Government of Canada

Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada

www.international.gc.ca

Report to Parliament on the Government of Canada's Official Development Assistance 2012–2013

Table of Contents

Message from the minister

The Honourable Christian Paradis
The Honourable
Christian Paradis

Canada's official development assistance programming is wide-ranging and diverse, reaching deep into the developing world to improve lives and create the conditions that allow societies to become more self-sufficient. We contribute because we are among those countries fortunate enough to have the resources to make a difference, and also because the ideals of caring and compassion are deeply woven into the fabric of who we are. The generous response of Canadians to matching fund campaigns, most recently during the Sahel crisis in the fall of 2012 and in support of the Pennies for Polio campaign in 2013, demonstrates their unwavering commitment to the world's poorest and most vulnerable people.

Canada's international assistance priorities are to stimulate sustainable economic growth, secure the future of children and youth, increase food security, advance democracy, and ensure security and stability. This calls for a whole-of-government approach in which various federal departments and agencies work together to provide official development assistance (ODA) according to their respective mandates and competencies.

The June 2013 amalgamation of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade marked a significant turning point in Canada's approach to development. The new Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development enhances coordination of international assistance with broader Canadian foreign policy objectives, putting development on equal footing with trade and diplomacy. It also allows us to ensure that Canadian tax dollars keep delivering the tangible, sustainable results that help more people overcome poverty. The new department will continue to foster sustainable economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries. In addition, the government will maintain its capacity to respond to crises and provide humanitarian assistance when required.

Last year, 15 departments and agencies provided critical ODA to the developing world. Among CIDA's most noteworthy accomplishments was the establishment of the Canadian International Institute for Extractive Industries and Development, a world-class facility that mobilizes Canadian and international expertise in responsible governance of the extractive sector, an important driver of economic growth in many developing countries.

CIDA also played an important role in keeping children safe from disease, including helping to immunize millions of Afghan children against polio. Canada was one of the first countries to respond to the food and nutrition crisis in Africa's Sahel region, providing six million people with food and nutrition assistance.

To enhance security and stability, the former Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, in partnership with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, provided vital expertise to support peace operations, justice sector reform, and whole-of-government crisis response planning and engagement in Africa, Haiti, the Middle East, and various other countries and regions around the world.

Other departments and agencies that provided ODA last year include the International Development Research Centre, which funded researchers in developing countries to identify solutions to pressing development challenges in such areas as improving health care systems, family nutrition, and educational reforms. Citizenship and Immigration Canada helped more than 9,000 refugees and vulnerable people to gain access to health care, social services, and language training during their first 12 months in Canada.

Environment Canada supported initiatives ranging from monitoring water quality to improving the meteorological and hydrologic capacities of developing countries. Finance Canada and Export Development Canada worked together to forgive loans to heavily indebted developing countries, allowing them to break free from the debilitating debt that impedes efforts to alleviate poverty. These are just a few examples of how Canada is working to improve lives in the developing world. With a focus on efficiency and accountability, we are always seeking to get the most out of every Canadian tax dollar spent on development.

Canada remains committed to promoting freedom, prosperity, and the rule of law in the world, and development is key to the achievement of this objective. Canadians should take enormous pride in their development work and in the contributions that the Canadian government is making all over the world on their behalf. Together, we are making a difference in the lives of people less fortunate than ourselves, and helping create a secure and prosperous world for current and future generations.

The Honourable Christian Paradis, P.C., M.P.
Minister of International Development and Minister for La Francophonie


This is the fifth report on Canadian official development assistance since the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (the Act) came into force on June 28, 2008.

This report meets the reporting requirements of subsections 5(1) and 5(3) of the Act.

The statistical report required under subsection 5(2) of the Act, with details about disbursements counted as official development assistance, will be required by the end of March 2014 on DFATD's website.

Introduction

Development Assistance

The Government of Canada's longstanding commitment to alleviate global poverty is a direct reflection of Canadian values of compassion and generosity. Canada's development efforts provide essential assistance to the world's poor and create opportunities for developing countries to generate sustainable economic growth.

In 2012-2013, the Government remained committed to maximizing the impact of its aid dollars by ensuring that its assistance was focused, efficient and accountable. Among its many accomplishments, Canada continued to lead the Muskoka Initiative to reduce maternal, newborn and child mortality, helped make education accessible to more than two million children, contributed towards global efforts to eradicate polio, and initiated new, innovative approaches to leveraging private sector capital to address global development challenges. This report highlights the work of 15 federal departments and agencies that helped Canada deliver development and humanitarian assistance to those most in need.

Official Development Assistance Accountability Act

As part of the Government's ongoing commitment to ensure transparency and accountability to Canadians, the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (ODAAA) came into force in 2008. The Act applies to all federal departments and agencies providing official development assistance (ODA) and requires the Government of Canada to report annually to Parliament on its development assistance activities.

The Act establishes three conditions that must be satisfied for international assistance to be considered official development assistance. Assistance must

  • contribute to poverty reduction,
  • take into account the perspectives of the poor, and
  • be consistent with international human rights standards.

Canada's ODA advances the Government's foreign policy objectives: 1) increasing economic opportunity through international engagement; 2) mitigating security risks; and 3) promoting Canadian principles and values such as freedom, democracy, human rights and the rule of law. Within the context of these objectives, and with an overarching goal of reducing poverty, the vast majority of Canadian international assistance focuses on five priorities:

  • stimulating sustainable economic growth
  • securing the future of children and youth
  • increasing food security
  • advancing democracy
  • ensuring security and stability

These priorities are implemented by a number of federal government departments and agencies (see Table 1, page 4) working in close collaboration with partners in Canada and abroad.

