Government of Canada

Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada

www.international.gc.ca

RBM and Children's Participation: A Guide to Incorporating Child Participation Results into CIDA Programs

2008-02-01


Introduction
Why is Child Participation Important?
Good Practice in Child Participation
How to Plan for Child Participation A Checklist for Child Participation
Project Models Suggested Resources


Introduction


This guide was developed to help CIDA staff and development partners incorporate child participation results into relevant project and program plans, in keeping with CIDA's policy and practice of Results-Based Management (RBM). The guide and its tools were developed based on the needs of stakeholders within CIDA who are currently involved in implementing projects involving child participation.

The guide provides:
  • a summary of learning to date on good practice in child participation;
  • an overview of the steps to consider when planning child participation results within CIDA projects and programs;
  • a checklist for child participation in CIDA projects; and
  • two sample project plans in which child participation is incorporated within an RBM framework.
It is important to note that this guide is about planning for child participation within an RBM framework at CIDA. The guide is not about how to do child participation (i.e. methodologies and approaches for working with children). At the end of the guide, a list of suggested resources is provided for further reading on various aspects of child participation.

The guide is aimed at projects benefiting children of all ages-even at a very young age, children's views and opinions can be solicited and means can be found to involve them in project activities. Participation results and processes need to be tailored to the appropriate context and stage of development, but children at different ages can and should participate if development efforts are to be effective.

It is anticipated that this guide will be equally relevant for projects and programs with a child focus, as well as for those where there is no specific child focus but where children figure among the program's beneficiaries. Examples for both types of projects can be found in the section on Project Models near the end of the guide.

Different branches at CIDA use different RBM planning frameworks. Although it was not possible to accommodate all of the planning frameworks used at CIDA within this guide, it is hoped that the frameworks used are sufficiently generic to be relevant across the Agency. In addition, while the project models presented are both bilateral projects, it is anticipated that the guide will also be useful in assisting all CIDA branches, including Multilateral and Partnership, to better understand good practice in child participation, and to assess how child participation results can be strengthened in their programming.


Why is Child Participation Important?


Participation is one of four guiding principles of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). The Convention upholds the right of children (defined as individuals under the age of eighteen) to participate in decisions that affect their lives. As Parties to the Convention, Canada and its developing country partners are legally obligated to realize this right for girls and boys. Article 12 of the Convention reads:

States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.

Children are a significant part of civil society and have much to contribute to the governance of their world. Children make up 50% of the population in many countries of the world and their views and capacities can make a crucial contribution to the development of their societies. In sharing their knowledge, insights and creativity, young people are also assisted in developing important life skills such as problem analysis, democratic decision-making, developing feasible solutions and seeing these through. It is essential that society foster opportunities for children to learn and practice democracy throughout their development. The participation of girls and boys in decision-making about their lives represents a broadening and deepening of how we practice democracy.

How will child participation improve development results?

Apart from the legal impetus of upholding an internationally recognized human right, child participation is very much in keeping with RBM and good development practice at CIDA. Both international and local development experiences have demonstrated that the right to be involved in decisions affecting one's life is indivisibly linked to improved social and economic well-being. The active involvement of program beneficiaries leads to better development decisions, better development programs and more sustained results.

Results-based management is about improving development practice by clarifying the purpose, results and beneficiary reach of a program early on, in order to foster ownership for program success and effectively manage resources in support of that success. Where children are identified as beneficiaries of a development investment, good RBM practice dictates that they, alongside other stakeholders, be consulted and involved in program design, planning, implementation and assessment, for improved aid relevance, effectiveness and sustainability.

How does child participation support CIDA policy goals?

Canada and CIDA are seen as leaders in child participation and have been at the fore of international efforts to involve young people in a meaningful and substantive way. Through CIDA's Action Plan for Child Protection (2001), the Agency is committed to following a rights-based approach to programming-one recognizing that children should be active participants rather than passive recipients of development interventions. Through the Action Plan, CIDA aims to "…promote children's right to participate in the design, implementation and evaluation of projects meant to assist them, and support learning opportunities with partners about participatory methods."

With regard to CIDA's wider policy framework, child participation is supportive of CIDA's Results-Based Management Policy and integral to RBM practice where children figure among a program's beneficiaries. One of the three overarching objectives of CIDA's Policy on Gender Equality concerns the full realization of the human rights of girls and emphasizes the equitable participation of women, girls, boys and men in development decisions as a crucial strategy to achieve gender equality. In addition, the Agency's Policy on Human Rights, Democratization and Good Governance emphasizes respect for the right to participation as a key value underlying all human rights.

Is child participation culturally appropriate in all contexts?

All of CIDA's partners in developing countries are Parties to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and have accepted a legal responsibility to promote and protect the right of children to participate in decisions that affect them. Values, beliefs and practices around child participation exist in every country and vary from one culture to another. CIDA strives to reconcile respect for cultural integrity with the realization of human rights. CIDA's strategy for promoting child participation is to engage local stakeholders in policy dialogue, and to support local partners in determining the most appropriate institutional, cultural and social application of their international human rights commitments.

Will child participation mean more work for CIDA staff and partners?

Involving program beneficiaries in development decision-making through a participatory approach is integral to results-based management and sustainability at CIDA. Child participation is an integral part of good development practice where girls and boys figure among program beneficiaries. Experience has demonstrated that, while participatory approaches may initially require additional time and resource investments in a program, they generally lead to more sustainable results and greater efficiency in the long run.


Good Practice in Child Participation


In the last 10 years practitioners have begun to document their experience and lessons learned in the field of child participation. This section gives a brief overview of some of the learning on child participation to date. We encourage you to consult the Suggested Resources section at the end of the guide for further reading on the subject.

Know your beneficiary reach

Like other stakeholder groups, children are not a homogeneous group. Girls and boys have varied interests, needs and priorities based on their age, gender, socio-economic status and ethnicity. You will need to form a clear picture of the girls and boys your project will affect, and the ways in which they will be affected. Special attention needs to be given to those children who are more vulnerable or at risk-those who tend to be excluded because of gender, ethnicity, disability or other issues. Knowing your target group well-understanding their capacities, motivations, interests, and how they perceive issues-will be your first step in ensuring that their views are considered and in developing processes that are appropriate for their participation.

Involve children in project design as early as possible

The needs, interests and experience of children are often invisible unless specifically sought out. If the project is to be relevant, all stakeholders (including girls and boys) should be involved in the articulation of the development problem and the proposed development solution. Ownership, learning and commitment among stakeholders, including children, will increase through early involvement. It is much more difficult to introduce meaningful child participation after adult stakeholders have already developed a vision of the project and their stake in it.

Build on supportive local knowledge and practice

Institutions, traditions and practices of child participation take different forms in every culture. In many developing countries, children are charged with significant domestic responsibilities (e.g. the care of small children, livestock rearing, or tending the family agricultural plot) and they can influence their environment in a variety of ways. Local organizations, either child-focused or youth-led, often have considerable knowledge and experience in child rights and culturally appropriate approaches to involving children. Project strategies for child participation should incorporate and build on supportive local structures, traditions, knowledge and practice.

Agree on the purpose and benefits of child participation

For child participation to be meaningful, all stakeholders need to understand and accept its importance for the project. The process of deciding on the level and nature of child participation should involve all program stakeholders, including children. If the purpose and results are not commonly accepted and clearly stated in the project plan, child participation can easily be overlooked, neglected or reduced to tokenism.

Assume child capacities and focus on child support

Child development experts caution that child development is very context-specific; age-based assumptions (about what children are capable of, and when) can be misleading. They advise us to assume competence to some degree, and to focus our efforts on identifying the type of support that will allow children to participate meaningfully. Children themselves can and should provide crucial insight into the kind of support they need from adults.

Make your approach child-friendly

Children are experts at being young and knowing what works for them. Like any other stakeholder group, they should be closely involved in determining how, where and when they will participate. What forms should meetings take? Are there alternatives to direct verbal communication? How can information be presented in accessible ways? Where should children meet where they will feel most comfortable? When are the most appropriate times for children to participate given their other commitments? Do girls and boys of different ages have different needs and, if so, how will the project accommodate them?

Support adult stakeholders

Adults often need help in developing their capacities to support children. It is important to explore the adult stakeholders' experience and attitudes toward child participation, and plan accordingly. Adults in key positions of power (parents, teachers, police, community leaders, policy makers) will likely need sensitization on child rights as well as ongoing support to accommodate child participation and to recognize the strength of child capacities.

