and works to directly support their efforts to achieve full economic participation.
In 2010-2011, CIDA's programming was divided into five activities.Note 6 The five activities are:
Fragile countries and crisis-affected communities
Top recipients of CIDA funding: Fragile countries and crisis-affected communities
|Top Recipients||Funding ($ millions)|
|Long-term development and reconstruction|
|West Bank and Gaza||65.66|
|International humanitarian response|
|Sudan (immediate crisis response)||36.42|
|Haiti (immediate crisis response)||28.75|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||18.85|
Fragile states and crisis-affected communities face particularly severe development challenges exacerbated by conflict, instability, man-made crises, or natural disasters within complex national and regional contexts. They have weak institutional capacity, poor governance, political instability, and ongoing violence or a legacy of past conflict.
This program activity features programming that is both short-term-to ensure delivery of, and access to, essential humanitarian services to crisis-affected populations in order to reduce immediate vulnerabilities of the population-and medium- to long-term-to create conditions for sustainable economic growth and for building the foundation for effective governance and delivery of basic services. It requires working with partners that have expertise and capacity to deliver in high-risk environments. Canada's largest ongoing missions in fragile countries include Afghanistan and Haiti. Other examples include these:
Development Programme's Referendum Basket Fund, CIDA supported the organization, operation, and monitoring of the referendum. Through a $1.9-million contribution to the Carter Center, CIDA supported the deployment of more than 187 international observers, including 13 Canadians, to monitor and report on the referendum process. This complements Canada's other ongoing programming and humanitarian assistance to Darfur and South Sudan, totalling $40 million in 2010-2011, to provide food, water and sanitation, health care, emergency nutritional support, and shelter for populations affected by conflict and insecurity.
In keeping with CIDA's main program activity of assisting in fragile states and countries experiencing humanitarian crises (see "Summary of program activities" above), CIDA has committed to a central role in global efforts of humanitarian assistance, recovery, and reconstruction in Haiti and Afghanistan. It is also helping to ensure security and stability and advance democracy in these countries.
CIDA continued to provide humanitarian assistance to Haiti in 2011 in the amount of $17 million to meet the immediate and ongoing needs of Haitians affected by the January 2010 earthquake. This effort supplemented the more than $150 million in humanitarian assistance that CIDA provided in 2010. By supporting partners such as the Canadian Red Cross and Save the Children, the Agency contributed to building 1,800 temporary shelters; distributing school kits to more than 28,000 children; and providing emergency medical, water, and sanitation services and food for people affected by the earthquake. CIDA also provided $8.5 million in response to the cholera outbreak, thereby contributing to the international effort that lowered the mortality rate caused by that disease from 9 percent to 1.6 percent.
CIDA formally launched the Haiti Call for Proposals in October 2010 for Canadian organizations interested in short-term recovery and reconstruction projects in Haiti. Projects funded will strengthen the housing, disaster preparedness, education, health, and agricultural sectors in Haiti. Funding for this initiative is part of the Government of Canada's $400-million commitment in support of the reconstruction of Haiti.
CIDA provided $214 million in assistance to Afghanistan in 2010-2011, and continued with development initiatives in Kandahar province and nationally. CIDA's efforts focused on three priority areas (basic services, including education; humanitarian assistance, including health; and advancing Afghanistan's capacity for democratic governance) and three signature projects (the building, expanding, and repairing of 50 schools in targeted districts in Kandahar province; the rehabilitation of Dahla Dam and its irrigation system; and efforts to eradicate polio).
Top recipients of CIDA funding: Low-income countries
|Top Recipients||Funding ($millions)|
Countries within the low-income category as defined by the World Bank face pervasive poverty and limited institutional capacity, but they have broadly stable governance and public security. These countries generally have a high level of aid dependency, limited resilience to respond to a number of vulnerabilities and external shocks, and limited ability to attend to the human-development needs of their populations.
Programming under this program activity features longterm engagement on country priorities, primarily to:
CIDA works with other donors, civil society organizations, and ministries of recipient governments. Engagement is normally anchored in the partner government's development strategy and program, around which donors coordinate and harmonize their efforts. This may involve the pooling of funds or other forms of program-based approaches. Examples of results include these:
Middle-income countries $321.05 million
Top recipients of CIDA funding: Middle-income countries
|Top Recipients||Funding ($millions)|
|Caribbean regional program||41.6|
Countries within the World Bank's middle-income category face specific challenges in inclusive, sustainable economic growth and development. These countries exhibit a stronger economic and social foundation and a lower reliance on aid than do low-income countries, but they may still have a large proportion of their population facing inequality and poverty. These countries often have stark disparities along geographic, gender, ethnic, or urban-rural lines, as well as pockets of deep poverty. This is in large part due to low productivity and competitiveness, as well as weak political accountability that does not address discrimination and marginalization.
Main areas of programming under this program activity focus on delivering targeted technical assistance to foster equal access to economic opportunities and to public services to create the conditions for more competitive and inclusive local economies, to expand service delivery to reach marginalized groups, and to build accountable democratic institutions. It requires working in partnership with government, civil society, and the private sector to build capacity, including knowledge and systems.
Examples of results include these:
Global engagement and strategic policy
Top 10 multilateral institutions receiving funding through multilateral and global programs branch
|Top 10 Institutions||Funding ($millions)|
|World Food Programme||186.25|
|Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria||150|
|African Development Bank Group||113.8|
|Asian Development Bank||83.19|
|Office for the Coordination ofHumanitarian Affairs||75.95|
|United Nations Development Programme||72.13|
|United Nations Children's Fund||70.7|
|Global Environment Facility||60.41|
|United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees||51.02|
Achieving international development outcomes requires engagement on the global stage and investments through international partners, as appropriate. Multilateral/ international organizations and global initiatives tackle global problems (for example, infectious diseases and climate change); provide a governance mechanism in areas such as humanitarian assistance or to set the development agenda (such as the Millennium Development Goals); and provide economies of scale and of scope, as well as significant expertise and capacity on the ground.
Activities under this program activity aim at delivering concrete results on the ground by shaping and investing in multilateral and international institutions partners' policies and programs throughout the world and by exerting policy influence to shape international development policy in Canada and globally, in line with the government's priorities, through the fostering of effective partnerships and policy dialogue. Examples of results include these:
Top 10 Canadian partners receiving funding through partnerships with Canadians branch
|Top 10 partners||Funding ($millions)|
|Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada||13.75|
|Association of Canadian Community Colleges||11.14|
|Jeunesse Canada Monde/Canada World Youth||10.22|
|Canadian Catholic Organization for Development and Peace||8.85|
|Developpement international Desjardins||5.94|
|Fondation Jules et Paul-Emile Leger||5.5|
|Right To Play International||4.08|
CIDA supports the work of Canadian organizations to achieve development results by drawing on strengths, expertise, networks, and opportunities available to Canadian organizations, as well as by broadening Canadian engagement in international development through outreach and education activities.
Programming under this program activity involves co-investment in the most meritorious development proposals that align with Canada's development priorities. Through calls for proposals, CIDA provides complementary funding to selected proposals received from Canadian organizations such as civil society organizations, academic institutions, and professional associations. Canadian organizations in turn work with their partner-country counterparts to deliver development results on the ground. Examples of results from 2010-2011 funding include these:
Overall, CIDA supported more than 1,750 aid projectsNote 7 and initiatives in Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe.