2012-2013 Highlights

The following is a sampling of ODA activities undertaken by the Government of Canada in 2012-2013:

  • One of the worst food and nutrition crises ever to hit Africa occurred in 2012, affecting 18.7 million people in the Sahel region. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) was an early responder to the crisis, providing food and nutrition assistance to six million affected people in the region and treating 850,000 children suffering from severe malnutrition.
  • Canada continued to be an international leader in improving the health of mothers, newborns and children. In Afghanistan, for example, CIDA increased its efforts to eradicate polio by contributing to the vaccination of more than seven million children.
  • To combat chronic hunger and malnutrition, CIDA supported a wide range of global initiatives to help developing countries increase food security for those most vulnerable. In Ghana, where some two million people have limited access to food, CIDA exceeded its initial targets, reaching almost 750,000 individuals in northern Ghana and achieving a significant reduction in acute malnutrition among vulnerable children under five.
  • In 2012-2013, CIDA established the Canadian International Institute for Extractive Industries and Development. Drawing on innovative policy research, as well as lessons learned from Canada's extractive sector management, the Institute will help provide developing countries with the support they need to manage and govern their natural resources responsibly.
  • In 2012, Canada committed $40 million over five years to AgResults—an innovative, Canadian-led public-private partnership that supports private sector initiatives that seek new solutions to food security challenges, but only pays out funds to those who are able to demonstrate measurable results. Led by Finance Canada, this approach to development finance encourages the private sector to find innovative ways to help smallholder farmers and their communities overcome agricultural challenges.
  • Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada's Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START) program continued to serve as Canada's centre of expertise for stabilization and reconstruction efforts in fragile and conflict-affected areas throughout the world including Afghanistan, Haiti, South Sudan and Sudan.  START also provided $10.5 million to 23 projects focused on protecting women and children and promoting their equality.
  • The International Development Research Centre (IDRC), which supports researchers in developing countries to help solve development problems, invested in hundreds of research initiatives in 2012-2013 including addressing the world's highest maternal and child mortality rates in Nigeria; improving nutrition and soil fertility in Ethiopia;— and establishing legal reforms to reduce sexual violence in South Asia.
  • Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) provided essential services including access to health care, social services and language training, to more than 9,000 refugees and vulnerable persons (the displaced and persecuted) during their first 12 months in Canada. CIC works with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees to ensure that Canada's resettlement program offers protection to those who need it most.
  • In an effort to enhance the livelihoods of vulnerable populations, by preserving and improving the environment in developing countries, Environment Canada provided support to various multilateral environmental organizations including the United Nations Environment Program, and to environmental projects such as initiatives in Chile and Guatemala that help restore degraded soils.
  • In 2012-2013 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's (RCMP) International Policing Development Branch deployed police to peace operations in nine countries that had experienced conflict or upheaval. These efforts to rebuild and strengthen local police services help create a safer environment in which sustainable, long-term development can occur.   
  • Natural Resources Canada delivered more than $3 million in development assistance to improve conservation and sustainable management of forest resources in francophone Africa through the African Model Forest Initiative (AMFI). In the Congo Basin, for example, the AMFI is working to address some of the most serious illegal logging issues in the world.
  • Other federal government organizations also undertook initiatives that constituted ODA as per the Act:
  • Export Development Canada, in coordination with Finance Canada, wrote off $197 million in loans and accumulated interest to heavily indebted developing countries.
  • Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada's continued participation in the Pan American Health Organization contributed to combating disease, strengthening health systems, and improving people's quality of life in member states.
  • Parks Canada contributed to the preservation of natural and cultural heritage in developing countries through its involvement with organizations such as the World Conservation Union and the World Heritage Fund.
  • Industry Canada contributed to universal access to communications and information systems through its involvement with the International Telecommunications Union (ITU).
  • Labour Program funded activities that promote better enforcement of national labour laws and greater respect for internationally recognized labour standards.
  • Transport Canada contributed to the Universal Postal Union.

Summaries by Department

A number of Canadian federal government departmentsFootnote 1 disbursed official development assistance (ODA) fundsFootnote 2 in 2012-2013.

The following pages summarize the activities undertaken with these funds under the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act. Additional details will appear in a statistical report, to be published by the end of March 2014.

Table 1 : ODA Disbursements by Department - 2012-2013

Department Disbursements
($ millions)
Canadian International Development Agency 3,446.32
Department of Finance Canada 544.56
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada 333.53
International Development Research Centre 254.59
Export Development Canada 197.43
Citizenship and Immigration Canada 112.51
Environment Canada 52.61
Royal Canadian Mounted Police 34.10
Health Canada 11.87
Public Health Agency of Canada 11.74
Natural Resources Canada 3.16
Parks Canada 2.16
Labour Program 1.9
Industry Canada 0.87
Transport Canada 0.29
Sub-total 5,007.64
Services supporting CIDA activities Footnote 3 24.05
Total 5,031.69

Source: CIDA

Canadian International Development Agency
$3,446.32 Million

On June 26, 2013, the Economic Action Plan 2013 Act, No. 1 (Bill C-60) received Royal Assent, enacting the provision from the Economic Action Plan 2013, which announced the amalgamation of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) and created the new Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD). The amalgamation will allow the Government of Canada to enhance the coordination of development assistance and foreign policy, improving the effectiveness of Canada's international efforts. Since this report covers a period prior to the amalgamation (2012-2013), CIDA and DFAIT are represented as two separate entities. In the report for the next fiscal year, DFATD will encompass these two entities.

In 2012-2013, CIDA was the government's principal organization responsible for managing Canada's official development assistance (ODA). CIDA's ODAFootnote 4for 2012-2013 totalled $3,446.32 million.

CIDA has led Canada's international effort to help alleviate poverty by supporting programs and projects in developing regions of the world. The Agency has also engaged in policy development to support Canada's development objectives in a manner consistent with Canadian foreign policy.

CIDA's programs reflected the global consensus on international development agreed to by developing countries, other donors and international partners with which Canada works. This consensus includes agreement on the key objectives of development assistance—the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)Footnote 5—which set targets and deadlines for progress in poverty reduction, food security, education, child and maternal health, HIV/AIDS, malaria, gender equity, environmental sustainability and global partnerships and development.

CIDA targeted its efforts in the sectors and countries where it could have the greatest impact. Accordingly, the Agency concentrated 80 percent of its bilateral efforts in 20 countries of focus. CIDA's development assistance program focused on three of Canada's five priorities for international assistance.

  • Increasing food security
    For women, men and children in the developing world, a lack of sufficient, safe and nutritious food represents a central obstacle to reducing poverty. Food insecurity undermines health and limits a person's ability to learn, earn a living, and contribute to the community.
  • Securing a future for children and youth
    Children and youth access to health care services, education, and safe and secure environments, is critical to improve their quality of life and increase their opportunity for growth, resulting in productive citizens who contribute to the development of their country.
  • Stimulating sustainable economic growth
    Sustainable economic growth is critical to reducing poverty. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America have repeatedly shown that fostering economic growth helps people permanently lift themselves out of poverty.