Values for Meaningful Child Participation

Honesty, transparency, trust-Children need to feel that what is said is what will happen. When plans need adjustment, they need to understand and believe in the fairness of decision-making processes.

Inclusion, equality, respect-Children need to feel that their views are taken seriously, that the ways in which they express their vie ws are valid, and that diversity is welcome. Child participation efforts should correct rather than reinforce existing patterns of exclusion.

Voluntary, consensual, informed-Children (and their parents/guardians) need to consent to participation. To participate voluntarily, children need information on all aspects of the project and their role in it. They also need to know that they can end their participation when they want.
Source: Lansdown, G. (2001). Promoting Children's
Participation in Democratic Decision-Making.
Florence: UNICEF, Innocenti Insight.

Ensure security and follow-up

Participation can be a life-changing experience for children. It is crucial to ensure children's emotional and physical well-being throughout the program, as well as after it ends. An abrupt end to a program and children's participation in it can lead to a deep sense of loss-a loss of faith in adults, in community, in the democratic process and, most importantly, in self. Adults facilitating child participation also need to consider ethical and child protection issues, in situations of abuse, maltreatment or armed conflict, to ensure the security of the child throughout and beyond the life of the project.

Manage your project flexibly and iteratively

The type of child participation process you choose will depend on the purpose and context of the program, as well as the expressed views and needs of the girls and boys involved. Your approach to child participation will probably evolve as you test initiatives, and as the capacities of both the children and adults on your project expand. Leave some room in your project plan for the possibility that the level or nature of children's participation will change over time.

Be open to learning

There is no blueprint for incorporating the participation of girls and boys in project activities and decision-making. Child participation is a field in which everyone is experimenting and learning about what works and what does not. As in any new endeavour, you will need to take some risks and learn as you go. Think of your project's learning process, with all of its challenges and successes, as a significant contribution to knowledge in this field. It will be important to document your experience and look for ways to disseminate what you have learned to others.


How to Plan for Child Participation


What you will need to analyze…

Children need to be involved in project and program planning at the earliest possible stage. Before developing a child participation strategy for your project, it is important to understand and analyze the stakeholders and context-key institutions and actors, existing beliefs, values, traditions, practices and capacities with regard to the participation of girls and boys. By answering the following questions up-front, you will have a better understanding of how to develop a realistic child participation strategy to which all project stakeholders can commit.

Who will the project reach, and how do they understand the development problem?
  • Are girls and boys affected by the development problem?
  • Which girls and boys are affected (broken down by age, sex, ethnicity and socio-economic status)?
  • In what ways are girls and boys affected?
  • What are the capacities of girls and boys to identify and analyze the development problem and possible solutions?
How do project beneficiaries understand the project's development solution?
  • What do girls and boys see as an appropriate solution to the development problem? How do the views of girls and boys differ from the views of other stakeholders? How will these diverging views be negotiated to formulate the development solution?
  • What are the interests, needs and motivations of girls and boys relative to the project's proposed solution?
  • What are likely to be the effects of the project solution on girls and boys (positive and negative)?
  • What do girls and boys think can be done to maximize the positive and minimize the project's negative effects on them?
What local institutional knowledge, traditions and practices exist around participation, and how can the project build on these?
  • How are girls and boys able to influence their environment (family, school, community)?
  • Do girls and boys participate in decision-making at the family, school and community levels? If so, how?
  • How does child participation evolve with age? How is it differentiated by gender?
  • What key factors in society impede or facilitate the participation of girls and boys (social, cultural, economic, political, legislative, environmental, technological) and how?
  • What social organizations facilitate or impede the participation of girls and boys (religious, educational, governmental, non-governmental, NGO, community) and how?
  • Where is there organizational knowledge and capacity for child participation methodologies and approaches in the country, and how can these be harnessed to support project results?
  • To what extent do project stakeholders have experience and expertise in child rights and child participation? What is the capacity/interest of each stakeholder group to support child participation on the project?
What is the gender equality context of participation-what will motivate stakeholders to participate, and what form should participation take
  • What are the needs, priorities and motivations for girls of different ages to participate in the project?
  • What are the needs, priorities and motivations for boys of different ages to participate in the project?
  • What are the obstacles that girls and boys may face in participation, given their gender, age, socio-economic status, ethnicity and capacity?
  • How will the most marginalized girls and boys be reached and supported to participate?
  • What are the most appropriate forms of participation for girls and boys, based on their age, expressed needs and capacities?
  • What strategies do girls and boys suggest to promote gender equality in project participation?

What you will need to decide…

In order to build an effective child participation strategy for your project, the following elements need to be discussed and agreed upon by all project stakeholders to ensure commitment. It is very important that girls and boys play a central part in this process, so that they have a voice in determining their role in the project and the support they need from adults. Establishing a small steering group of children may help you ask the right questions, design your methodology, and look at appropriate approaches to participation.

Purpose and Results of Child Participation

Why is child participation important to this project, and what will be achieved through it? How does child participation support overall project success and results achievement? For example, is the primary concern related to improving project relevance and effectiveness, or is it also about developing the capacity of children as democratic citizens?

Child Participation Expertise

What human resources exist, inside or outside of the project, who can provide the necessary expertise in how to involve girls and boys effectively in project decision-making (methodology, participatory approaches, facilitation, training, coaching)? These resources should be identified and engaged in the project design and planning processes as early as possible.

Level of Child Participation

Given its purpose, what type of child participation is the project targeting? How will girls and boys interact with adults on the project, and to what degree will their input influence decisions? While the levels of participation outlined in the box at the right are a useful gauge for your plans, it is important to remember that child participation is context specific. You will likely attain different levels of participation with different child stakeholders, in different activities and at different points in a given project. While a project may start off with modest aims, child participation can and should grow and deepen over time.

Examples of Child Participation Results

For children themselves
  • More positive sense of self
  • Greater respect for the perspectives and needs of others
  • Greater tolerance and acceptance of diversity
  • Increased understanding of democratic values and behaviours
  • Increased motivation for community participation
  • Increased capacity to identify problems and analyze solutions
  • New social networks
  • New skills
For organizations that serve children
  • Improved knowledge base on child participants
  • Increased resource allocation for child participation processes and child priorities
  • Improved understanding of and commitment to child rights
  • Improved capacity for shared decision-making with children
  • Strengthened mechanisms for child participation in organizational decision-making
  • Improved systems to document and assess child participation processes
  • Increased relevance of programs and policies to child rights, priorities and needs
  • Children influence organizational decisions and outcomes
For children's communities
  • Increased awareness and commitment to child rights among community leaders
  • Increased representation by children in community decision-making forums
  • Improved relationships between community institutions and children
  • Improved community programs for children
  • Increased allocation of community resources for children's needs and priorities
  • Improved quality of life for children in the community
Adapted from Children's participation-evaluating effectiveness. PLA Notes, IIED. October 2001.

Role of Children in the Project

Given the purpose and level of participation, at what stages of project design, planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation will girls and boys intervene? Will girls and boys participate in decision-making around select project initiatives, or will they be involved in project management decisions throughout the project cycle? In which committees will girls and boys be involved and what will be their role-observers, advisors, full members? Will provisions be made to deepen child participation over time? With increased participation comes an increased potential for disagreement between stakeholders-the project will need to be very clear on what is negotiable and how disagreements will be resolved.

Types of Child Participation

Non-involvement: The project is designed and run by adults. Children are either not consulted or the consultation is tokenistic.

Example: Children are consulted on how to better sensitize youth against AIDS but no feedback is ever provided to them on their input and their involvement in the initiative ends there.

Assigned but informed: Adults decide the project but children volunteer for it. Children understand the project and know who decided to involve them and why. Adults respect children's views.

Example: Adults enlist the help of children in cleaning up a nature reserve and children organize their own group initiatives.

Consulted and informed: The project is designed and run by adults but children are consulted. They fully understand the process and their views are taken seriously.

Example: A School Improvement Committee is chaired by teachers although the views of student representatives are considered before decisions are taken.

Adult-initiated, shared decisions with children: Although adults have the idea, children are involved in planning and implementation. Children are involved in challenging outcomes and taking decisions.

Example: Children are invited to participate as researchers on child rights violations and then work with community leaders to design responses to the problems identified.

Child-initiated, shared decisions with adults: Children have the idea, set up projects and come to adults for advice, support.

Example: Youth raise the need for a peer-to-peer counseling service on suicide in their community-community leaders ask the local community center to work with youth in establishing one.


Child-initiated and -directed: Children have the idea and decide how the project will be carried out. Adults are available but do not take charge.