Of CIDA's total ODA disbursements of $3,592 million, $2,629 million was in the form of bilateral aid in 2010-2011, as per the OECD Development Co-operation Directorate definition of bilateral aidNote 8 and excluding administration costs. Including administrative costs, CIDA's bilateral disbursement was $2,874 million. Approximately $1,512 million in ODA was channelled through bilateral country programs to 50 countries. Eighty-eight percent of this was concentrated in CIDA's 20 countries of focus.Note 9 This contribution is augmented by CIDA's multilateral, regional, and partnership programs.Note 10
Canadian International Development Agency bilaterial aid expenditures, excluding administrative costs, by continent for fiscal years 2010-2011 (preliminary figures in C$ millions): Africa-1,301.9 (50%); Asia-637 (24%); Americas-534.1 (20%); Middle East-90.0 (3%); Eastern Europe-42.8 (2%); Global-23.6 (1%). Total-$2,629 million.
Summary of CIDA's Departmental Performance Report
Paragraph S(l)(e) of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act specifies that a summary of the Departmental Performance Report (DPR) of the Canadian International Development Agency must be part of this report.
The summary of CIDA's 2009-2010 DPR is provided in the appendix to this report.
CIDA breakdown of spending
|Bilateral aid (GPB, PWCB, MGPB country-region/specific initiatives)||2,629|
|Multilateral aid (core funding to multilateral institutions)||718|
Finance Canada's official development assistance for fiscal year 2010-11 totalled $846,560,000.
Finance Canada held web consultations in December 2010, inviting input from the Canadian public, civil-society organizations, governments and international agencies on whether the Department's 2010-2011 international assistance payments met the conditions listed in the ODAAA.
While views covered a broad range of issues beyond the Department's ODA payments, there were several recurrent themes. For example, several submissions stressed the importance of grant financing to support developing country adaptation to climate change. In 2010-2011, the Department provided significant non-grant financing for climate change in order to catalyze further private sector financing for clean energy projects in developing countries in support of long-term sustainable development. The Department recognizes the need for both public- and private-sector financing to address climate-change challenges and, as such, acknowledges the need for both grant and non-grant financing. In this regards, the Department's contributions are intended to complement broader Government of Canada activities related to climate change.
There were also calls to encourage greater transparency at the International Finance Corporation (IFC). Finance Canada is pleased that the institution approved a new Access to Information Policy this year, following its active endorsement. The Department will monitor implementation of this policy, which is expected to significantly improve IFC's ability to communicate about its projects and investments, including project-level disclosure of environmental and social impacts, and development outcomes.
The consultations provided a unique and important opportunity to hear views from key stakeholders in informing the Department's international assistance disbursements in 2010-2011, as described below.
The International Development Association (IDA) is the World Bank Group's principal financing tool for the world's poorest countries, providing them with interest-free loans and grants. In December 2007, the Government of Canada announced that it would provide $1.3 billion to IDA over the next three years under the institution's 15th replenishment.
The replenishment allows IDA to enhance its focus on effective aid delivery and provide special assistance for fragile states such as Afghanistan and Haiti while ensuring that those countries do not take on unsustainable levels of debt.
More information is available on the IDNNote 11 website.
Bilateral and multilateral debt-relief disbursements are considered to be ODA-eligible, as they contribute to poverty reduction by freeing up resources (which would otherwise be used to service sovereign debts) for use in more productive investments (e.g. health, education, infrastructure, etc.) that support long-term economic growth and development. Furthermore, debt-relief recipients self-direct additional resources based on their individual Poverty Reduction Strategies.
Canada has been an international leader in the area of poverty reduction by forgiving more than $1 billion in debt owed to it by the world's poorest and most indebted countries.Specifically, Canada is a committed participant in the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs) Initiative, which cancels up to 90 percent of the debts of eligible countries, with an aim to reduce these countries' debts to sustainable levels. Canada delivers this debt relief through its participation in the Paris Club. Moreover, Canada goes beyond the requirements of the HIPC Initiative through the Canadian Debt Initiative, under which Canada forgives all remaining debt owed by eligible HIPCs, resulting in complete bilateral debt cancellation.
Canada's provision of debt relief varies considerably from year to year, as international debt relief initiatives make debt cancellation conditional on debtor countries' meeting International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank mandated program targets. If a country's performance does not meet the required target, debt relief is delayed until adequate progress is made.
In 2010-2011, Canada provided ODA-eligible debt relief to Ivory Coast ($3,435,000) and the Republic of Congo ($21,524,000).
Canada has also been very active in the development and financing of multilateral debt relief through the Multilateral Debt Relieflnitiative (MDRI), which frees up resources for recipient countries for redirection to poverty-reduction initiatives. Canada has committed to providing the IMF, World Bank, and African Development Fund (ADF) with $2.5 billion in order to cover Canada's share of the costs over the life of MDRI, which extends until 2054.
In 2009, with the passage of Bill C-59 (the Economic Recovery Act), the Government of Canada modified and strengthened the payment mechanism for our annual MDRI payments.The modification places Canada's MDRI payments under statutory authority and provides further reassurance to the IMF, World Bank, and ADF that Canada is fully able to honour its $2.5 billion commitment. This new legislation enabled the Government of Canada to sign new MDRI instruments of commitment with the ADF and IDA in February, 2011.
More information is available on The Multilateral Debt Relieflnitiative (MDRI)Note 14 website.
The Government of Canada responded quickly to the tragic earthquake that hit Haiti in January 2010; part of this effort included additional debt relief for Haiti during its time of need. While Canada had already cancelled all bilateral debts owed to it by Haiti prior to the earthquake, Canada led a G-20 consensus afterward to forgive more than US$825 million Haiti that owed to international institutions. Canada was the first country to make all of the payments required to cancel Haiti's debt, totalling $33.6 million.
More information on Haiti debt relief is available at:
To make its financial support more flexible and tailored to the diversity of poor countries, the IMF has established the Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) as its concessionallending framework. The PRGT's assistance and conditionality are guided by a country's Poverty Reduction Strategy, which is, as noted above, country-specific and involves broad-based participation by civil society and the private sector.
In Budget 2010, Canada delivered $40 million in subsidy resources to the PRGT to support its activities in low-income countries, which is consistent with the commitments made at the G-20 London Summit.
More information on the PRGT and Canada's commitment is available at:
Support of growth-oriented SMEs in developing countries is a significant contributor to poverty reduction through job creation. As host of the 2010 G-20 Leaders Summit in Toronto, Canada launched the SME Finance Challenge as an innovative, web-based competition in search of mechanisms for supporting small and medium-sized businesses. A panel of international experts examined hundreds of proposals submitted from around the world and identified the 14 best. Canada has provided $20 million to the SME Finance Innovation Fund, with the IFC acting as trustee, as part of a global effort to implement and scale up these 14 best proposals.
More information on the SME Finance Challenge is available, including information about the winning proposals.
As part of Canada's commitment to provide its fair share of fast-start financing under the Copenhagen Accord, Canada contributed $400 million in new and additional climate change financing for the 2010-2011 fiscal year.
As part of this package, the Department of Finance provided the IFC with $285.72 million, to be used as concessional financing for a broad portfolio of dean energy projects to support mitigation efforts in developing countries. Canada's investments will support greenhouse gas abatement opportunities and will be deployed to catalyze private sector financing for clean energy projects. Canada will work with the IFC to track the amount of private investment directly mobilized by Canada's public finance contribution to the IFC, as well as the emissions reductions achieved. This type of innovative approach will be key to achieving long-term financing and mitigation goals.
Canada's contributions are being managed by IFC's Financial Mechanisms for Sustainability Group, which deploys donor funds on concessional terms alongside IFC investments. To be eligible to receive concessional financing from Canada's contribution to IFC, a project must satisfy IFC's standard criteria and due diligence. Please see the Investment and Advisory Services page .