In addition to CIDA's three thematic priorities, the Agency was also engaged in advancing democracy and ensuring security and stability. As well, the Agency played a significant leadership role in coordination with other government departments and key humanitarian partners, in supporting the Government of Canada's response to humanitarian crises around the world.

CIDA integrated environmental sustainability, gender equality, and sound governance into all of its policies and programming initiatives. This was achieved through an established framework that helped ensure that all initiatives were informed through an analysis of these crosscutting issues. 

CIDA remained committed to inclusive consultations with Canadians and with our stakeholders overseas including partner governments, other donors, and civil society.

Table 2: CIDA Aid Spending by Thematic Priority 2012-2013

Thematic Priority Spending ($)
Increasing food securityFootnote 6 687,281,103
Securing the future of children and youth 1,011,197,191
Stimulating sustainable economic growth 954,595,972
Advancing democracy 114,172,533
Ensuring security and stability 8,641,744
International humanitarian assistanceFootnote 7 346,789,219
Not Assigned to a Thematic Priority
Health, education and social servicesFootnote 8 30,504,231
OtherFootnote 9 72,061,607
Administrative costs 221,072,671
Total 3,446,316,271

Thematic Priorities

Increasing food security
$687.3 million

By carrying out Canada's Food Security Strategy, CIDA continued to improve access to safe and nutritious food for those who need it most in the developing world. Canada's food security initiatives are guided by three paths: sustainable agricultural development, food assistance and nutrition, and research and development.

Highlights of CIDA's work on food security in 2012-2013 include the following:

  • At the 2012 G8 Summit, Canada reinforced its leadership in combating food insecurity. Along with the other G8 members, Canada announced its support for the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition. The New Alliance aims to raise 50 million people in Sub-Saharan Africa out of poverty over the next 10 years by engaging private sector partners to increase investment in sustainable agricultural development and mobilize policy commitments from African governments on food security. In 2012, Canada committed $71 million to Ghana and $98 million to Ethiopia to support their three-year New Alliance country cooperation frameworks. In particular, the "Assistance to Ghanaian Food Insecure" initiative reached 746,245 members (445,846 women and 300,399 men) of vulnerable households in northern Ghana between 2010 and 2012, exceeding its target of 662,250 beneficiaries. By 2012, the project had achieved an eight-percent reduction in acute malnutrition among vulnerable children under five, dropping from 14.7 percent in 2010 to 6.7 percent in 2012.
  • Working with its international partners and other donors, Canada continued to provide policy leadership in the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) MovementFootnote 10 launched in 2010. This effort aims at greater coherence, efficiency and impact by coordinating initiatives at the global and country level, supporting the scale up of direct nutrition interventions, and promoting the adoption of a multisectoral approach.
  • Canada successfully chaired the negotiations for the 2012 Food Assistance Convention (FAC), and was one of the first Parties to ratify the new FAC to ensure that minimum levels of food assistance are made available to help meet the food and nutrition needs of the most vulnerable populations. In February 2013, Canada announced its minimum annual commitment of $250 million in food assistance funding.
  • With Canadian Government support, the Canadian Foodgrains Bank delivered 40,677 tonnes of food assistance to 2.1 million people in 37 countries, and the United Nations World Food Programme delivered 3.5 million tonnes of food assistance to more than 97 million people in 80 countries. The vast majority of beneficiaries—82 million—were women and children. This included the distribution of emergency food assistance to 2.5 million people in Syria.
  • With long-term institutional support from Canada and other donors, the International Fund for Agricultural Development trained more than 4.5 million people in 2012 to use improved agricultural practices and technologies, enabling them to increase productivity. An additional 30 million borrowers received financial assistance, making it possible for them to invest in their farms and businesses.
  • Since 1971, Canada and other donors have supported the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research to improve wheat, maize and rice crops in developing countries, resulting in benefits of more than US$10 billion annually.
  • Through Canada's support, the Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance met its 2012-2013 targets of 10 million households (at least 50 percent women-led) using improved and marketable bean varieties, new crop management techniques, and micronutrient-rich, bean-based products. Farm yields improved across eight Alliance countries, with some doubling yields.

Securing the future of children and youth
$1,011.2 million

Over the past year, CIDA continued making steady progress in implementing its Children and Youth Strategy, focusing on three paths—child survival (including maternal health), access to quality education, and safe and secure futures for children and youth.

As part of its focus on child survival, Canada worked with governments and global partners to accelerate efforts aimed at improving maternal, newborn, and child health. Canada's leadership and substantial investment in the Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health has contributed to strengthening health systems to deliver essential services, reducing the impact of diseases and illnesses that primarily affect women and children, and improving nutrition for women and children.

Canada's approach is already showing tangible results at the country level. For example,

  • In Tanzania, Canada has helped provide primary health care services, including maternal, newborn, and child health services, to more than 43 million people through 4,600 local health facilities.
  • Canada worked closely with the Ottawa-based Micronutrient Initiative to provide: 186 million children with twice-annual vitamin A supplements that help reduce blindness, illness and death; more than 300 million people with iodized salt, resulting in an estimated six million newborns protected from iodine deficiency in 2012; and more than five million children with zinc and oral rehydration tablets to treat diarrheal diseases.
  • CIDA continued its polio vaccination programming in Afghanistan, helping immunize more than seven million children and reducing the incidence of the disease for the most part to the southern region of the country.
  • Since setting up systems for tracking results in 2004, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria, with the support of Canada and other donors, has ensured that 1.7 million HIV-positive pregnant women received antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV transmission to infants.

In 2012-2013, Canada's contributions helped improve access to quality basic education by promoting girls' education and building national education systems in a number of countries, including fragile states. In collaboration with other stakeholders, Canada is contributing to significant increases in primary school enrolment for girls and boys in developing countries. Canada's support in 2012-2013 contributed to the following results:

  • In Afghanistan, Canada and other donors supported the Ministry of Education in ensuring access to quality education for approximately 7.7 million children, three million of whom are girls.
  • In Bangladesh, Canada and other donors helped 340,225 poor children (of whom 61 percent are girls) obtain pre-primary education through 12,000 non-formal pre-primary schools, and 673,815 poor children (of whom 63 percent are girls) obtain primary education through 22,718 non-formal primary schools.
  • In Peru, Canada contributed to improved education for 171,805 young indigenous children (of whom 49.1 percent are girls) whose first language is not Spanish.