Example: A youth-led organization initiates a campaign against family violence in their community and seeks the assistance of a women's rights NGO for advice on advocacy and lobbying.


Source : Fajerman, L. and Treseder, P. (2000) Children are Service Users Too-A Guide to Consulting Children and Young People, Save the Children UK and based on Hart, R. (1992).Children's Participation from Tokenism to Citizenship. UNICEF.

Participant Selection and Representation

Who will participate in each aspect of project decision-making? How many girls, boys, women and men? How will they be selected to ensure appropriate representation of project reach (e.g. age, gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status)? Do groups or organizations already exist that are sufficiently representative and that the project can build on? What measures need to be taken to ensure equality of participation between girls, boys, women and men? Lessons learned from CIDA programming suggest that appointing a child participation champion at the senior project decision-making level is useful to ensure that the voices of girls and boys are systematically sought out, particularly those voices that are most often marginalized.

Methods/Approaches to Participation

How will the views, interests and opinions of girls, boys, women and men be expressed? What processes will be used that are appropriate to the roles and capacities of each? What processes, if any, have been used successfully by other organizations in the same context? How can local traditions and practices be built upon?

Support for Children

Given children's existing capacities and their role in decision-making, what kind of support do girls and boys need from adults to participate effectively? What information do children need to make informed decisions? How and when should this information be presented? What kind of ongoing training, coaching or preparation do they need, and what form should it take? What protection measures need to be considered to ensure the physical and emotional well-being of children throughout their participation?

Support for Adults

Adults often need to learn how to listen to and involve children. Given their knowledge, experience, attitudes and beliefs with regard to child rights and child participation, what sensitization, training and ongoing support do adult stakeholders need in order to listen to girls and boys and to involve them in decision-making?

Resource Allocation

What human and financial resources are necessary to implement the proposed child participation strategy? Is the resource allocation in keeping with the project's overall purpose, strategy and budget?

What you will need to develop…

Ideally, child participation should be summed up in a strategy and then integrated throughout the key components of your project design and planning documents. Project proposals, project approval documents and project implementation plans (PIPs) can and should reflect child participation in the ways outlined below. (Examples of the following RBM tools are presented in the section on Project Models.)

The Child Participation Strategy

The child participation strategy is a narrative summary that should be included in project design and planning documents. It sums up the project plan with regard to child participation and will ideally include the following elements:
  • a description of the child participation context and key stakeholders
  • the purpose and expected results of child participation
  • a risk analysis for child participation
  • the project's proposed approach to child participation (major activities)
  • how child participation will be incorporated into project accountability and management
  • a summary of the resources required to implement the strategy
On the basis of this strategy, child participation will then need to be reflected in all of the key accountability frameworks of your project plan, including:
  • The Logical Framework Analysis (LFA)
Ideally, the LFA for the project will incorporate child participation results, indicators, risk analysis and inputs identified in the Child Participation Strategy. At the output level, results and indicators would reflect the child participation process-how children are involved in the program. At the outcome level, results and indicators would focus on the benefits of child participation to the project's overall performance.
  • The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
For each of the outcomes presented in the WBS, the child participation outputs and activities identified in the Child Participation Strategy would be detailed.
  • The Performance Measurement Framework (PMF)
The performance measurement framework would explain how child participation will be addressed in monitoring and evaluation, and how girls and boys will be consulted and involved in project-wide monitoring and evaluation processes.
  • The Project Budget
The budget would include cash-flow projections for each year of the project relative to the resources needed to implement the child participation strategy. Elements could include professional fees (e.g. consultants to support children, adults and shared decision-making), material development (e.g. child-friendly project materials and information), transportation (e.g. children's travel costs), meeting costs, and meeting space rental, among other things.


A Checklist for Child Participation


The following checklist can help CIDA staff and partners assess their projects in terms of child participation results. While not all projects will include all of the elements listed below, the checklist can help you identify areas that might be included or that need strengthening.
  • Project reach clearly describes all project beneficiaries, including girls and boys, by gender, age, ethnicity and socio-economic group.
  • Social gender analysis has been undertaken to determine the needs, interests and priorities of women, girls, boys and men with regard to the development problem and the project's proposed solution.
  • The project purpose, results and strategy have been developed in consultation with all project stakeholders, including girls and boys.
  • The project purpose, results and strategy have been developed in consultation with all project stakeholders, including girls and boys.
  • The child participation strategy has been developed in keeping with an analysis of the capacities and needs of the girls and boys concerned.
  • The child participation strategy builds on existing community organizations and structures that support children's participation.
  • The child participation strategy plans for increasing levels of child participation and increasing capacities for shared decision-making between children and adults.
  • Risks and assumptions associated with child participation are discussed, and the equal participation of marginalized children is addressed.
  • Key child participation results, activities, inputs and performance indicators are integrated in the project LFA, WBS, PMF and budget.
  • The role of girls and boys in decision-making, with regard to project activities and project management, is clearly articulated and based on children's interests and needs.
  • Appropriate resources (human, material, financial) are earmarked to support the child participation strategy.
  • Accountability for the child participation strategy is attributed to the project manager(s).
  • All stakeholders, including girls and boys, are involved in project performance measurement.
  • There is provision for assessment of the child participation strategy as well as the documentation and dissemination of project learning on child participation.


Project Models


The two project models in this section were developed to provide a framework for incorporating child participation results into project plans using an RBM approach. The first is a model for a project that is child-focused; the second is a model for a project that is not child-focused, but in which children are beneficiaries.

In the interests of brevity and utility, the content of the project models (strategy, LFA, WBS, etc.) is not as detailed, contextually specific, or as complete as it might be in a real project. The relevance of these models lies in their structure and the form they take within a project plan.

Two Project Models

The first model is a child-focused project entitled "Education and Peace-Building for Children Affected by Armed Conflict." Girls and boys are the primary beneficiaries. The project aims to protect and promote children's right to education by increasing their access to education services that are relevant and of good quality.

The second model is a project entitled "Strengthening Municipal Capacity for Potable Water Provision". Children are beneficiaries of the project although the project is not child-focused. The purpose of the project is to provide sustainable potable water facilities, health and environmental education to 200,000 residents of a municipality.

Model 1 - Education and Peace-Building for Children Affected by Armed Conflict

Child Participation Strategy

Purpose of the Child Participation Strategy

To improve education quality and relevance by involving girls and boys affected by armed conflict in democratic decision-making within their community schools.

Child Participation Context

Existing Government policies reinforce the invisibility of the vast majority of displaced persons who have little or no access to public services. NGOs, religious organizations and individuals have stepped into the void created by Government policies, and are being contracted by Government to provide primary education services to these communities. The vast majority of these quasi-government schools operate on traditional and hierarchical models of learning, with limited scope for child participation. Because of the emotional and physical trauma of displacement, displaced children are often withdrawn, aggressive and depressed. They are seen as difficult students, and teachers are not receptive to their presence in already over-crowded and under-equipped schools. The existing educational system is clearly not meeting the needs of displaced girls and boys.

In several communities with a large proportion of displaced families, schools have been established with the input and contribution of individuals who understand the phenomena of displacement and are sympathetic to the needs of displaced girls and boys. These schools are run by members of the displaced community or by NGOs or religious groups that have a history of working with displaced populations. Fifteen of these schools have been selected to participate in this project - based on their demonstrated interest and potential in testing new models of peace-building and democratic participation for children affected by armed conflict and displacement. The project will test new participatory educational and peace-building models; children in the selected schools will participate in the development, testing and assessment of these models to increase education quality and relevance for displaced girls and boys. Successful models will be disseminated to other schools, and advocacy efforts will push Government to expand its education services for displaced children based on these new models.

Expected Results and Indicators of Child Participation

Results Indicators
  • School governance processes effectively involve girls and boys in decision-making
  • Girls, boys, teachers and parents demonstrate increased capacity for shared decision-making
  • Girls and boys influence the development of school policies and projects
  • New education models meet the social, emotional and educational needs of girls and boys in targeted communities
  • Girls and boys demonstrate increased acceptance of diversity, tolerance and non-violent solutions to conflict
  • Development resources and project benefits are shared equally among girls and boys
  • Committee meeting minutes demonstrate increasing frequency/quality of input by girls and boys in decision-making
  • Evidence of link between children's input and educational decisions taken
  • Evidence of educational decision-making increasingly characterized by consensus between children and adult participants
  • Perceptions of girls, boys, parents, teachers on relevance and quality of new education models
  • Evidence of a link between girls and boys needs/ interests and new education models
  • Perceptions of girls, boys, teachers re changes in incidence of verbal/physical abuse, use of conflict resolution at school
  • Processes exist to involve girls and boys in data collection and analysis around new education models
  • Perceptions re girls and boys on equality of project results and benefits
  • Disaggregated gender data by age on project participation

Assumptions and Risk Analysis for Child Participation

Assumption: That girls and boys will participate equally in project activities and decision-making.