The Department of Finance also provided $5.83 million to support IFC's advisory services to help remove barriers to private clean energy investment and build technical expertise. For example, this grant financing will support the provision of advice to financial institutions to strengthen their capacity to identify, assess and structure loans to energy efficiency and renewable energy projects.
The combination of concessional private sector financing and technical assistance is expected to catalyze significant clean energy investments in developing countries in the short term, while supporting their institutional capacity for environmentally sustainable development over the long term.
Innovation will be critical to achieving agricultural productivity gains required to meet growing demands and mounting stresses. At the 2010 G-20 Toronto Summit, Leaders committed to exploring the potential of innovative financing mechanisms to focus private sector resources on agricultural innovation in developing countries. Pull mechanisms such as advance market commitments that pay out only upon demonstrated results can encourage innovations in areas such as post-harvest storage, pest and drought-resistant seed varieties, livestock disease, or nutritionally fortified products. The Department of Finance is providing $950,000 in concessional support to the World Bank to help develop this concept.
The information below is in response to specific requirements of the Act regarding Canada's interactions with the Bretton Woods Institutions.
This past year saw many important reforms at both the IMF and the World Bank Group. In 2009, the Bretton Woods Institutions were on the front lines in responding to the global financial and economic crisis. In 2010, following the crisis, world leaders moved to strengthen the institutions by implementing important changes to quota and voice that saw more equitable distributions of decision-making power. New and enhanced facilities also strengthened the effectiveness of the institutions and will allow them to contribute even more towards economic stability and poverty reduction as the global economic recovery continues.
Key developments at the World Bank Group
The World Bank Group took several important actions over the past year to enhance its long-term legitimacy, credibility and effectiveness, including:
Canada advocated for and was an integral part of all of these accomplishments over the past year.
Key developments at the International Monetary Fund
During 2010, a number of significant reforms to IMF governance, lending facilities and surveillance were implemented. These reforms, which include a realignment of IMF quotas, changes to the composition of the IMF Executive Board, and a strengthening of the IMP's lending toolkit, will help the IMF fulfill its mandate of safeguarding the stability of the international monetary system while promoting sustainable economic growth and raising global living standards. Furthermore, these reforms will increase the voice and representation of emerging market and developing countries, and make the Fund more representative of the global economy. At the same time, building on its multifaceted response to the global financial crisis in 2009, the IMF was again actively engaged in addressing the needs of its members through timely policy advice, financial support and technical assistance.
Canadian representatives constructively engaged in efforts to reform the Fund's quotas and governance to strengthen its legitimacy, effectiveness and credibility. The IMF's members agreed to a landmark package of quota and governance reforms that will significantly increase the voice and representation of emerging market and developing countries at the Fund. Canada also supported and engaged constructively in efforts to enhance the Fund's lending toolkit. Canada also contributed to improving IMF surveillance by fostering member agreement on making the Fund's Financial Sector Assessment Program mandatory for members with systemically important financial sectors.
Notable Canadian initiatives at the IMP and the World Bank Group
Canada was a significant contributor to a number of notable initiatives which made the IMF and the World Bank Group stronger and more effective, including:
Summary of representations made by Canada at the Bretton Woods Institutions
For Canadian statements at the International Monetary and Financial Committee of the Board of Governors for the IMF, please refer to Annex 3 in Canada at the IMF and World Bank 2010 report.Note 15
For Canadian statements at the Development Committee of the Boards of Governors of the World Bank and the IMF, please refer to Annex 4 in Canada at the IMF and World Bank 2010 report.Note 16
For a fuller description of Canada's commitments and goals at the IMF and World Bank, please refer to Canada at the IMF and World Bank 2010 report.Note 19
In fiscal year 2010-2011, the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) disbursed $308,351,153 in official development assistance (ODA) and an additional $178,825,075 in non-ODA international assistance, for a total of$487,176,228.
DFAIT's broad range of ODA programming focused on four of the five thematic priorities of Canada's International Assistance Envelope (IAE): security and stability, democracy, children and youth, and sustainable economic growth. DFAIT also provided cross-cutting ODA, through assessed contributions to multilateral organizations and through services rendered to CIDA personnel at Canada's diplomatic and consular missions abroad.
DFAIT ODA by thematic priority and crosscutting support for fiscal year 2010-2011: Security and Stability-$129,860,080; Democracy-$4,873,000; Children and Youth-$8,328,000; Sustainable Economic Growth-$6,570,373; Assessed Contributions-$84,435,000; Services Rendered Abroad-$74,284,700.
The Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) funds the operations of the Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START) and is used to conduct international assistance programming in fragile and conflict-affected states such as Afghanistan, Haiti and Sudan. START and the GPSF were created to fill a policy, institutional, funding and programming gap between CIDA humanitarian and long-term development assistance and DND's military and training assistance. START has effectively played a role and established itself as a platform to facilitate whole-of-government engagement and policy development in security and stability programming. An increasing number of other government departments such as Public Safety, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Correctional Service of Canada, Canada Border Services Agency and Justice Canada have actively participated in stabilization and reconstruction initiatives as well as crisis response activities in partnership with DFAIT/START.
GPSF programming provides timely, focused, effective and accountable international assistance in response to critical peace and security challenges which implicate Canadian interests and reflect Canadian foreign-policy priorities. START works closely with federal departments to provide beneficiary states and civilian components of multilateral peace operations with critical expertise in the areas of security and justice-system reform.
Over the past year, GPSF programming has supported many initiatives that have garnered international recognition for their contributions toward advancing freedom, democracy, the rule of law and respect for human rights. Despite programming in some of the most difficult environments in the world, START disbursed 98.8 percent of planned programming funds in 2010-2011 and served as a platform to channel additional Government of Canada funding to support foreign-policy priorities:
DFAIT manages the $3 million Glyn Berry Program Democracy Envelope, which supports a wide range of democracy projects. Under the Democracy Envelope, DFAIT is supporting democracy in priority regions such as the Americas and the Middle East as well as in authoritarian regimes such as Belarus, Burma or Zimbabwe or states in democratic transition. Building on local capacities, it currently manages democracy-support projects on topics such as training on social media for political bloggers and independent journalists, increasing youth participation in elections, addressing new threats on freedom-of-expression violations, strengthening legislative assemblies, and supporting independent media in repressive regimes.
DFAIT also provides core funding to the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development (Rights & Democracy), consistent with the Government of Canada's statutory obligation to Parliament. Rights & Democracy's innovative and results-based programming, policy research and partnerships contribute to Canada's profile and leadership in providing democracy support globally. Active in 15 countries, including Egypt, Afghanistan, Haiti, Burma and Zimbabwe, Rights & Democracy is focused on democratic development, economic and social rights, indigenous peoples' rights and women's rights. Canada benefits from the organization's expertise and its worldwide networks. As an arm's-length partner of the Government of Canada, it has the flexibility required to respond to urgent human-rights violations and democratic crises.
The international scholarships program facilitated by DFAIT funds higher education and advanced technical and managerial training for ODA-eligible counties. In 2010 2011, DFAIT funded more than 850 scholarships to ODA-eligible countries. The scholarship program supports human capital development and creates institutional linkages with Canadian and regional post-secondary institutions, to foster research collaborations and institutional agreements. Also, the scholarship program contributes to poverty reduction by contributing to the development of a skilled workforce, leading to economic growth and development. Brain-drain, a key challenge for developing countries, is minimized by DFAIT's scholarship structure, which provides opportunities for students to spend one semester in Canada, while remaining registered in their home institutions.
In the Caribbean and the Americas, the scholarships align with the priorities of Canada's Americas Strategy, including the promotion of prosperity and the rule of law, as well as democracy and good governance. In some countries that receive funding through DFAIT's international scholarships program, priority is given to advanced scientific studies, such as medical research, infectious-disease control and other topics of research related to sustainable resources, including agricultural water resources and food-crop production sources.