CIDA has supported developing countries in ensuring the safety and security of children and youth by improving the livelihoods of street youth, establishing laws that protect children, and offering youth-at-risk positive alternatives to violence and crime. For example,

  • With long-term institutional support from Canada and other donors, UNICEF supported social protection interventions last year in 104 countries for children and families affected by the global economic crisis (to provide access to health, education, nutrition and other services). This included large-scale national social cash-transfer programs that reached hundreds of thousands of children, including orphans and child-headed households.
  • In Ukraine, Canada helped lay the groundwork for a new criminal justice system for minors. This included the implementation of a pilot project for a youth attendance centre in Melitopol, which is supporting the rehabilitation of 23 young offenders and their reintegration into society. This pilot is to be scaled up across the country in  2014.
  • In the Democratic Republic of Congo, Canada helped more than 4,500 survivors of sexual violence, mostly women and girls, receive medical, psychosocial and legal assistance; as well, 683 survivors acquire income-generating skills that have contributed to their economic empowerment.
  • Canada's support to the Children Lead the Way project of Save the Children improved working conditions for children and youth in Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Nicaragua and Peru by strengthening working children's participation in advocacy. Approximately 6,000 girls and boys participated in activities to influence local and national governments on issues such as education, health and human rights. Overall, 14,655 women and 14,657 men have been sensitized to issues such as child rights and protection, working children, and exploitation.

Stimulating sustainable economic growth
$954.6 million

In 2012-2013, CIDA continued to assist its development partners to create the conditions for strong and sustainable private-sector-led growth through its Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy. The strategy's three paths—building economic foundations, growing businesses, and investing in people—target the main conditions for achieving private sector led sustainable economic growth and poverty reduction.

CIDA recognized the important role of the private sector in achieving sustainable economic growth in developing countries, and of leveraging actors of all sizes as part of the Government of Canada's efforts to reduce global poverty. Therefore, CIDA pursued results in the areas of investment (to leverage more private investment in developing countries), partnerships (to support more co-financed partnerships between the private sector and not-for-profit partners) and innovation (to support more bold ideas and innovative financing solutions to solve intractable development challenges).

Canada is working in partnership with multilateral development institutions to encourage private investment, partnerships and innovation. On April 23, 2012, Finance Canada, DFAIT and CIDA signed a Strategic Cooperation Document with the International Finance Corporation to improve Canada's coordination and collaboration with the private sector arm of the World Bank Group. CIDA also worked with the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency to develop a Conflict-Affected and Fragile Economies Facility. The Facility will help to increase foreign investment in fragile and conflict-affected countries by supporting private sector firms' access to political risk insurance.

With long-term institutional support from Canada and other donors, international financial institutions have enabled sustainable economic growth in developing countries. For example, as of 2012, the African Development Bank had helped to install 1,110 megawatts of power capacity, enough to supply 20 million households, and had invested in infrastructure to improve access to transport for 34 million people. Between 2009 and 2012, the Asian Development Bank provided more than 3.3 million households with new water supply and 3.3 million households with new sanitation services.

Natural resources, particularly extractives, represent one of the fastest-growing economic sectors in many developing countries. Canada is helping resource-rich countries sustainably develop their extractive sector by focusing on improving resource governance capacity, supporting local economic development, and enabling communities to maximize benefits from extractive initiatives. Through these actions, Canada also seeks to advance international standards and guidelines, and promote best practices for improved performance. Key initiatives include:

  • In 2012-2013, Canada established the Canadian International Institute for Extractive Industries and Development. Housed by the University of British Columbia, in coalition with Simon Fraser University and École Polytechnique de Montréal, the Institute will serve as the Canadian flagship centre for private sector, non-governmental and academic expertise in resource governance in developing countries.
  • Recognized as a global leader in promoting transparency and accountability in the extractive sector, Canada is a major supporter of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). Through support to a multidonor trust fund managed by the World Bank, Canada is assisting 37 countries to implement the EITI standards. Canada's strategic and early bilateral support of EITI in Mozambique and Tanzania was instrumental in both countries achieving EITI-compliant status by the end of 2012. Canada's support to the Tanzania Minerals Audit Agency to monitor and audit mining operations has already helped the Agency significantly increase government revenue from this sector.
  • On January 8, 2013, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced Canada's contribution of $15.3 million over five years to support African countries in the transparent, equitable and optimal development of Africa's mineral resources. Through this commitment, Canada became a leading contributor to the African Mineral Development Centre, an initiative of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa that aims to improve the governance of Africa's mining systems, which hold considerable potential to contribute to the social and economic development of the continent.
  • In Peru, Canada funded the training of municipal officials responsible for investing natural resource royalties in public works projects in 30 municipalities. This training has translated into better municipal investments that are improving the lives of local populations, with projects in education, health, transportation and irrigation currently benefiting up to 95,000 people.

To support the growth of businesses, especially those led by women, CIDA has placed emphasis on the challenges women face in participating fully and equally in many economies as employees, employers, farmers and entrepreneurs. For example, Canada's programming in Pakistan with the Mennonite Economic Development Associates helped more than 20,000 self-employed poor women to improve the efficiency of their businesses and their access to markets. As a result, the women who participated saw increases in income (up to 144 percent), in ownership of assets and in their participation in household decision making.

As well, CIDA supported developing countries in their efforts to help young people and adults acquire the skills to secure productive employment and contribute to their communities. For instance, in Colombia, 11,700 youth were provided with business and leadership training in the conflict-affected province of Nariño, and 2,557 youth (1,402 girls and 1,155 boys) received training through the Youth Leadership and Gender Equality School. Sixty business plans have been prepared by youth who will now receive training in sustainable agriculture and crop management.