Risk Analysis: Moderate.

Due to internal displacement, family breakdown and the resulting increases in domestic and economic responsibilities for girls and boys, participation will be a challenge. It will be essential to obtain equal input from girls and boys in decision-making around the timing, venues and specific needs associated with their schooling and their participation in decision-making, and to provide sensitization for parents and teachers on the various effects of armed conflict on girls and boys and the obstacles they each face in participation.

Assumption: That adult stakeholders are supportive of child participation on the project.

Risk Analysis: Low to moderate.

The majority of community schools targeted for intervention have limited resources and have been operating within traditional educational frameworks. Schools have been selected for their relative openness to new education models, although capacity is a major challenge. As this project entails a new pedagogical approach, teacher resistance will be evident. Workshops will be organized by NGO partners to draw out the views and needs of all stakeholders with regard to new education models. The process will be gradual and collective, involving commitment from the school director and ongoing coaching to facilitate the participation of all stakeholders in the process.

Major Activities/Approaches to Participation
  • A series of workshops is organized in each school to explore what child rights and child participation means for that community, including parents, teachers and students. Artistic and theatrical expression is used with students to draw out and present the needs, interests and views of boys and girls on the relevance and quality of their education. These are presented to parents and teachers. Teachers and parents discuss and summarize their views on relevant, quality education and these are presented to the other stakeholders, including children. Points of commonality and divergence are identified collectively to build a common understanding and vision for education and peace-building.
  • Participatory research projects on social gender analysis are conducted by teachers and students in the classroom (grades 4-6) to analyze the effects of armed conflict on girls and boys in each community, as well as the needs of girls and boys regarding peace-building and education. Findings and conclusions are shared in workshops with students, teachers and parents. Major themes and needs are identified collectively.
  • Based on findings and conclusions of the social gender research, education models are developed and implemented in community schools by teachers and NGO partners.
  • New governance processes are established in each school, including representation by educators, parents, girls and boys. These committees are charged with approving models, overseeing their implementation and organizing their assessment.
  • Ongoing coaching and support is provided to these committees by NGO partners in building child participation and shared decision-making.
  • The assessment of the new education models is organized by the committee. Girls, boys, teachers and parents are involved as respondents. Girl and boy members of the committee are responsible for assessing child participation processes and documenting learning in collaboration with NGO partners. Workshops are organized among students, parents and teachers to collectively analyze findings, conclusions and recommendations with regard to the ongoing improvement of the new education models.
  • Child representatives from each school are charged with disseminating the learning on child participation processes to other schools/stakeholders.
  • Workshops are organized for girls, boys, teachers and parents to develop policy recommendations for Government on education and peace-building for war-affected children.
Accountability and Management Structure

The Assistant Project Director has been designated the child participation champion for the project. Although she is ultimately accountable for implementing the child participation strategy, accountability for achieving child participation results lies with all project partners.

Initially, it is not envisaged to involve children directly in project management decision-making other than through the presence of one youth-led NGO partner on the project management committee. There is a certain amount of resistance from project partners on the Government side, and the purpose of children's participation at this level is not yet commonly agreed upon. It is felt that efforts need to be focused on building capacity for shared decision-making at the level of the school, and demonstrating its effectiveness there before moving to a higher level. It is hoped that child participation will gradually expand to the project implementation committees at each project site after the first 18 months of the project, based on learning from the mid-term review, and as child and adult capacities for shared decision-making develop.

Inputs/Resources

Item Effort Cost
Research and analysis 10 person days at $200/day $2,000
Ongoing coaching, training of children 75 person days at $200/day $15,000
Ongoing coaching, training of educators, parents 75 person days at $200/day $15,000
Materials production (child-friendly project docs) $1,500
Equipment $3,000
Transport (bringing children to meetings) $750
Total $37,250


Logical Framework Analysis and Child Participatio

In the project LFA below, child participation results and indicators have been incorporated at input, output and outcome levels. (Impact level results have been excluded for reasons of brevity.)

Narrative Summary Expected Results Performance Indicators Beneficiary Reach Risk Analysis
Purpose
To improve access to relevant and quality education for girls and boys affected by conflict and displacement in targeted communities
Outcome
  • Access to education has increased for girls and boys in targeted communities
  • New education models meet the social, emotional and educational needs of girls and boys in targeted communities
  • Girls and boys demonstrate increased capacity for democratic decision-making
  • Girls and boys demonstrate increased acceptance of tolerance, diversity and non-violent solutions to conflict
  • New educational models are replicated in other schools and taken up by non-project stakeholders
  • Development resources and project benefits are shared equally among girls and boy

  • % enrolment and retention rates for girls and boys
  • perceptions of girls, boys, parents, teachers on relevance and quality of new education models
  • # of instances where children are able to influence education decisions/outcomes
  • perceptions of girls, boys, teachers re changes in incidence of verbal/ physical abuse, use of conflict resolution at school
  • # of other state-sponsored organizations incorporating child participation in education models
  • perceptions among girls and boys, teachers on equality of project results

  • 3,500 boys and 3,000 girls (6-12 years)
  • 15 schools, 150 teachers and 2,000 parents in targeted communities
  • MOE, municipal Secretariats of Education
  • Local government in three cities
  • Implicated NGOs in three cities
  • Other organizations, government departments involved in issues of education and peace
Assumption:
The government's new education policy presents opportunities for non-state actors to innovate with new educational models emphasizing child participation and democratic decision-making for peace.

Risk analysis: Low

Assumption: Political will exists, at the level of municipal and national governments, to scale-up and replicate new educational models for girls and boys affected by conflict and displacement.

Risk analysis: Moderate
Resources
Site 1: Development and introduction of peace-building models in 5 schools ($400,000)

Site 2: Development and introduction of peace-building models in 5 schools ($400,000)

Site 3: Development and introduction of peace-building models in 5 schools ($400,000)

Child Participation Strategy: coaching, training, facilitation, materials, equipment, transport ($37,250)
Outcome
  • Number of educational places for girls and boys has increased in targeted communities
  • Better understanding of the needs and capacities of girls and boys affected by armed conflict
  • New education models are developed, tested, and evaluated in schools with the collaboration of girls and boys
  • School governance processes effectively involve girls and boys in decision-making
  • Learning/results of new education and child participation models are disseminated widely
  • Girls and boys participate equally in project activities and decision-making

  • % enrolment rates for girls and boys
  • Changes in teacher-student relationships
  • Changes in attitudes towards child participation by teachers, parents, students
  • Evidence of a link between girls and boys needs/interests and new education models
  • Committee meeting minutes demonstrate increasing input of girls and boys in issue analysis and decision-making
  • Girl and boy representatives participate as full members in Education and Peacebuilding Committee
  • Lessons learned are documented and disseminated through workshops, conferences, publications
  • Disaggregated gender data by age on project participations

  • 3,000 girls and 3,500 boys (6-12 years)
  • 15 schools, 150 teachers and 2,000 parents in targeted communities
  • MOE, municipal Secretariats of Education
  • Local government in three cities
  • Implicated NGOs in three cities
  • Other organizations, government departments involved in issues of education and peace-building
Assumption: That girls and boys will participate equally in project activities and decision-making.

Risk analysis: Moderate

Assumption: That adult stakeholders are supportive of child participation on the project.