Investment Cooperation Program: $5,963,373
The Investment Cooperation Program (INC) supports responsible, developmentally beneficial, private-sector investments in developing countries, leading to sustained economic growth and poverty reduction. This is the only federal government program that provides direct assistance to Canadian private-sector businesses exploring investment opportunities in developing countries. INC support encourages companies to invest responsibly by providing assistance for pre- and post-investment activities that they might not otherwise undertake. The INC program recognizes the role of the private sector as the main driver of economic growth and development resulting in increased livelihood and poverty reduction.
A revitalized INC was transferred from CIDA to DFAIT, effective January 4, 2010. Expected results of some recently completed projects initiated at CIDA and transferred to DFAIT include:$300,000 in funding toward a $2.1-million agriculture and agri-food sector investment in Cameroon that is expected to create 50 local jobs and assist Cameroon in the development of better technology and production processes in that sector; and $234,779 towards the investment of $865,000 for an assembly factory for aluminum construction products in Honduras that is expected to create 45 local jobs and assist Honduras in aluminum railing manufacturing processes and quality control.
Environment and climate change: $607,000
Through the International Environmental Contributions Program, DFAIT contributes to climate-change and environment-related initiatives, including funding for a variety of multilateral organizations and specific regional projects.
The contribution to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) - Least Developed Countries Expert Group (LEG) supports effective international action to strengthen the capacity of the poorest and most vulnerable to adapt to the impacts of a changing climate. DFAIT also supported other multilateral organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
DFAIT contributed to training and capacity building projects benefitting developing and emerging nations. The International Energy Agency (IEA) Training and Capacity Building Program held a week-long event focusing on the diversification of energy sources, renewable energy and dean-energy technologies. DFAIT supported the Canadian Council of Professional Engineers to enable them to provide their expertise to train and build the capacity of professional engineers in Costa Rica to assess and adapt to vulnerable civil infrastructure and the effects of climate change. DFAIT also assisted in the development of a Negotiators' Handbook and the holding of a workshop for developing Francophonie member nations prior to the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP16) in Cancun, Mexico.
DFAIT supported a multinational project in the Pacific region to replace diesel-powered streetlights with photo-voltaic lighting (solar panels) in the Marshall Islands. In total, this project, also supported by Austria and Italy, will result in an estimated annual reduction of 350 tonnes of carbon dioxide.
Snapshot of DFAIT'S Official Development Assistance
Assessed contributions are transfer payments by the federal government, occasioned by Canada's membership in a bilateral or multilateral international organization. An 0ECD-DAC-determined portion of these contributions is considered ODA. The twenty-two bilateral and multilateral organizations to which Canada provided ODA-eligible assessed contributions in 2010-2011 include, but are not limited to the:
To maintain its status as a member in good standing, Canada is required to provide its share of the total operations costs for each organization of which it is a member. This not only fulfils Canada's obligations as a member of these organizations, but also allows Canada to advance our foreign and development policy priorities in key multilateral forums.
Non-ODA international assistance
In addition to ODA, DFAIT's non-ODA international assistance reached $178.8 million in 2010-2011. While not defined as ODA by the OECD-DAC, this programming complements the department's ODA programs and contributes to achieving Canada's overall international assistance objectives. DFAIT's non-ODA programs in 2010-2011 included:
Some predominantly ODA programs also have non-ODA components. For instance, START programming includes natural-disaster response in non-ODA countries, while a portion of DFAIT's funding for environment and climate change supports non-ODA projects, including a climate-change conference in Kiribati and demining of coral reefs and ecologically vulnerable areas of Palau. In addition to its $8.3 million ODA program, the international scholarship program also funded awards worth $153,000 in non-ODA eligible countries such as Malaysia and Russia. This is not defined as ODA by the OECD-DAC and are not reported as ODA under the Act. Nonetheless, these activities help to create the conditions required to foster sustainable development results.
In accordance with the Treasury Board Common Service Policy, the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Act and the Interdepartmental Memorandum of Understanding on Operations and Support at Missions, DFAIT manages the procurement of goods, services, and real property in support of diplomatic and consular missions, including the provision of common services to partner departments. CIDA transfers funds to DFAIT for those common services provided to CIDA personnel, both Canada-based and locally engaged, at Canada's diplomatic and consular missions abroad. These funds help to facilitate the presence of development officers in the field, supporting international-assistance project implementation.
DFAIT's ODA programming reached $308.4 million in 2010-2011, supporting four of the five thematic priorities of Canada's international assistance. Activities ranged from international crisis response and peacekeeping efforts to climate change mitigation, scholarships, and private-sector investment. An additional $178.8 million in non-ODA international assistance complemented DFAIT's ODA program, supporting security and stability activities, environment and responses to climate change, and children and youth, as well as services rendered abroad. This diverse range of programming reflects the broad scope of DFAIT's work.
The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is a Canadian Crown corporation, created in 1970, that supports researchers and innovators in the developing world as they work to improve lives, promote growth and lift communities out of poverty. In fiscal year 2010-2011, IDRC spent $219,098,787 in support of this effort. Parliamentary appropriations accounted for $172,799,706 (78.9% of the total, equivalent to IDRC's contribution to Canada's official development assistance in fiscal year 2010-2011). The remainder was mainly generated by contributions with other funders and is therefore not part of IDRC's contribution to Canada's official development assistance.
IDRC provides researchers in developing countries with the funds, support and connections they need to find solutions to the pressing problems affecting their societies. IDRC also enables many of the brightest minds in Canada and the developing world to collaborate on cutting-edge projects. These lead to improvements such as strengthened health systems, more responsible governance, increased agricultural production, higher incomes, more equitable growth and cleaner environments. At the end of 2010-2011, IDRC was supporting 924 applied research activities and supporting 766 institutions, of which 103 were Canadian. The following examples attest to the Centre's commitment to making knowledge a tool for creating prosperity and opportunities throughout the developing world.
IDRC is the lead agency for the Development Innovation Fund, an initiative bringing together Canadian and developing-country scientists, and the private sector, to tackle persistent health challenges facing poor countries. The non-profit Grand Challenges Canada was launched to implement the project, and four of its five "challenge" programs are underway: technologies for point-of-care diagnostics, promising ideas on global health, improving maternal and child health, and addressing non-communicable diseases. The first grant was made to a McGill - Botswana - Cape Town team to combat drug resistance in treating parasitic disease.
The Next Einstein Initiative aims to create a pan-African network of 15 centres of excellence in mathematics, technology and science over the next decade. IDRC is responsible for Canada's $20-million contribution, which supports the establishment of five such centres across Africa by 2015. Together, they will provide the most advanced teaching available globally and graduate at least 500 students each year. The initiative builds upon the success of the African Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cape Town, championed by Neil Turok, Director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario.
Building on the innovative work carried out under the Climate Change Adaptation in Africa program, this $10 million project increases the ability of African research centres to deliver timely scientific advice and assessments on climate-change adaptation. The goal: better-informed policies and well targeted investments. This funding is part of Canada's commitment to provide fast-track climate-change financing under the Copenhagen Accord.
In Ethiopia, farmers depend on pulse crops, such as lentils and chickpeas, as sources of protein and income. Unfortunately, varieties grown are typically low-yielding, low in protein and poor at fixing nitrogen. The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund, a five-year, $62-million collaboration with CIDA, is working to improve these and other neglected crops. The Fund brings together Canadian and developing-country researchers to increase food security and enhance nutrition by promoting more productive and sustainable agriculture.