Advancing Democracy
$ 114.2 million

Democracy is a cornerstone of sustainable development and poverty reduction. In partner countries, Canada engages in policy dialogue and identifies specific areas where investment in the advancement of democracy can be most effective. The following examples illustrate the impact of the investments made by CIDA and its partners in 2012-2013:

  • the development of a new draft Constitution in Zimbabwe;
  • credible elections or referenda in Kenya, Pakistan and Ukraine;
  • strengthened justice systems in Jamaica and the West Bank and Gaza;
  • support for human rights: on a wide scale in eight South-East Asian countries, in highly targeted initiatives such as a National Human Rights Ombudsman's Office in Bolivia, and through the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights; and
  • with long-term institutional support from Canada and other donors, the United Nations Development Programme helped 95 countries between 2008 and 2012 to improve the delivery of public services, strengthened the capacities of more than 60 parliaments and 70 human rights institutions, helped more than 60 countries with electoral cycle management, and ensured the participation of 17.3 million underrepresented and marginalized people in elections and constitutional processes.

International Humanitarian Assistance

More frequent and severe natural disasters, global economic instability affecting food and energy prices, and increasing conflicts and violence around the world all contributed to the greater need for humanitarian assistance in 2012-2013. Although the United Nations' initial funding request of $7.7 billion to assist more than 51 million people in the developing world was itself unprecedented, by mid-2012 the request was revised to $8.8 billion to assist 62 million people.

In partnership with various other government departments and international institutions, CIDA made an important contribution to global efforts to respond rapidly and effectively to crises in 40 countries, including Colombia, Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen. The following are examples of the results achieved in  2012-2013:

  • In 2012, Canada was one of the key providers of humanitarian assistance in the Sahel region in West Africa, where 18.7 million people were affected by a food and nutrition crisis. With Canada's support, partners, including the World Food Programme, provided food and nutrition assistance to six million people in the region, while UNICEF and its partners, including CIDA, treated some 850,000 children suffering from severe acute malnutrition.
  • In response to the escalating conflict in Syria, Canada contributed to meeting the basic needs of four million people within the country, as well as more than one million refugees in the region.
  • Canada provided humanitarian assistance in response to 33 natural disasters throughout the year, including Typhoon Bopha in the Philippines.
  • CIDA and the Canadian Red Cross Society formalized a strategic partnership in 2012-2013 to strengthen Canada's ability to respond to humanitarian crises.
  • Canada supported the implementation of the United Nations Transformative AgendaFootnote 11 to improve the effectiveness of humanitarian responses through greater predictability, accountability, responsibility and partnership. Emergency response capacity has been reinforced at the global level according to an agreed division of labour.
Table 3: CIDA Breakdown of Spending 2012-2013

Spending Amount ($ millions)
Bilateral aid (program branches' country- or region-specific initiatives, humanitarian assistance) 2,494.62
Multilateral aid (long-term institutional support to multilateral institutions) 730.62
Administrative costs 221.07
Total 3,446.32

Summary of CIDA's Departmental Performance Report

Paragraph 5 (1) (e) of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act specifies that a summary of the Departmental Performance Report (DPR) of the Canadian International Development Agency must be part of this report.

The summary of CIDA's 2011-2012 DPR is provided in the appendix to this report.

Department of Finance Canada
$544.56 Million

Finance Canada's ODAFootnote 12 for fiscal year 2012-2013 totalled $544,562,173.

Reporting of Finance Canada's payments under the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act (ODAAA) was informed by web consultations held by the department in December 2012. Input received through the consultations will be used to inform the engagement of the Department of Finance with its partners and will lead to more robust reporting through the annual Report on Operations under the Bretton Woods and Related Agreements Act. The report will now more explicitly describe how our engagement through the World Bank Group aligns with the ODAAA.

During the fiscal year 2012-2013, the Department of Finance made the following ODA disbursements:

International Development Association: $441,610,000

The International Development Association (IDA) is the World Bank Group's principal financing tool for the world's poorest countries, providing them with interest-free loans and grants. The Government of Canada is providing $1.3 billion to IDA over three years, beginning in 2011-2012, as part of its 16th replenishment round (IDA 16)—making Canada the sixth-largest donor. This contribution equates to payments of $441.6 million in each of the three years covered by IDA 16.

This funding allows IDA to finance programs that boost economic growth, reduce inequalities and improve people's living conditions. A particular focus of Canada's negotiation for IDA 16 was to enhance IDA's focus on effective aid delivery, and to provide special assistance for fragile states such as Afghanistan and Haiti while ensuring countries do not take on unsustainable levels of debt.

Discussions are presently underway for IDA's 17th replenishment round, which would provide financing to member countries beginning July 1, 2014. Canada's updated financial contribution will be determined through the course of this negotiation process.

More information is available on the International Development Association (IDA)Footnote 13 website.

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Capital Increase: $41,752,173

In response to the 2008-2009 financial crisis, a series of coordinated capital increases were granted to all major multilateral development banks, including the World Bank Group. The members of the World Bank Group's International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) authorized a capital increase of USD $86 billion, of which Canada's share is USD $1.6 billion, comprised of:

  • USD $98 million to be paid in cash; and
  • USD $1.5 billion as a guarantee subject to call in the event of future capital requirements.

Members have five years over which to subscribe to the shares allocated in this increase. Canada has chosen to meet its financial commitment ahead of schedule, including a contribution of USD $680,984,575 in 2012-2013, of which USD $40,853,398 (CAD $41,752,173) was paid in cash and the remainder being subject to call. This contribution fulfills Canada's capital commitments to the IBRD.

Multilateral Debt Relief: $51,200,000

Multilateral debt-relief disbursements are considered to be ODA-eligible as they contribute to poverty reduction by freeing up resources (which would otherwise be used to service sovereign debts) for use in more productive investments (e.g. health, education, infrastructure, etc.) that support long-term economic growth and development. Further, debt-relief recipients self-direct additional resources based on their individual poverty reduction strategies.

Canada has been very active in the development and financing of multilateral debt relief through the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI), which frees up resources for recipient countries for redirection to poverty reduction initiatives. Canada has committed to provide the IMF, World Bank, and African Development Fund (ADF) with $2.5 billion in order to cover Canada's share of the costs over the life of MDRI, which extends until 2054

In 2009, with the passage of Bill C-59 (The Economic Recovery Act), the Government of Canada modified and strengthened the payment mechanism for our annual MDRI payments. The modification places Canada's MDRI payments under statutory authority and provides further reassurance to the IMF, World Bank, and ADF that Canada is fully able to honour its $2.5-billion commitment. This new legislation enabled the Government of Canada to sign new MDRI instruments of commitment with the ADF and IDA in February 2011.