Risk analysis: Low to Moderate


Work Breakdown Structure

1.0 Increased Access to Education

Outcome: Access to education has increased for girls and boys affected by armed conflict.
Activities Outputs Reach
1.1 Undertake census of school-age girls, boys

1.2 Ensure registration of eligible girls and boys with local authorities

1.3 Establish education service delivery contracts with municipal secretaries of education

1.4 Renovate/upgrade schools

1.5 Establish new classes, educational places for currently out-of-school girls and boys

1.6 Recruit new teachers

1.7 Equip new classes
  • Number of educational places for girls and boys has increased in targeted communities
  • Girls and boys participate equally in project activities and decision-making
  • 3,000 girls and 3,500 boys (6-12 years)
  • 15 schools, 150 teachers and 2,000 parents in targeted communities
  • MOE, municipal and departmental secretaries of education for 3 communities
  • NGO partners
  • Other stakeholders (NGOs, donors, government)
2.0 Increased Relevance and Quality of Education

Outcome: New educational models meet the social, emotional, educational needs of girls and boys in targeted communities.
2.1 Undertake workshops with teachers, parents, boys and girls to share views on educational relevance and quality

2.2 Train teachers in undertaking participatory social gender analysis projects in the classroom

2.3 Facilitate social gender analysis research projects in classroom (grades 3-6) on peace-building and education

2.4 Organize workshops for collective data analysis and common visioning of new educational model with parents, teachers, students

2.5 Support teachers in developing and introducing new education peace-building model in school

2.6 Establish new school governance process including student representation to oversee implementation and assessment of new model

2.7 Develop inclusive, transparent selection processes for membership in new governance process

2.8 Provide ongoing coaching to teachers and students in shared decision-making

2.9 Support students and teachers in developing plan for assessment of new education model

2.10 Facilitate assessment of new educational model involving girls, boys, parents, teachers as respondents
  • Better understanding of the needs and interests of girls and boys affected by armed conflict
  • New education models are developed, tested and evaluated with the collaboration of girls and boys
  • School governance processes effectively involve girls and boys in decision-making
  • Girls and boys participate equally in project activities and decision-making
  • 3,000 girls and 3,500 boys (6-12 years)
  • 15 schools, 50 community leaders, 150 teachers and 2,000 parents in targeted communities
  • MOE, municipal and departmental secretaries of education for 3 communities
  • NGO partners
  • Other stakeholders (NGOs, donors, government)
3.0 New Educational Models are Replicated

Outcome: New educational models are replicated in other schools and taken up by other stakeholders.
3.1 Document learning on development of new models

3.2 Document learning on child participation

3.3 Publish evaluation results/lessons of new model

3.4 Disseminate publications to relevant stakeholders

3.5 Organize conferences, workshops, seminars on new models

3.6 Assist girls and boys to document and present child participation lessons to other stakeholder

3.7 Facilitate workshops where girls, boys, teachers and parents develop policy recommendations for government

3.8 Liaise with and lobby government on implementing recommendations
  • New education models are developed, tested, evaluated based on input from girls and boys
  • Learning/results of new education and child participation models are disseminated widely
  • Girls and boys participate equally in project activities and decision-making
  • Girls and boys in targeted schools
  • MOE, other municipal and departmental secretaries of education
  • Other schools, communities beyond project
  • Other project stakeholders (NGOs, donors, gov't) involved in peace-building and education

Child Participation and Project Performance Measurement

This is a Performance Measurement Framework for the project. The first section provides an overview of how project performance in child participation will be measured. The second section presents a project-wide Performance Measurement Framework (matrix) that incorporates child participation considerations.

What will be monitored and evaluated in child participation
  • Child participation results achievement
  • Child participation disbursements against results achievement
  • The effects of child participation risks on project performance
  • The equality of child participation results for boys and girls
How it will be monitored and evaluated (m/e)
  • By comparing actual child participation results and disbursements against planned results and costs set out in the Child Participation Strategy
How it will be reflected in m/e reports
  • Narrative analysis of overall performance in implementing the Child Participation StrategyPresentation of planned to actual project-wide results achieved at input, output and outcome levels, including those related to child participation
  • Narrative presentation of project-wide conclusions, recommendations and lessons learned which address, among other things, the participation and equality of results achieved for girls and boys
How girls and boys will be involved in project m/e

The purpose of child participation in this project is to increase the quality and relevance of education and peace-building models in targeted schools. The role of girls and boys in the project is to assist in the research, development and testing of the new educational models. Their role in monitoring and evaluation will be consistent with their overall role in the project-they will be involved in monitoring and evaluating the quality and relevance of new educational and peace-building models introduced in their schools. Girls and boys will also be involved in identifying lessons learned and disseminating learning and results on the new educational models to a wider audience. Girls and boys will participate in the following monitoring and evaluation activities, in collaboration with NGO partners and teachers:
  • Identifying child participation results and indicators
  • Developing the evaluation plan and evaluation questions relative to new education models
  • Developing data collection instruments
  • Collecting data from fellow students, parents, teachers
  • Analyzing the data
  • Presenting the findings, conclusions and recommendations to school stakeholders
  • Presenting evaluation learning in workshops, conferences and seminars to other stakeholders
  • Deciding how evaluation learning will be used
  • Acting as a source of data in project-wide monitoring and evaluation processes
  • Participating in the development of collective policy recommendations to Government
Performance Measurement Framework - Part I

Expected Results Performance Indicators Data Sources
Outcome
  • Access to education has increased for girls and boys in targeted communities
  • New education models meet the social, emotional and educational needs of girls and boys in targeted communities
  • Girls and boys demonstrate increased capacity for democratic decision-making
  • Girls and boys demonstrate increased acceptance of tolerance, diversity and non-violent solutions to conflict
  • New educational models are replicated in other schools and taken up by non-project stakeholders
  • Development resources and project benefits are shared equally among girls and boys

  • % enrolment and retention rates for girls and boys
  • Perceptions of girls, boys, parents, teachers on relevance and quality of new education models
  • # of instances where children are able to influence education decisions/outcomes
  • perceptions of girls, boys, teachers re changes in incidence of verbal/physical abuse, use of conflict resolution at school
  • # of other state-sponsored organizations incorporating child participation in education models
  • Perceptions among girls and boys, teachers on equality of project results

  • MOE statistics
  • Verbal testimony/ survey data from girls, boys, parents, teachers in targeted schools, communities
  • Other input from girls, boys (artwork, maps, models, role play, stories, drama, etc.)
  • Meeting minutes, workshop summaries/evaluations
  • Project documents/ verbal testimony of non-project NGOs, government departments, donors
Output
  • Number of educational places for girls and boys has increased in targeted communities
  • Better understanding of the needs and capacities of girls and boys affected by armed conflict
  • New education models are developed, tested, and evaluated in schools with the collaboration of girls and boys
  • School governance processes effectively involve girls and boys in decision-making
  • Girls and boys participate equally in project activities and decision-making

  • % enrolment
  • ent rates for girls and boys
  • Changes in teacher-student relationships
  • Changes in attitudes towards child participa
  • tion by teachers, parents, students
  • Evidence of a link between girls and boys needs/interests and new education models
  • Processes exist to involve girls and boys in data collection and analysis around new education models
  • Committee meeting minutes demonstrate increasing input of girls and boys in issue analysis and decision-making
  • Lessons learned are documented and disseminated through workshops, conferences, publications
  • Disaggregated gender data by age on project participation

  • MOE statistics
  • School annual plans
  • Project site reports
  • Site visits
  • Training evaluations
  • Proceedings of workshops, conferences
  • Meeting minutes
  • Perceptions of teachers, girls and boys
  • Participatory research and analysis in schools and communities
  • Observation of new governance processes


Performance Measurement Framework - Part II

Collection Methods Frequency Responsibilitys
Outcome
  • Document review
  • Focus group
  • Survey questionnaire
  • Interviews
  • Artistic and dramatic expression with children

  • Annually

  • Project Director
  • NGO partners
  • Girls, boys, educators will collaborate in m/e on quality and relevance of educational models
Output
  • Document review
  • Site visits
  • Focus groups, surveys, individual interviews with girls, boys, parents, educators, external projects stake-holders
  • Artistic and dramatic expression with children
  • Participatory research and analysis in schools and communities
  • Observation of new governance processes

  • Semi-annually

  • Project Director
  • NGO partners



Model 2-Strengthening Municipal Capacity for Potable Water Provision


Child Participation Strategy

Purpose of the Child Participation Strategy

To ensure that municipal decision-making processes include child representation so that the interests, needs and priorities of girls and boys are effectively incorporated into relevant municipal water management, environment and sanitation practices.

Child Participation Context

Public participation in municipal decision-making is a relatively new concept for this municipality, and, until recently, there was limited participation by women. Children continue to be seen as passive recipients of municipal services and programs, although special public education programs have been developed and geared specifically to them. While the introduction of child participation in municipal decision-making presents obvious challenges, the context also presents opportunities. Given that public participation processes are just now being developed, this is an opportune moment to ensure that they are as inclusive as possible, including children. Secondly, environment and sanitation are areas in which the municipality has taken initiatives to involve young people in the past. Through its Healthy Town Initiative, the municipality worked with schools to organize community clean-up campaigns and environmental protection contests as well as to deliver health and hygiene messages. A chapter of the national youth group, Enviroyouth, is active in the municipality, and has had a hand in coordinating many of these activities with the municipality. The national organization of Enviroyouth has considerable capacity in advocating on behalf of youth interests and working with national government to review policies and programs; they will be involved in building the capacity of both the municipality and children themselves, to develop effective child participation processes within municipal decision-making.