At the "base of the pyramid" are more than 4 billion people who live on less than $4 a day and have little or no access to technologies that could improve their lives; 75 percent of these poor people are in Asia. IDRC supported the Ateneo School of Government, Philippines, to foster innovations that can meet the needs of the poor, such as low-cost wind turbines and new communication tools. This work encourages governments to develop pro-innovation policies and promote investment in these technologies.
Women produce most of the food in Africa, yet own very little of the land. Many consider that ensuring women's rights and access to land is crucial to enhancing food security and reducing poverty. Over the past decade, IDRC-supported researchers in 14 African countries examined women's relationship to land from many angles: economic, legal, social and political. In September 2010, they shared their findings with each other and a wider community in Africa. They found, for example, that owning land boosts women's incomes and independence and, in turn, contributes to ensuring that families are better fed and food-secure. The knowledge gained can lead to fairer laws in many parts of the world where women's rights are limited.
Sri Lankan and Canadian researchers have joined forces to develop a veterinary public health system in Sri Lanka. The goal is to prevent emerging infectious diseases. With support from the Global Health Research Initiative- a partnership of five Canadian federal departments and agencies, including IDRC -the team is working to better understand how diseases are transmitted between animals and humans. And it is bringing that knowledge to farmers and governments throughout Asia, building capacity to prevent, detect and manage emerging diseases.
This year, IDRC launched a four-year initiative to help leading researchers in Latin America and the Caribbean win the fight against vector-borne diseases such as Chagas, malaria and dengue. The project will strengthen the field of ecohealth research and practice to better address how interactions between people and ecosystems affect these diseases. Led by Mexico's National Institute of Public Health with partners in Colombia and Venezuela, institutions throughout the region will train hundreds of students and public-health professionals. They will also work to influence policies to reduce the threat of diseases.
Mercosur, the "southern common market", comprises Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. In 1998, IDRC helped create the Mercosur Economic Research Network (MercoNet) to carry out studies on key challenges for the region in the emerging global economy: regional integration, macroeconomic coordination, foreign direct investment and climate change, among other issues. MercoNet has become a regional centre of excellence on inclusive growth agendas.
In Soukra, a suburb of Tunisia's capital, Tunis, hundreds of poor families feed themselves and earn a small living from agriculture. In recent years, however, climate change and rapid urbanization have reduced the amount of arable land, threatening livelihoods. IDRC-funded research found some answers. Technicians built greenhouses, which conserve water, protect crops and allow for more intensive farming. They installed rooftop basins to catch rainwater and deliver it to crops. And they filtered household greywater for use in irrigation. Today, Soukra farmers enjoy higher incomes and improved food security. The technical innovations are becoming widely known in the region.
Coastal West Africa is one of the world's most productive fishing zones, but stocks are threatened by destructive fishing practices, ecosystem decline, excessive competition, and climate change. Global warming aggravates the risk of sea-level rise, more frequent and intense storms, and changing fish stocks. Through policy dialogue, fishers, boat owners and packers are working together to reduce waste and improve fishery policies.
The official development assistance of Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) totaled $135,706,495 for fiscal year 2010-2011, corresponding to the total assistance provided to refugees in Canada during their first year.Note 20
Each year, millions of people around the world are forced to flee their homelands to escape persecution, war or severe human-rights violations. The vast majority of refugees seek asylum in developing countries, which are often struggling to deliver basic needs to their own populations. Canada contributes to international refugee protection by providing asylum and durable solutions to refugees, as well as by assisting poorer countries in hosting refugees.
Canada is recognized around the world for its leadership in refugee protection, through both the asylum system and resettlement program. The asylum system exercises Canada's international responsibility to provide protection to successful asylum claimants who have landed in Canada. The resettlement program annually brings refugees to Canada from over 70 different nationalities from Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. Furthermore, Canada assists refugees overseas through contributions to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and other international and non-governmental organizations.
Refugees selected under the government-assisted refugee program receive support through the Resettlement Assistance Program, which provides income support payments for up to 12 months, as well as immediate settlement support such as reception at the airport, temporary accommodation, and basic community orientations. All refugees (including successful asylum claimants and refugees resettled under the government-assisted refugee program and the private sponsorship of refugees program) are eligible for government-funded settlement services including language-skills training, employment counselling, community orientations and translation services. Refugees are equally eligible to receive basic health services through the Interim Federal Health Program.
The reporting of assistance to refugees in Canada as official development assistance is consistent with guidelines provided by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Providing asylum and resettlement to refugees contributes to poverty reduction in developing countries, by alleviating costs and other burdens associated with providing asylum in these countries. The settlement and health services provided to refugees in Canada are considered official development assistance, as these services are considered an essential component of refugee protection. Having been forced to flee their country of origin because of conflict or persecution, refugees often arrive to Canada with nothing. By providing refugees with settlement services and, in some cases, income support, CIC ensures that refugees have the support they need to overcome challenges, realize their full potential and become full contributors to Canadian social and economic life.
CIC works closely with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to ensure that the resettlement program offers protection to those most in need and is used strategically to address protracted refugee situations and alleviate burdens on host countries. The Department also frequently discusses the assistance provided to refugees during their first year in Canada with stakeholders including the Canadian Council for Refugees, the community of private sponsors known as Sponsorship Agreement Holders, the Resettlement Assistance Program Working Group, and relevant service-providing organizations.
Since the Second World War, more than 800,000 refugees and persons in similar circumstances have come to Canada to begin a new life under either the government-assisted or private sponsorship of refugees programs. In 2010-2011, Canada resettled more than 12,000 refugees from abroad and granted protection to over 12,400 refugees through the asylum system. As part of changes introduced with the Balanced Refugee Reform Act, the Government of Canada committed to increasing the number of refugees resettled each year by 20 percent, with up to 14,500 refugees resettled annually by 2013.
For more information on Canada's refugee programs, please visit Citizenship and Immigration Canada Web site.
The official development assistance of the Department of National Defence (DND) for 2010-2011 totaled $16,532,945 and consisted of the following activities:
The Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) reinforces the authority of the Afghan government in Kandahar Province, monitors security, promotes Afghan government policies and priorities with local authorities, and facilitates security-sector reforms.
Canada assumed responsibility for the Kandahar PRT in August 2005. Its role in Afghanistan is to help the democratically elected government extend its authority and ability to govern, rebuild the nation and provide services to its citizens.
Based in Kandahar City in the southern province of Kandahar, the Kandahar PRT is located in the former heartland of the Taliban regime, which previously controlled much of Afghanistan. Kandahar is one of the Afghan provinces in greatest need of support and is also among those most targeted by insurgents.
The size of the KPRT has grown dramatically. From a 330-person PRT combining the expertise of diplomats, corrections experts, development specialists, the Canadian police (including the RCMP), and approximately 280 Canadian Forces members, the increased number of US forces and civilian personnel has resulted in a KPRT of approximately 1,500 personnel. The consolidation of Canada's military area of operations in Kandahar also resulted in the Canadian military no longer having responsibility for the entirety of Kandahar province. Accordingly, in April 2010, the KPRT transitioned from a military-led, Task Force Kandahar resource to a civilian-led, Regional Command (South) resource, led by the Representative of Canada in Kandahar, but still enabled by the military. In August 2010, reflecting the growing American presence, the KPRT transitioned to a US-led PRT, with Canada maintaining the deputy director position. Canadian operations at the KPRT ended on 22 June 2011.
The KPRT continues to work on projects that have impact in the long, medium and short terms. The most important achievements will be those that foster long-term, sustainable benefits for the Afghan people. At the same time, quick-impact projects are also being carried out across the province to respond to the immediate needs that Afghans face in their daily lives.