More information is available on The Multilateral Debt Relief InitiativeFootnote 14 website.

AgRESULTS: $10,000,000

Innovation is critical to achieving agriculture productivity gains required to meet growing global demand. At the 2012 G20 Los Cabos Summit, Canada announced $40 million over five years for AgResults. AgResults uses pull mechanisms such as advance market commitments that pay out only once results are achieved, to leverage private-sector investment and innovation toward addressing global agriculture challenges, with a focus on smallholder farmers and their communities.

Canada's contribution to AgResults, along with other donor contributions totalling $100 million, will serve to develop and fund pilot projects intended to incentivize the adoption and/or development of technologies with significant societal benefits, but where market failures have undermined this potential. Pilot structures will encourage social innovation to achieve extension consistent with consumer preferences and constraints. Finally, funds also support a rigorous evaluation agenda to test this new approach to development finance.

Since the Los Cabos launch, significant progress has been made in setting up AgResults' financial and administrative structure, with evaluation and secretariat functions awarded through competitive processes. Furthermore, initial pilot projects are being developed to target improved harvest management and nutritional fortification of staple crops in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2012-2013, the Department of Finance provided $10 million in grant support to the IBRD, which manages the financial intermediary fund through which donors make their contributions, as part of Canada's $40 million commitment.

NON-ODA International Assistance

International Finance Corporation Catalyst Fund

In the context of the Copenhagen Accord, Canada agreed to provide $1.2 billion in short-term ("fast-start") climate financing to help developing countries respond to climate change. As part of this commitment, Canada provided $75 million to the World Bank Group's International Finance Corporation (IFC) Catalyst Fund. The Fund will invest in venture and equity capital in developing countries on a commercial basis, with a focus on sectors where there are opportunities to promote efficient use of resources as a way to mitigate and adapt to climate change. These sectors include renewable energy, energy efficiency, water, agriculture and forestry.

Given that Canada's investment in the Fund is on commercial terms, it does not meet the ODAAA's concessionality criteria and as such, Canada has not included this investment within its ODA figures for 2012-2013. However, the IFC's social and environmental safeguards apply to all investments made through the Fund, and its investment objectives broadly respect the spirit of the Act regarding poverty reduction, perspectives of the poor, and human rights.

Summary of Representations Made by Canada at the Bretton Woods Institutions

The timing of the release of the Report on Operations under the Bretton Woods and Related Agreements Act has been adjusted such that it now corresponds with the release of the present report. In accordance with the Act, full information regarding Canada's engagement with the Bretton Woods institution is now available through the web site of the Department of FinanceFootnote 15.

Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
$333.53 Million

Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) disbursed a total of $333.53 million in official development assistanceFootnote 16 (ODA) for fiscal year 2012-2013 (Graph 1). An additional $98.67 million in non-ODA was also disbursed for a total of $431.35 million in total international assistance (Graph 2).

Graph 1Thematic priorities and crosscutting support: DFAIT ODA for 2012-2013

Pie chart

Graph 1 - description: DFAIT ODA for fiscal year 2012-2013:

Ensuring Security and Stability-$83.69M;
Advancing Democracy-$18.50M;
Securing the Future of Children and Youth-$8.11M;
Stimulating Sustainable Economic Growth-$6.50M;
Assessed Contributions to International Organizations-$113.03M;
Canada Fund for Local Initiatives-$15.22M;
Voluntary Contributions to Francophonie-$7.27M;
Services Rendered Abroad-$81.21M.

Of the five thematic priorities for Canada's international assistance, DFAIT's broad range of international assistance programming focused on the following four: 1) Ensuring Security and Stability; 2) Advancing Democracy; 3) Securing the Future of Children and Youth; and 4) Stimulating Sustainable Economic Growth. In addition, DFAIT provided international assistance through assessed contributions to multilateral organizations, the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives, voluntary contributions to La Francophonie, as well as through services rendered to CIDA personnel at Canada's diplomatic and consular missions abroad.

Thematic Priorities

Ensuring Security and Stability: $83.69 million

Global Peace and Security Fund: $73.69 million

The Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF) supports the operations of the Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force (START) and is used to conduct international assistance programming in fragile and conflict-affected states such as Afghanistan, Haiti, Libya, South Sudan, Sudan and Syria.

START was initially created to fill a policy, institutional, funding and programming gap between humanitarian and long-term development assistance and the Department of National Defence's (DND) military and training assistance. START has since established itself as a platform for whole-of-government engagement and policy development in security and stability programming. START provides the Government with a rapid response mechanism by offering effective and timely responses to humanitarian and political emergencies, natural disasters, and armed conflicts abroad.

In partnership with DFAIT personnel, departments such as the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), Correctional Service of Canada (CSC), Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) and DND actively participated in GPSF programming in 2012-2013. Their combined efforts provided critical expertise in areas of peace operations, security and justice sector reform as well as whole-of-government crisis response planning and engagement. Programming in some of the most difficult environments in the world, START served as a platform to channel Government of Canada funding to initiatives that align with Canadian interests and foreign policy priorities, including the following:

  • In the broader Middle East and North Africa, START contributed approximately $6.8 million to peacebuilding, government reform and transition efforts including in Libya and Tunisia. As well, START provided material and equipment support to Jordan to assist with the increasing needs associated with handling the continuing influx of refugees. START also continued its support to the Middle East Peace Process by contributing close to $1 million to enhance institutional capacities of the Palestinian Authority, in order to establish a safe environment in the West Bank conducive to Israel's security priorities.
  • In Sudan and South Sudan, more than $5 million was disbursed in the areas of peace support and peacebuilding. In South Sudan, START funded 13 projects that were aimed at improving the new government's capacity to implement the rule of law (including police training), uphold human rights, and provide security and basic services to its population.
  • In Afghanistan, approximately $7.7 million was provided in support of regional diplomacy, justice sector reform, the Afghanistan—Pakistan Cooperation Process, civil society organizations, police and prison service capacity building, and mine action.
  • In Haiti, $17.4 million was disbursed to support capacity building activities in the areas of post-earthquake infrastructure reconstruction and engineering; the development of a more effective, accountable and professional rule of law system through the training and equipping of police, corrections, and border management officers, as well as the continued deployment of 85 RCMP officers and 19 Correctional Service of Canada officers to MINUSTAH.
  • In Africa, more than $8 million was provided to fund the deployment of Canadian police officers to Côte d'Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and bolster the capacity of Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Tanzania and Togo to serve in regional and multinational peace operations. As well, support was provided to the African Union to develop the police and civilian components of the African Standby Force.
  • Reflecting Canada's commitment to the promotion and protection of women and children's human rights and equality, all START projects addressed these issues as a crosscutting theme. In addition, 23 projects (totalling $10.5 million) were explicitly focused on the reduction of violence against women, children and other vulnerable populations as well as the improvement of women's rights and access to justice.
  • In 2012-2013, approximately $3.6 million in START funding contributed to more than four million square metres of land and infrastructure being cleared of Explosive Remnants of War (ERW) in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, Libya, Palau, South Sudan and Tajikistan.
Global Partnership Program: $10 million