Expected Results and Indicators of Child Participation

Expected Results Indicators
  • The capacity of girls, boys and the organizations that represent them is developed to participate in municipal decision-making
  • The understanding and commitment of municipal councilors to girls' and boys' needs and interests is enhanced
  • The municipality's Water Management Strategic Plan reflects the needs and interests of girls and boys of different ages, ethnicities and socio-economic groups
  • The benefits of project investments are shared equally among girls, boys, women and men
  • # of girls, boys of different ages, ethnicities and socio-economic groups that participate in municipal decision-making forums before/after project
  • Evidence of girls and boys formulating and defending proposals for municipal water management based on their interests and needs
  • Evidence of municipal councilors incorporating children/youth positions in municipal council interventions, decisions re new municipal proposals, programs, regulations etc.
  • Perceptions of girls and boys that their interests are adequately reflected in Water Management Strategic
  • Plan Level of satisfaction of girls and boys re water supply and quality before/after project
  • Perceptions of girls and boys on equality of access to and control over project resources and benefits
  • # of grants from small project fund provided to youth or child initiatives

Assumptions and Risk Analysis for Child Participation

Assumption: The municipal government is committed to inclusive and open public participation in municipal decision-making.

Risk Analysis: Moderate.

While the majority of municipal councilors appear committed to increased public participation, there is ambivalence around the need for child participation. It will be crucial to ensure adequate time to build the capacity of children, youth and the organizations representing them, to articulate and defend strong, well-researched positions as input into the municipality's Strategic Plan. Developing a meaningful and inclusive public participation process in municipal decision-making, including children, is as essential an outcome to this project as improving water quality and accessibility. The small project fund will enable children and youth, up-front, to demonstrate to the municipality their capacity for action, through the development and implementation of child-led, community environment and sanitation projects.

Assumption: The process for involving children in municipal decision-making is sustainable beyond project funding.

Risk Analysis: Low to moderate.

The aim of the project is to build the capacity of the municipal government, civil society organizations and children themselves to participate in decision-making. As public participation is a new process in this municipality, this project initiative for broadening democratic processes is well-timed. However, municipal elected officials will change over time, and girls and boys do not represent a voting constituency. It will be essential to work with viable CSOs and ensure that processes and models for child participation become well-established in civil society so that the voice of girls and boys will not be overlooked in the future.

Major Activities for Child Participation

Capacity building for children and youth in municipal decision-making:
  • National Enviroyouth will bring together the representatives of all child-focused organizations (those with strong child/youth constituencies-student committees of schools, scout groups, youth religious groups, youth community groups, economic cooperatives, environmental groups, etc.) to determine a common approach to and process for meaningful youth/child representation in municipal decision-making. The aim would be to attain as wide a representative base of girl/boy constituents as possible in the municipality. Child and youth constituents of these organizations will be given a prominent place in this process.
  • The capacity of interested parties from among these organizations will be strengthened to conduct participatory social research on issues of water management and sanitation with boy and girl constituents in the municipality.
  • National Enviroyouth will work with these organizations and their girl/boy constituents to define common positions and recommendations with regard to municipal water management, follow municipal debates, liaise with municipal officials, and participate in municipal decision-making forums. To the extent possible, organizations involved in promoting children's interests at the municipal level will be strengthened to promote greater shared decision-making between adults and children internally, as well as to involve both child and adult spokespersons within municipal decision-making.
  • The local chapter of Enviroyouth will support these organizations in working with their girl and boy constituents to define community water/sanitation problems and to develop project proposals for submission to the Public Education Small Project Fund. If project proposals are funded, the local Enviroyouth chapter will support organizations in child-led project implementation and monitoring.
Increasing the understanding/commitment of municipal councilors:
  • Regular meetings will be organized between municipal officials and the spokespersons for child-focused organizations, to discuss the needs and interests of girl/boy constituents as well as the effectiveness of the public participation process in addressing those needs.
  • Child/youth champions will be identified among municipal councilors/managers and intensive lobbying campaigns will be developed by child-focused organizations, supported by Enviroyouth.
  • Representatives of child-focused organizations will meet with representatives of other stakeholder groups (particularly women's groups) to share information, coordinate responses and develop common strategies where feasible.
Assessing the effectiveness of Municipal Water Management
  • National Enviroyouth will work with child-focused organizations to organize surveys and focus groups of their girl/boy constituents throughout the project cycle, to assess the relevance and effectiveness of the Municipal Water Management Strategic Plan as well as the public participation process in municipal decision-making as it relates to children.
Accountability and Management Structure

A representative of the national organization of Enviroyouth will sit on the Project Management Committee to formally champion the voice of children on the project and to ensure the effective implementation of the Child Participation Strategy. Enviroyouth is an organization with a decision-making structure that is shared between adult and child/youth constituents-Enviroyouth representation on the project's management committee will be youth-led, in keeping with the aims of the Child Participation Strategy for this project. Accountability for the results of the Child Participation Strategy will be shared by all development partners, as these results are reflected in the project LFA, WBS and Performance Measurement Plan.

Inputs/Resources

Item Effort Cost
Child Participation Coordinator 70 days/yr for 3 years at $150/day $31,500
Child Projects Coordinator 20 days/yr for 3 years at $100/day $6,000
Materials and Equipment Computer, communications costs and materials $8,000
Overhead Administration, office functioning $6,000
Total $51,500


Logical Framework Analysis and Child Participation

In the project LFA below, child participation results and indicators are incorporated at input, output and outcome levels. (Impact level results have been excluded for reasons of brevity.)

Narrative Summary Expected Results Performance Indicators Beneficiary Reach Risk Analysis
Purpose

To strengthen municipal capacity for effective and sustainable provision of potable water to all municipal residents.
Outcome

Technical and administrative capacity of municipal government for water management

  • Improved public influence in municipal decision-making
  • Water supply is protected through improved community environmental and sanitation practices
  • The benefits of project investments are shared equally among girls, boys, women and men

  • Water Management Strategic Plan effectively implemented
  • Congruence between municipal staff qualifications, capacity and municipal needs re water mgmt before/after project
  • Level of satisfaction of girls, women, boys and men re water supply and quality before/after project
  • # of instances where the expressed interests of girls, women, boys, men have influenced municipal decisions on water mgmt
  • Evidence of link between new community environmental, sanitation practices adopted and improved water quality
  • Perceptions of girls, women, boys, men on equality of access to and control over benefits of project investment

  • 120,000 girls, 110,000 boys, 99,000 women and 92,000 men residents of municipality
  • Mayor and 12 municipal councilors
  • Municipal Department for Water Management-Director, Asst Director, 5 managers, 10 engineers, 20 technicians, 10 inspectors, 5 administrative assts
  • Interested NGOs and community groups
  • 20 neighbourhood committees
  • 95,000 households
  • 10,500 small businesses (under 5 employees), 250 medium businesses (under 25 employees), 25 large businesses (26 employees or more)


Assumption: That national government policies, programs and resource allocations will continue to provide an acceptable enabling environment to achieve project outcomes.

Risk analysis: Low

Assumption: The public participation process in municipal decision-making is sustainable beyond project funding.