Operation HESTIA was the Canadian Forces contribution to the Government of Canada's humanitarian effort launched in response to the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake. Op HESTIA was the Canadian Forces' largest international disaster response operation to date. Over the course of the 60-day operation, more than 2,000 Canadian Forces personnel were deployed in support of the humanitarian efforts. It was a joint operation made up of land, sea and air elements, all of which provided life-saving assistance to the people of Haiti.
The Canadian Forces were deployed to provide humanitarian assistance to the population of Haiti centred in Leogane and Jacmel and to support the Canadian embassy in Port-au-Prince. Under Op HESTIA, Joint Task Force Haiti (JTFH), which included the Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) and other Canadian Forces capabilities, delivered services in support of the humanitarian assistance response in these regions. In particular, JTFH provided emergency medical services; engineering expertise; mobility by sea, land, and air; and defence and security support. These tasks included providing security to our operations to these locations, facilitating the delivery of humanitarian assistance, producing and delivering water and conducting minor road repair./p>Over the course of the deployment, the Canadian Forces produced more than 2.6 million litres of water, distributed more than 1.4 million rations and treated more than 20,000 patients. They cleared more than 212 km of road and assisted in evacuating more than 4,600 Canadians.
The official development assistance accountability of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) for 2010-2011 totaled $36,862,505.
The RCMP, on behalf of the Government of Canada, deploys police officers to peace missions around the world. In 2010-2011, the RCMP's International Peace Operations Branch (IPOB) deployed Canadian police to 17 separate missions in nine countries. The police assist in rebuilding and strengthening police services in countries that have had, or are currently experiencing, conflict or upheaval. By building the capacity of foreign police to maintain law and order, Canadian police, in cooperation with international partners, help create a safer and more stable environment. This in turn paves the way for long-term development and can also prevent illicit activities from spilling across borders into other countries, including Canada.
Foreign requests for Canadian police assistance come from organizations such as the United Nations, the European Union or from specific countries. The decision to deploy Canadian police is made within the framework of the Canadian Police Arrangement (CPA) a partnership between DFAIT, CIDA, Public Safety Canada and the RCMP.
In addition to managing the deployment of Canadian police officers to various missions around the world, IPOB is responsible for overseeing the selection of candidates and providing pre-deployment training and ongoing medical, psychological and logistical support. More information on the CPA and IPOB is available on the RCMP website.
Following are some examples of Canadian police participation in missions.
Canadian police officers are supporting various missions in Afghanistan, although their base of operations has moved from Kandahar to Kabul. One of these missions is the Combined Security Transition Command-Afghanistan (CSTC-A), a US military-led mission. The main focus of CSTC-A is to develop the Ministry of the Interior and staff, train, and equip the Afghan National Police (ANP). An additional critical element is to "operationalize" the ANP from top to bottom, improving accountability and providing greater visibility in areas where the coalition can assist Afghans to become more self-sufficient.
More information is available on the CSTC-A website.
Police officers within the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI) are responsible for ensuring compliance with the UN mandate as well as international criminal-justice and human-rights standards. They ensure that law and order is effectively maintained. The mission mandate calls for non-executive policing duties, which include a monitoring role. Despite the troubles in Côte d'Ivoire earlier this year, Canadian police officers remain in the country, responsible for assessing and identifying the current training standards and needs of Ivorian police officers.
More information is available on the UNOCI website.
Canadian police were working in the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) to support the implementation of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed by Government of Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement I Army in January 2005. Although UNMIS came to an end on July 9, 2011, when South Sudan formally gained independence, Canadian police will continue to be deployed in the South as part of a new mission, UNMISS (United Nations Mission in South Sudan).
More information is available on the UNMISS website.
Police officers within the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) are responsible for ensuring compliance with the UN mandate, as well as international criminal-justice and human-rights standards. They carry out policing duties, which include monitoring, advising and training local police forces. They are also responsible for assessing and identifying current training standards and needs for local police forces. Following the January 2010 earthquake and the ensuing cholera epidemic, Canada deployed an additional 50 civilian police officers as part of a Haiti Reconstruction team to assist with post-earthquake efforts.
More information is available on the MINUSTAH website.
Police officers within the United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) work to build the capacity of the Congolese National Police (CNP) in a myriad of areas through monitoring, mentoring and training. They assist with CNP reform and restructuring, recruiting, selection and training, improving the CNP's operational capacity, advising on border security, elections, gender issues and coordinating international aid for the CNP.
More information is available on the MONUSCO website.
The causes of ill health do not respect borders. Non-communicable diseases continue to account for the majority of deaths and illnesses in the Americas, regardless of country of residence. In some populations, infectious diseases such as HIVIAIDS, tuberculosis, vector-borne malaria and dengue continue to spread with devastating results. Marginalized and poor populations -especially indigenous people, women, children and the elderly -continue to suffer the most from inequitable access to health services. Given the massive and frequent movement of people and goods between countries, it is crucial that Canada work in partnership to address threats to global health.
Canada has committed to undertaking activities that will address the health concerns of citizens from across the Americas, viewing health as a fundamental investment that has both economic and political benefits. Healthy people are productive people who make important contributions to the economic well-being of their countries. Collaboration between countries in the Americas region benefits us all through the creation of opportunities to share expertise, knowledge and information, with the ultimate goal of addressing the health concerns affecting the region.
The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) serves as the Regional Office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, as well as the technical health agency of the Organization of American States. PAHO's mission is to lead strategic collaborative efforts among member states and other partners to promote equity in health, combat disease and improve the quality of life and lengthen the lifespan of peoples of the Americas. Canada's assessed contribution to PAHO, estimated at $12,980,936, supports this mission.
Canada has been an active member of PAHO since 1971, playing a leadership role in advancing governance and program-policy issues. Through PAHO, Canada advances multilateral and bilateral relations in health, and provides technical cooperation and capacity-building.
Canadian technical experts are regularly called upon to participate in regional meetings and initiatives. Small-scale health projects are also supported through the PAHO-Canada Biennial Workplan Budget, managed by Health Canada and PAHO. This allows for partnerships between Canada and Latin America and the Caribbean to advance strategic health priorities.
For example, support from PAHO and Health Canada has deepened and secured important ground in capacity-building activities. The cooperation strengthens health systems and includes health human resources, access to primary healthcare, e-health technologies, and strengthening national regulatory authorities in pharmaceuticals, medical devices, biologics and food safety by sharing best practices, enhancing policy coherence and building capacity. Capacity-building in regional mental-health initiatives, together with substance-use reduction, is another priority that has included strengthening the primary healthcare services, health human-resource curriculum development and training, and design of culturally specific interventions to tackle indigenous well-being.
More information on Canada's cooperation with PAHO is available on the PAHO-Canada Portal website.
Environment Canada recognizes that international cooperation on environmental issues is of growing importance, and that environmental sustainability is an essential element for global economic and social well-being. Unfortunately, over-exploitation of natural resources and degradation of the environment have caused alarming changes around the world. For developing countries that must depend on ecosystem goods and services for their livelihoods, these environmental changes directly harm their most vulnerable populations. However, efforts to preserve and improve the environment in developing countries lead to enhanced fulfilment of basic needs, improved living standards, and a safer, more prosperous future.
In FY 2010-2011, Environment Canada undertook a new and challenging role related to Canada's international financing commitment under the Copenhagen Accord, to provide our fair share of fast-start financing to developing countries over the course of a three-year period (2010-2012). Environment Canada led an interdepartmental process to develop Canada's Policy Framework for Public Climate Finance as well as a package of recommended funding options for Canada's 2010, $400 million, faststart package.
In FY 2010-2011, Environment Canada provided a total of $9.71 million in official development assistance through two types of activities: support for multilateral environmental organizations, and bilateral technical cooperation and capacity-building with developing countries.