In 2012-2013, $10 million was provided to the Chernobyl Shelter Fund of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, through the Global Partnership Program. This disbursement contributed to the final instalment of Prime Minister Harper's 2011 $30-million pledge towards environmental remediation work and safety improvements to the site of the Chernobyl accident. Canada's contribution supports the establishment of a new containment shelter over the reactor site, which aims to prevent releases of radioactive material into the environment.

Non-ODA International AssistanceFootnote 17

In addition to ODA, DFAIT's non-ODA international assistance programming related to security and stability reached $97.81 million in 2012-2013. This programming complements the department's ODA programs and contributes to achieving Canada's international priorities. The majority of DFAIT's non-ODA support for security and stability is centred on four programs:

  • The Global Partnership Program: Focusing on securing weapons of mass destruction (WMD)-related materials and knowledge globally, this program supports the G8-led Global Partnership Against the Spread of WMD and reduces the international threat posed by nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical terrorism.
  • The Anti-Crime Capacity Building Program: This program supports capacity building through training, equipment, and coordination throughout the Americas including security sector reform and counter-narcotics efforts, to combat the threat of transnational organized crime. Recently, this program also addressed human smuggling in other regions including Southeast Asia.
  • The Counter-Terrorism Capacity Building Program: This program provides assistance to foreign states to help them better prevent and respond to terrorist activity through the provision of training, funding, equipment and expertise. This program is delivered through Canadian government departments and agencies, as well as through partnerships with international organizations, key allies and non-governmental organizations.
  • The Afghanistan Counter-Narcotics ProgramFootnote 18: This program supports a series of projects implemented by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to address the threat of illicit drugs from Afghanistan.

Advancing Democracy: $18.50 millionFootnote 19

The Stabilization and Reconstruction Task Force's (START) activities also include initiatives that advance democracy around the world by providing support to democratic participation and civil society, legal and judicial reforms, elections, human rights, media and information flows as well as non-partisan support for legislatures and political parties.

In 2012-2013, DFAIT allocated $11.3 million to the Democracy Envelope of the Glyn Berry Program to support democracy around the world. The Democracy Envelope was used to support democracy in fragile states, in states in transition to democracy and in authoritarian regimes, including the Middle East and North Africa, Belarus, Burma, Pakistan, Zimbabwe and the Americas. These activities included support for the following: increased women's political participation in Libya; increased youth participation in elections in South America; assistance to human rights and democracy defenders under attack; strengthened legislative assemblies in Bolivia; bilateral electoral observation mission in Ukraine; and independent media and increasing civil society organizations' capacity to engage effectively with governments to influence decision makers and create more inclusive environments.

The following are some of the projects funded:

  • In Asia, democracy was strengthened through support to independent media and media reform, the promotion of education for democracy, as well as the enhancement of political parties and parliamentary capacity to better respond to the needs of citizens including by increasing the knowledge of parliamentarians and politicians on power-sharing mechanisms in ethnically and culturally diverse contexts.
  • Canada supported the democratic aspirations of people in North Africa through initiatives aimed at increasing political participation, with a focus on greater involvement by women in the political sphere, as well as improving electoral processes and electoral dispute resolution mechanisms. Technical support was also provided to parliamentarians and the judiciary to strengthen their ability to contribute positively to constitution drafting processes in North Africa's nascent democracies.
  • In Europe, democracy support included sending an observation mission to help monitor and assess the credibility of the 2012 parliamentary elections in Ukraine, as well as independent media initiatives that delivered uncensored information directly to the population in countries such as Belarus, where freedom of the media is severely limited.

In addition to the projects supported through the Glyn Berry Program, the Global Peace and Security Fund also provided approximately $3.7 million in programme funding to initiatives that advanced democracy in the following regions:

  • In the broader Middle East and North Africa, democracy was promoted through activities such as support to constitutional reform and governance decentralization processes, enabling dialogue related to more effectively addressing the needs of the population, and promoting dialogue on tolerance and reconciliation.
  • In Afghanistan, support was provided to rule of law and advancing human rights, with a particular emphasis on improving the rights of women. Highlights included introducing Afghans across the country to the fundamentals of democratic elections, registering female election observers, offering Afghans access to legal expertise via cell phone, and imparting management skills to a number of local Afghan non-governmental organisations actively supporting human rights.

Securing the Future of Children and Youth: $8.11 million

In 2012-2013, DFAIT awarded 870 scholarships for study and research in Canada to international students, providing them with access to Canada's academic expertise and opportunities for skills development. As a result of these scholarships, academic cooperation was strengthened between Canada and partner countries and the circulation of research was facilitated across borders. As well, these one semester post-secondary scholarships minimized brain-drain from ODA-eligible countries by requiring that international students return to their home institution in order to collect credits to complete their studies. DFAIT scholarships also contributed to poverty reduction and the strengthening of human capacity development by ensuring that all levels of post-secondary studies were eligible. College, trade and technical scholarships contributed to the development of a skilled labour force, while graduate- and faculty-level research awards advanced the research capacity of academic institutions and industries.

As well, selected students from the Americas attended a six-day study tour on democratic governance to advance Canada's engagement in the Americas and scholarship allocations aligned with priority countries in the hemisphere.

Stimulating Sustainable Economic Growth: $6.50 million

The Investment Cooperation Program (INC)Footnote 20 provides support to Canadian businesses making sustainable investments in developing countries. In 2012-2013, it contributed to covering the costs connected to feasibility studies, technology transfers, and the planning and implementation of human resources and environmental plans related to such investments. This represented a total of 188 disbursements to 72 companies doing business in 36 developing countries.