Risk analysis: Low to moderate
Resources Municipal Government Capacity Development (C$2.7 million)

Public Awareness and Education ($400,000)

Public Education Small Project Fund ($200,000)

Gender Equality Strategy ($75,000)

Child Participation Strategy ($51,500)

Project Management ($850,000)

Environmental Impact Assessment ($150,000)

Evaluation ($75,000)
Output
  • Public participation plan and processes are operational
  • A Water Management Strategic Plan is developed with public input
  • The capacity of girls, boys, women and men is developed to participate in municipal decision-making
  • Municipal councillors and managers increase their understanding of and commitment to needs and interests of women, children, other minorities
  • Water quality monitoring systems are in keeping with national standards
  • Water treatment and supply infrastructure is effectively maintained
  • New municipal sanitation/ environmental regulations are enforced
  • Public sensitization campaigns on hygiene and sanitation are implemented
  • Public education projects are implemented by women, men, girls, boys and the groups representing them

  • # of girls, boys, women and men of different ages, ethnicities, socioeconomic groups participating in municipal decision-making
  • # of organizations representing diverse community interests participating in municipal decision-making
  • Perceptions of girls, women, boys and men that their interests are represented in Strategic Plan
  • Evidence of girls, boys, women, men formulating and defending proposals in municipal forums
  • Evidence of municipal councilors incorporating men/women/girls/ boys' positions in new proposals, programs, regulations etc.
  • # of adequate, well-utilized, well-maintained water treatment/ supply facilities
  • % of businesses, neighbourhoods and households adopting new environment/sanitation regulations
  • # of small project grants provided to girls, boys, women, men

  • 120,000 girls, 110,000 boys, 99,000 women and 92,000 men residents of municipality
  • Mayor and 12 municipal councilors
  • Municipal Department for Water Management-Director, Asst Director, 5 managers, 10 engineers, 20 technicians, 10 inspectors, 5 administrative assts
  • Interested NGOs and community groups
  • 20 neighbourhood committees
  • 95,000 households
  • 10,500 small businesses (under 5 employees), 250 medium businesses (under 25 employees), 25 large businesses (26 employees or more)
  • 120,000 girls, 110,000 boys, 99,000 women and 92,000 men residents of municipality
  • Mayor and 12 municipal councilors
  • Municipal Department for Water Management-Director, Asst Director, 5 managers, 10 engineers, 20 technicians, 10 inspectors, 5 administrative assts
  • Interested NGOs and community groups
  • 20 neighbourhood committees
  • 95,000 households
  • 10,500 small businesses (under 5 employees), 250 medium businesses (under 25 employees), 25 large businesses (26 employees or more)


Assumption: That municipal elections will not affect municipal government commitment to the project.

Risk analysis: Low to moderate

Assumption: That municipal government is committed to inclusive and open public participation in municipal decision-making.

Risk analysis: Low to moderate


Work Breakdown Structure

1.0 Capacity Development of Municipal Government

Outcome: Improved technical and administrative capacity of municipal government for water management
Activities Outputs Reach
1.1 Community water needs census based on input of women, men, girls, boys of different ages, ethnicities, socio-economic groups

1.2 Organizational diagnosis of municipal water management capacity/ structure

1.3 Org. development plan prepared for Water Dept.

1.4 Revision of Water Dept. staffing, structure, management/operations/ decision-making processes

1.5 Qualification upgrading and training of staff

1.6 New sanitation/environmental regulations developed

1.7 Water treatment and supply infrastructure upgraded and expanded

1.8 Water systems maintenance procedures revised and operationalized
A Water Management Strategic Plan is developed with public input
  • Water quality monitoring systems are in keeping with national standards
  • Water treatment and supply infrastructure is effectively maintained
  • New municipal sanitation/environmental regulations are enforced
  • 120,000 girls, 110,000 boys, 99,000 women and 92,000 men residents of municipality
  • Mayor and 12 municipal councillors
  • Municipal Department for Water Management - Director, Asst Director, 5 managers, 10 engineers, 20 technicians, 10 inspectors, 5 administrative assts
  • Interested NGOs and community groups
  • 20 neighbourhood committees
  • 95,000 households
  • 10,500 small businesses (under 5 employees), 250 medium businesses (under 25 employees), 25 large businesses (26 employees or more)
2.0 Public Participation in Decision-Making

Outcome:. Improved public influence in municipal decision-making
2.1 Development and implementation of municipal public participation plan

2.2 Revision of municipal decision-making procedures, by-laws, regulations

2.3 Capacity-building of local organizations to involve girls, boys, women, men in defining needs and developing positions, recommendations for municipal government

2.4 Capacity-building of municipal councilors, staff in soliciting and incorporating stakeholder needs in municipal decisions

2.5 Development of recommendations for Water Management Strategic Plan by girls, boys, men, women, representative of municipal residents

2.6 Capacity building of municipal councilors on women/child participation and meetings with women/child-focused organizations to review process

2.7 Community survey (girls, boys, men, women) on satisfaction with water quality and supply before/after project

2.8 Assessment of quality, effectiveness of public participation process

2.9 Development of plan to ensure sustainability, inclusiveness of public participation in future
  • Public participation plan and processes are operational
  • Municipal councilors and managers increase their understanding of and commitment to needs and interests of women, children, other minorities
  • The capacity of girls, boys, women and men is developed to participate in municipal decision-making
  • 1120,000 girls, 110,000 boys, 99,000 women and 92,000 men residents of municipality
  • Mayor and 12 municipal councillors
  • Municipal Department for Water Management - Director, Asst Director, 5 managers, 10 engineers, 20 technicians, 10 inspectors, 5 administrative assts
  • Interested NGOs and community groups
  • 20 neighbourhood committees
  • 95,000 households
  • 10,500 small businesses (under 5 employees), 250 medium businesses (under 25 employees), 25 large businesses (26 employees or more)
3.0 Public Education

Outcome: Water supply is protected through improved community environmental and sanitation practices.
3.1 Public needs surveys are conducted with women, girls, men and boys to assess level of awareness, practice re sanitation, hygiene

3.2 Public education campaigns are developed for different stakeholder groups - girls, boys, women, men based on needs assessment.

3.3 Public education campaigns are implemented.

3.4 Surveys are conducted to assess sanitation, hygiene practices before/after project.

3.5 Selection processes are developed, projects are monitored for the Small Project Fund.

3.6 mall projects are implemented by girls, boys, women, men and the groups that represent them.

3.7 Surveys are conducted on private sector practice re water management and environmental protection.

3.8 New regulations on environmental protection are developed and adopted.

3.9 Communication and sensitization plans are developed and implemented for the private sector.

3.10 New procedures are implemented for inspection and enforcement.

3.11 Inspectors are trained.

3.12 Assessment re the level and rationale for compliance with new regulations among households and private sector.
  • Public sensitization campaigns on hygiene and sanitation are implemented
  • Public education projects are implemented by women, men, girls, boys and the groups representing them
  • New environmental regulations are enforced.
  • 120,000 girls, 110,000 boys, 99,000 women and 92,000 men residents of municipality
  • Mayor and 12 municipal councillors
  • Municipal Department for Water Management - Director, Asst Director, 5 managers, 10 engineers, 20 technicians, 10 inspectors, 5 administrative assts
  • Interested NGOs and community groups
  • 20 neighbourhood committees
  • 95,000 households
  • 10,500 small businesses (under 5 employees), 250 medium businesses (under 25 employees), 25 large businesses (26 employees or more)

Child Participation and Project Performance Measurement

This is a Performance Measurement Framework for the project. The first section provides an overview of how project performance in child participation will be measured. The following section presents a project-wide Performance Measurement Framework in which child participation considerations have been incorporated

What will be monitored and evaluated in child participation
  • Child participation results achievement
  • Child participation disbursements against results achievement
  • The effects of child participation risks on project performance
  • The equality of child participation results achieved for boys and girls
How it will be monitored and evaluated (m/e)
  • By comparing actual child participation results and disbursements against planned results and costs set out in the Child Participation Strategy
How it will be reflected in m/e reports
  • Narrative analysis of overall performance in implementing the Child Participation Strategy
  • Presentation of planned to actual project-wide results achieved at input, output and outcome levels, including those related to child participation
  • Narrative presentation of project-wide conclusions, recommendations and lessons learned which would address, among other things, the participation and equality of results achieved for girls, boys, men and women
How girls and boys will be involved in project m/e

A major result of this project will be the development of a participatory process in municipal decision-making that includes boys and girls alongside other municipal stakeholders. Evaluation of child participation will focus on the nature, quality, effectiveness and eventual sustainability of child participation processes within the municipality. In collaboration with their boy and girl constituents, child-focused organizations in the municipality will conduct an evaluation of the municipal decision-making process from the perspective of boys and girls. This assessment will feed into the findings and conclusions of the larger municipal assessment. To that end, girls and boys, through the organizations that represent them, will be involved in the following aspects of m/e:
  • Identifying child participation results and indicators
  • Participating in needs analysis/ baseline surveys undertaken by child-focused organizations
  • Developing the evaluation questions/indicators relative to assessing the participatory process
  • Developing the evaluation questions/indicators relative to assessing the Water Strategic Plan
  • Analyzing the data collected from girl and boy respondents
  • Presenting the findings, conclusions and recommendations on girls' and boys' experiences with participation and water management to the wider municipal decision-making forum
  • Developing a plan and recommendations on how evaluation learning will be used to ensure sustainability of child participation
  • Acting as a source of data in project-wide monitoring and evaluation processes
Performance Measurement Framework - Part I