Environment Canada provides support to various multilateral organizations to assist developing countries in improving environmental conditions and, therefore, improving the livelihoods of vulnerable populations in these countries. For example, Environment Canada provides annual support to the United Nations Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol. Resources from the Fund are used to ensure that the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons and halons, does not adversely affect the economies of developing countries. Environment Canada also provided funds for Canada's annual core contribution to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Based in Kenya, an important part of the UNEP's work focuses on environmental issues facing developing countries. Environment Canada also renewed its financial commitment to the UNEP Global Environment Monitoring System Water Programme (GEMS/Water). GEMS/Water is the primary source for global water-quality data. In 2010-2011, Environment Canada supported the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan to implement projects in Africa, Asia, and Latin America that integrate poverty reduction with environmental sustainability.
Environment Canada also provided financial support to increase the participation of developing-country representatives in international environment negotiations. This included support for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Trust Fund for Participation and the Mercury International Negotiating Committee Participation Fund. Environment Canada supported the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) Ministerial Meeting, which facilitated focused dialogue prior to the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties in December 2010.
In 2010-2011, Environment Canada contributed to international trust funds aimed at enhancing scientific and technical capacities, including the Data Buoy Corporation Program, the Panel on Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay, and the Group on Earth Observations. Finally, Environment Canada provided Canada's annual contribution to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The WMO supports developing countries in strengthening their national meteorological and hydrological services.
Environment Canada also engages in technical cooperation and capacity-building with various developing countries on environmental issues that directly affect the environment and well-being of developing-country citizens.
This included support for the Southern Cone Grasslands Alliance, aimed at increasing the capacity of developing countries to monitor and improve agricultural conservation efforts, and the provision of equipment, services and meteorologists to Haiti's Centre Nationale de Meteorologie. Environment Canada supported developing countries in international training events on key environmental issues, including an online "e-learning curriculum" to facilitate implementation of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity program of work on protected areas, support for the WMO's Education and Training Program, and capacity-building initiatives within the global Brewer instrument network.
Finally, in FY 2010-2011 Environment Canada provided support to Chile and Peru under bilateral environment agreements. The Department provided support to Chile, within the context of the 1997 Canada-Chile Agreement on Environmental Cooperation, related to parks management, enforcement of wildlife trading regulations, pulp and paper effluent monitoring, and conservation of shared migratory birds. Environment Canada also provided support to Peru under the Canada-Peru Agreement on the Environment, which commits both countries to encourage high levels of domestic environmental protection and creates a framework for undertaking environmental cooperative activities.
The Labour Program negotiates and administers Canada's Labour Cooperation Agreements (LCAs), which are signed alongside Free Trade Agreements. LCAs include commitments to protect internationally recognized core labour rights and to enforce domestic labour laws. LCAs are intended to protect workers' basic rights and improve working conditions and standards of living in the signatory countries. These agreements also ensure fair competition for Canadian industry in a globalized world. Canada's latest generation of LCAs contains mechanisms to receive and investigate complaints and impose penalties, where warranted.
In addition to negotiating and administering LCAs, the Labour Program provides technical assistance to developing countries. This assistance funds capacity-building projects that support the modernization of labour policy and administration. Such projects foster better enforcement of national labour laws and greater respect for internationally recognized core labour standards.
Technical assistance is delivered through the International Trade and Labour Program (ITLP), a grants-and-contributions program established in 2004. The ITLP seeks to strengthen institutions of democratic governance, promote economic growth while respecting workers' rights, and improve the quality of working conditions in partner countries.
In fiscal year 2010-2011, the Labour Program provided a total of $1.8 million in ODA through grants to the International Labour Organization (ILO) for the implementation of projects in Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, India, Haiti and Ukraine. The promotion of social dialogue, labour-administration reform and modernization, labour-law compliance and "Decent Work" are key objectives of these projects.
Furthermore, the Labour Program provided $100,000 in ODA to York University to organize the Canada-China Forum on Industrial Relations. This conference brought together representatives of government, unions, business, academia, international organizations and the NGO community to identify best practices and innovative public policies and programs on industrial relations and labour-standards issues.
The official development assistance of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) for 2010-2011 totalled $1,751,500, delivered through the African Model Forest Initiative (AMFI), a follow-up to Canada's commitments made at the 2008 Francophonie Summit in Quebec City.
The Initiative aims to improve the conservation and sustainable management of forest resources in francophone Africa, including the Congo Basin and Mediterranean region (Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria), through the Canadian approach of Model Forests.
The AMFI supports good governance, human-resource and local economic development, and the sustainable management of forest-based landscapes. Bilateral assistance is provided to local, regional and national organizations to support local initiatives aimed at enhancing ecological and community sustainability through Model Forest development. Activities undertaken by the AMFI make a positive contribution toward constructive dialogue related to natural-resource management and land use among both government and civil-society stakeholders.
The African Model Forest Network (AMFN) was established in 2009 as a subset of the International Model Forest Network with support from NRCan. The AMFN's mission is to facilitate the development of a pan-African network of Model Forests' representative of the continent's wealth and diversity. The African Network currently includes two Model Forests in Cameroon, with others in development in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, the Democratic Republic of Congo and elsewhere in the Congo Basin.
NRCan also supports partnerships developed between the AMFN and Canadian Model Forests, universities and NGOs (such as CUSO-VSO) in areas of participatory governance, community and economic development, research and capacity-building.
NRCan actively supports, along with CIDA and DFAIT, the Government of Canada's facilitation of the Congo Basin Forest Partnership, and views the AMFI program as a key contribution to its success. The Program also works with Canadian organizations, with a view to integrating and complementing programming where possible.
Industry Canada's contribution to official development assistance consists of its voluntary contribution to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), which has a mandate to enable the growth and sustained development of telecommunications and information networks, and to facilitate universal access so that people everywhere can participate in, and benefit from, the emerging information society and global economy. The ability to communicate freely is a prerequisite to a more equitable, prosperous and peaceful world. The ITU assists in mobilizing the technical, financial and human resources needed to realize this vision.
A key priority of the ITU lies in bridging the so-called "digital divide" by building information and communications infrastructure, promoting adequate capacity-building and developing confidence in the use of cyberspace through enhanced online security. Achieving cyber-security and cyber-peace are among the most critical concerns of the information age, and ITU is taking concrete measures through its landmark Global Cybersecurity Agenda.
ITU also concentrates on strengthening emergency communications for disaster prevention and mitigation. While both developing and developed countries are equally vulnerable to natural disasters, poorer nations are hardest hit because of their already fragile economies and lack of resources.
Whether through developing the standard used to create infrastructure to deliver telecommunications services on a worldwide basis, through equitable management of the radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbits to bring wireless services to every corner of the globe, or through providing support to countries and they pursue telecommunications-development strategies, all the elements of ITU's work are centred on the goal of putting every human being within easy and affordable reach of information and communications, and thus to contribute significantly toward economic and social development of all people.
ITU's dual responsibility as a United Nations specialized agency and as an executing agency for implementing projects under the UN development system or other funding arrangements consists in:
Industry Canada's official development assistance for fiscal year 2010-2011 totalled $1,072,749.
For fiscal year 2010-2011, Parks Canada's Official Development Assistance was $502,000-multilateral funding that includes its annual core contribution to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's World Heritage Fund, and its membership dues as Canada's representative to the World Conservation Union.
CIDA contributed in 2009-2010 to ensuring food security, generating sustainable economic growth, giving children and youth a better future, stabilizing fragile countries, and responding to natural disasters.