Expected Results Performance Indicators Data Sources
Outcome

  • Improved technical and administrative capacity of municipal government for water management
  • Improved public influence in municipal decision-making
  • Water supply is protected through improved community environmental and sanitation practices
  • The benefits of project investments are shared equally among girls, boys, women and men

  • Water Management Strategic Plan effectively implemented
  • Congruence between municipal staff qualifications, capacity and municipal needs re water mgmt before/after project
  • Level of satisfaction of girls, women, boys and men re water supply and quality before/after project
  • # of instances where the expressed interests of girls, women, boys, men have influenced municipal decisions on water mgmt
  • Evidence of link between new environmental, sanitation practices adopted and improved water quality
  • Perceptions of girls, women, boys, men on equality of access to and control over benefits of project investment
  • # of girls, boys, women and men of different ages, ethnicities, socio-economic groups participating in municipal forums

  • Water Management Strategic Plan and monitoring reports
  • Human resource appraisal files
  • Municipal survey results
  • The constituents of community organizations (girls, boys, women, men)
  • Municipal meeting minutes, regulations, directives, program reports
  • Water Dept. staff and Regional Environmental Health Inspectors
Output

  • Public participation plan and processes are operational
  • A Water Management Strategic Plan is developed with public input
  • The capacity of girls, boys, women and men is developed to participate in municipal decision-making
  • Municipal councilors and managers increase their understanding of and commitment to needs and interests of women, children, other minorities
  • Water quality monitoring systems are in keeping with national standards
  • Water treatment and supply infrastructure is effectively maintained
  • New municipal sanitation/ environmental regulations are enforced
  • Public sensitization campaigns on hygiene and sanitation are implemented
  • Public education projects are implemented by girls, boys, women and men and the groups that represent them

  • # of organizations representing diverse community interests participating in municipal forums
  • Perceptions of girls, women, boys and men that their interests are adequately represented in Strategic Plan
  • Evidence of girls, boys, women, men formulating, defending proposals
  • Evidence of municipal councilors incorporating women/children's positions in new proposals, programs, etc
  • # of adequate, well-utilized, well-maintained water treatment/supply facilities
  • % of businesses, neighbourhoods and households adopting new regulations
  • # of small project grants provided to girls, boys, women, men and their organizations for public education

  • Municipal council meeting minutes
  • Constituents of community groups (girls, boys, women, men)
  • Municipal councilors
  • Regulations, directives, by-laws, programs, processes adopted by municipality since project start-up
  • Water quality data
  • Municipal reports, studies
  • Independent studies, reports commissioned by other parties
  • Municipal surveys
  • Community organizations' position papers
  • Small Project Grant Reports


Performance Measurement Framework - Part l

Collection Methods Frequency Responsibility
Outcome
  • Document review
  • Focus group
  • Survey questionnaire
  • Interviews
  • Creative expression with child constituencies of community organizations
  • Annually
  • Project Director
  • Municipal Focal Point
  • Project Management Committee members
Output
  • Document reviews
  • Observation of council process
  • Observation of process with CSOs constituents
  • Interviews
  • Surveys
  • Focus groups
  • Creative expression with child constituencies
  • Site visits to small projects funded
  • Semi-annually
  • Project Director
  • Municipal Focal Point
  • Project Management Committee members


Suggested Resources


Performance Measurement Framework - Part II

Stakeholders at CIDA have found the following resources to be informative. The list is by no means exhaustive; many other publications exist on child participation. Several websites are also listed below which can be consulted for a greater selection of material.
Resource Description
(2005). Children and Participation: Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation with Children and Young People. Save the Children UK This publication is about participatory information gathering in the process of research, monitoring and evaluation with children and young people.
(2006). Child and Youth Participation Resource Guide. UNICEF. This annotated bibliography presents a selective list of resources on child and youth participation from Asia, Europe, North America, Latin America, Africa, Australia and the Pacific. It provides an overview of existing resources and assists readers in seeking further information through the listed websites and organizational links.
Cockburn, Gail. (2001). Meaningful Youth Participation in International Conferences - A Case Study of the International Conference on War-Affected Children. Winnipeg, Canada: CIDA. This document provides a detailed description of the child participation process at the conference in question, and documents lessons learned with regard to involving young people in such forums.
ECPAT International. (1999). Standing Up for Ourselves: A Study on the Concepts and Practices of the Young People's Rights to Participation. UNICEF. This book provides a basic overview of the principles and practice of child participation from a child-rights perspective. Practical examples focus largely on initiatives related to commercial sexual exploitation of children. This is a good backgrounder for those new to child participation.
Fajerman, L., & Treseder, P. (2000). Children are Service Users Too - A guide to consulting children and young people. London: Save the Children UK This toolkit, although very focused on the British domestic scene of social service organizations, provides useful information on child participation processes, including strategies, checklists, question and answer sections, and examples of good practice.
Hart, Roger. (1997). Children's Participation: The Theory and Practice of Involving Young Citizens in Community Development and Environmental Care. London: Earthscan. This book is written by an environmentalist but has broader relevance. It introduces the theory and practice of children's participation, and has many examples of different types of research along with detailed case studies.
Hart, Roger. (1992). Children's Participation from Tokenism to Citizenship. Florence: UNICEF, Innocenti Insight. This essay, although old, is one of the key texts introducing the principles of and reasons for children's participation in decision-making.
(2007). How to Guide: Child Participation in Education Initiatives. UNICEF. A Guide that highlights successful strategies used to facilitate child participation in educational initiatives in Zimbabwe. Real-life examples are provided for replication and adaptation by other organizations involved in education programmes. The six examples provided explore the issues of child participation in decision-making processes, the participation of very young children and the participation of children in non-formal education initiatives. The Guide also provides practical advice on how to assess the scope and level of child participation, discusses other models for facilitating child participation, addresses social and cultural barriers to child participation and outlines some of the potential negative effects of child participation.
International Institute for Environment and Development. (2001). Children's Participation - Evaluating Effectiveness. PLA Notes 42. London: Earthscan This document examines the evaluation of children's participation in community settings. It is useful in identifying best practices in children's participation and the evaluation of their participation. The document presents case studies from around the world.
Johnson, V. et al. (Eds.). (1998). Stepping Forward - Children and Young People's Participation in the Development Process. London: Intermediate Technology. This book evolved from an international workshop on children's participation held by the Institute of Development Studies, the Institute of Education, and Save the Children UK. The book covers the concepts and ethics of participation, presents case studies from around the world using a variety of participatory methodologies, and highlights future implications and directions. It is a good starting point for background information on participatory research with children.
Lansdown, G. (2001). Promoting Children's Participation in Democratic Decision-Making. Florence: UNICEF, Innocenti Insight. This publication provides background on the theory and practice of child participation. It also includes many examples of different levels of participation across existing international initiatives. It draws on much of the already published research and thinking in the field, and provides a solid overview for those relatively new to the field.
Lewis, A., & Lindsay, G. (2001). Researching Children's Perspectives. London: Open University Press. This book addresses the issues and practicalities of obtaining children's views. It details methods and applications in obtaining children's views in specific projects.
Mann, Gillian and Tolfree, David. (2003). Children's Participation in Research: Reflections from the Care and Protection of Separated Children in Emergencies Project. Save the Children. The paper described ways in which children separated in emergencies have been involved in research about their community and lives. It focuses on identifying the most appropriate and achievable way to involve children given the reality of their context and circumstances, and includes an appendix of specific games to encourage child participation
Plan International Bangladesh (2001). Handbook for Child Focused Community Development Approach This handbook provides a toolkit for placing children at the centre of community development initiatives.
(2004). So You want to Involve Children in Research? Save the Children Sweden. A toolkit offering operational guidance and techniques for eliciting child participation in primary and secondary research
Treseder, P. (Ed.). (1997). Empowering Children and Young People: Training Manual Promoting Involvement in Decision-Making. London: Save the Children, in association with Children's Rights Office. A manual to help professionals empower children so that they can contribute to the decisions that affect them. The manual includes exercises and ideas for session plans.


Websites


Save the Children UK: (There are many books, training manuals, handbooks and pamphlets published by SaveUK on child participation - including age-specific guides on working with children under 12 years and young people 12-18 years.)

Resource Centres for Participatory Learning and Action Network

UNICEF or Innocenti Research Centre



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RBM and Children's Participation: A Guide to Incorporating Child Participation Results into CIDA Programs (PDF 307 KB, 44 pages)