CIDA support made possible the following examples of progress:
To carry out its mandate and maintain its operations in 2009-2010, CIDA planned $3,248,388,000 in spending, with total authorities of $4,211,661,351. Actual spending for that period was $3,600,344,021. The variance between planned and actual spending mainly reflects increased funding received through supplementary estimates for programs and initiatives such as programming for food security to support development, research and innovation in agriculture, and responses to urgent humanitarian needs.
CIDs Report on Plans and Priorities for 2009-2010 set out three performance indicators of its progress in managing the aid program. These performance indicators contribute to CIDs two strategic outcomes: increased achievement of development goals consistent with Canadian foreign policy objectives and sustained support and informed action by Canadians in international development. CIDA achieved progress on all three of these indicators.
1. Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals
In 2009-2010, Canada made important contributions to the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly in the areas of food security, child health, and education. Canada's emphasis on accountability and aid effectiveness also align with the objectives of the MDG Summit.
In January 2010 the Prime Minister announced that Canada would make the health of mothers, newborns, and children in the world's poorest regions a top priority of the G-8 Summit to take place later that year. This maternal, newborn and child health initiative directly contributes to two of the MDGs: reducing child mortality and improving maternal health.
2. Progress toward democratic governance
CIDA's programming in democratic governance helped to build capable and accountable public institutions, increase respect for human rights, strengthen the rule of law, and support freedom and democracy.
3. Sustained support and informed action by Canadians in international development
With CIDA support, various media campaigns, classroom activities, and programs such as contests and training reached out to millions of Canadians. More than 400 election observers participated in 20 election-observation missions in 17 countries. Further, new agreements are allowing tens of thousands of Canadian volunteers and youth interns to work in communities around the world on development projects.
In 2009-2010, CIDA made progress in all of its five program and management priorities.
1. Strengthen the effectiveness of Canada's aid program and implement the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness
CIDA made significant progress in this priority by carrying out a variety of activities, many of which are set out in its 2009 Aid Effectiveness Action Plan:
2. Focus on CIDA's thematic priorities
CIDA made significant progress on three priority themes that guide the Agency's work:
3. Play a strategic role in Afghanistan, Haiti, and other fragile states
CIDA made some progress on this priority in 2009-2010, applying its experience to strengthen Canada's role in the reconstruction and development of fragile states.
4. Support the Government's commitment to the Americas
CIDA made significant progress on this priority, notably in Haiti (see above) and in the Agency's five other countries of focus in the Americas: Bolivia, the Caribbean Regional Program, Colombia, Honduras, and Peru.
5. Implement CIDA's Public Service Renewal action plan
CIDA met all its objectives on this priority, having created a whole-of-agency engagement initiative on excellence in people management (EPM) that touched all levels of the Agency, including union representation.
CIDA also created an advisory group to develop an action plan, build awareness of EPM, and better align CIDA's management practices with the Public Service Renewal Action Plan, Code of Values and Ethics, and Leadership Competencies.
CIDA's Corporate Risk Profile 2009-2010 identified the Agency's two greatest risks:
To respond to these risks, CIDA:
These measures complemented CIDA's ongoing, rigorous risk-management activities, including the work of its Internal Audit Committee.
CIDA defined six core program activities that support its strategic outcomes in its Program Activity Architecture (PAA).
These program activities are based on the PAA in effect during the 2009-2010 reporting period. Note that a new PAA came into effect in the following year (see section 3.1 of the Report on Plans and Priorities for 2010-2011).Note 22
1. Countries of focus
With actual spending of $783,533,120, CIDA made significant progress on all four performance indicators in this program activity: 1) progress toward the Millennium Development Goals, 2) level of democratic governance, 3) existence of effective government poverty-reduction strategies, and 4) alignment of CIDA's country strategies and institutional support with the countries' national development plans.
In 2009-2010, CIDA achieved results through investment in key sectors:
In its countries of focus, CIDA continues to adapt to the challenges of high turnover of personnel in participating organizations, and to disruptions during political crises. The Agency does this by focusing on systems rather than individuals, and by diversifying its choice of partnerships, especially by working with multilateral organizations.
2. Fragile states and countries experiencing humanitarian crisis
CIDA's actual spending in this program activity was $860,208,300, contributing to significant progress in two of its performance indicators: 1) reduction in the prevalence of acute malnutrition, and 2) development of national poverty-reduction strategies. This progress reduced the vulnerability of crisis-affected people and helped restore the capacity of public institutions and civil society.
In 2009-2010, CIDA achieved results through investment in key sectors:
3. Selected countries and regions
CIDA's development-assistance programming in selected countries and regions aims to enhance the capacity of these countries and regions to achieve stability and /or development goals, and to contribute to Canada's international interests and objectives. With $373,576,084 in actual spending in 2009-2010, CIDA made some progress toward the Millennium Development Goals and significant progress in two other performance indicators: 1) the amount of targeted programming in areas of mutual interest, and 2) the degree to which other Canadian government departments are engaged in these countries. CIDA aligned all its country strategies to the selected countries' national development plans.
Although the scale of CIDA's investments constrains the Agency's ability to influence change, significant progress was recorded toward country development goals such as health and education. CIDA also made some progress in supporting food security, economic growth, and democratic governance.
4. Multilateral, international, and Canadian institutions
CIDA continued to work closely with multilateral, international, and Canadian institutions, significantly enhancing the effectiveness of its partnerships with them in achieving development goals. Most organizations and projects funded through this program activity have met or exceeded CIDA's requirements for the use of results-based management (RBM) and for the consideration of gender equality and the environment.
In its partnerships with multilateral and global organizations, CIDA:
In its partnerships with Canadian organizations, CIDA:
CIDA also continues to strengthen its approaches to results and reporting, to focus its funding on Canadian priorities, and to strengthen its partner organizations' performance and the multilateral system as a whole
5. Engaging Canadian citizens
This activity raises Canadians' awareness and deepens their understanding of international development. CIDA made significant progress in this area, carrying out media campaigns that reached out to millions of Canadians. As well, classroom activities informed an estimated 1.9 million children and educators, and more than 140,000 people were influenced through lectures, films, workshops, speaking tours, participatory theatre, training of youth leaders, art and multimedia contests, and leadership development.
And Canadians were engaged: Canada contributed 414 observers to 20 international election-observation missions in 17 countries. CIDA's International Youth Internship Program (2009-2014) supports approximately 1,980 interns in obtaining international work experience in developing countries.
6. Internal services
CIDA invests resources to ensure the smooth running of its operations-from communications and legal services to information technology and human-resources management-and aims to improve them. In 2009-2010, the Agency implemented its Public Service Renewal action plan, with progress in four areas:
The term "department" is used here for any Canadian federal entity that reports ODA, as per the Act.
In order to carry out its activities, CIDA receives services without charge from various federal departments: Public Works and Government Services Canada, Justice Canada, Treasury Board Secretariat, and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Of CIDA's $3,592 million in total 0DA, $3,347 million was disbursed through aid programs in the form of grants, contributions and other transfer payments. Of this amount, $2,629 million was bilateral assistance. See "Summary of CIDA's operations" for details.
More details about each ofthese activities will be available in CIDA's Departmental Performance Report 2010-2011, to be tabled in Parliament in fall2011, as well as in a statistical report to be published by the end of March 2012.
Visit CIDA's online Project Browser for more details on CIDA-funded projects.
Bilateral aid indicates that the "donor" effectively controls the disbursement of the funds by specifying the recipient (developing country, non-governmental organization, multilateral organizations) or other aspects of the initiative. Multilateral aid is core funding provided to a multilateral institution for its own initiatives.
Note: If you cannot access the documents that are provided in an alternate format, refer to the Help page.Report to Parliament on the Government of Canada's Official Development Assistance 2010-2011 (PDF, 59 pages, 798 KB)