Snapshot of DFAIT's International Assistance

  • $333.53 million in ODA; $431.35 million in total international assistance for 2012-2013
  • $2.4 million to support constitutional and legislative reform in South Sudan and promote human rights within penal institutions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's conflict zones
  • Core support to key international organizations including the United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Organization of American States
  • More than four million square metres of land and infrastructure were cleared of Explosive Remnants of War in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Colombia, Libya, Palau, South Sudan and Tajikistan
  • Awarded 870 scholarships in 2012-2013 to promote human capacity and skill development, while promoting the circulation of research and academic partnerships
  • Due to Canada's support for the implementation of a hardwood manufacturing plant in Brazil, 250 local jobs are expected to be created

Crosscutting Support

Assessed Contributions to International Organizations: $113.03 million

Assessed contributions are transfer payments by the federal government occasioned by Canada's membership in a bilateral or multilateral international organization. An Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development- Development Assistance Committee (OECD-DAC) determined portion of these contributions is considered ODA. The 29 bilateral and multilateral organizations to which Canada provided ODA-eligible assessed contributions in 2012-2013 include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • The World Health Organization
  • The International Organization of la Francophonie
  • The United Nations Organization
  • The Organization of American States
  • The Food and Agriculture Organization

In order to maintain our status as a member in good standing, Canada is required to provide its share of the total operations costs for each organization of which we are a member. This not only fulfils Canada's obligations as a member of these organizations, but also allows Canada to advance our foreign and development policy priorities in key multilateral forums.

Canada Fund for Local Initiatives: $15.22 million

The Canada Fund for Local Initiatives (CFLI) is a long-standing contribution program that is delivered through Canada's high commissions and embassies. Through contribution agreements, the CFLI provides monetary assistance covering all or a portion of the cost of projects. The latter are comparatively modest in scope, scale and cost and are usually conceived and designed by local authorities or organizations. The average contribution is $15,000-$20,000, with the maximum set at $100,000 for an individual project. In 2012-2013, the CFLI supported 615 projects in 115 countries.

All projects contribute to the achievement of one or more Canada's thematic priorities for international assistance, with special emphasis on the themes of advancing democracy and ensuring security and stability. In exceptional circumstances, the CFLI is also used to support humanitarian relief efforts by local partners in the immediate aftermath of natural disasters and emergencies.

Voluntary Contributions to Francophonie: $7.27 million

DFAIT's non-assessed contributions to the Fonds Multilatéral Unique (FMU) of the International Organization of La Francophonie (IOF) were used, among other objectives, to fund cooperation initiatives aligned with commitments made by the IOF at Francophonie Summits. Four principles guide these initiatives: promoting the French language, cultural and linguistic diversity; promoting peace, democracy and human rights; supporting education, training and research; and developing cooperation for sustainable development. These priorities are pursued through the cooperation of four specialized operators: the Agence universitaire de la Francophonie (AUF), the international TV channel TV5, the Association internationale des maires francophones (AIMF), and the Université Senghor of Alexandria. Canada's contribution to the development of TV5 in Africa, and to the restructuring of the education system in Haiti following the 2010 earthquake, are examples of projects that enhance Canada's presence on the international stage for La Francophonie, an integral part of Canadian foreign policy.

Services Rendered Abroad: $81.21 million

In accordance with the Treasury Board Common Service Policy, the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Act and the Interdepartmental Memorandum of Understanding on Operations and Support at Missions, DFAIT managed the procurement of goods, services, and real property in support of diplomatic and consular missions, including the provision of common services to partner departments. CIDA transferred funds to DFAIT for those common services provided to CIDA personnel, both Canada-based and locally-engaged, at Canada's diplomatic and consular missions abroad. These funds helped to facilitate the presence of development officers in the field and support international assistance project implementation.

Graph 2 Thematic Priorities and Crosscutting Support: DFAIT's total international assistance for 2012-2013

Pie chart

Graph 2- description: DFAIT Total international assistance for fiscal year 2012-2013:
Ensuring Security and Stability-$175.76M;
Advancing Democracy-$20.30M;
Securing the Future of Children and Youth-$8.24M;
Stimulating Sustainable Economic Growth-$6.50M;
Assessed Contributions to International Organizations-$113.03M;
Office of Religious Freedoms-$0.31M;
Voluntary Contributions to Francophonie-$7.27M;
Services Rendered Abroad-$84.52M;
Canada Fund for Local Initiatives-$15.43M.

Conclusion

For fiscal year 2012-2013, DFAIT's ODA disbursements totalled $333.53 million, and supported four of the five thematic priorities of Canada's international assistance. Activities ranged from international crisis response and peacekeeping efforts to democracy-related programming, and core contributions to international organizations. As well, in 2012-2013, DFAIT began reporting on additional programming including the Office of Religious FreedomFootnote 21 and the Canadian Fund for Local Initiatives.

Complementing DFAIT's ODA programming was an additional $97.81 million in non-ODA international assistance, predominately in ensuring security and stability programming (including anti-crime capacity building, counter-terrorism capacity building, and weapons of mass destruction threat reduction), as well as international scholarships to non-ODA eligible countries and services rendered abroad, among others. This diverse range of programming, totalling $431.35 million in international assistance for 2012-2013, reflects the broad scope of DFAIT's work.

International Development Research Centre
$254.59 Million

Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is a Crown corporation that supports researchers and innovators in the developing world as they work to improve lives, promote growth, and lift communities out of poverty.

In fiscal year 2012-2013, IDRC expensed $254,592,697 in official development assistance.Footnote 22 This amount was funded primarily from Parliamentary appropriations—both those voted in 2012-2013, and appropriations from previous years which were exceptionally set aside to fund significant disbursements in 2012-2013. IDRC's total 2012-2013 expenses were $293,184,496, of which $38,591,799 was funded from donors including the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), OECD governments, and private foundations. Due to their source, these funds are not reported by IDRC as part of its official development assistance expenses.

IDRC provides researchers in developing countries with the funds, support and connections they need to find solutions to the pressing problems affecting their societies. IDRC also enables many of the brightest minds in Canada and the developing world to collaborate on cutting-edge projects. IDRC's programs and initiatives focus on four thematic areas: agriculture and environment; global health policy; science and innovation; and social and economic policy.

At the end of 2012-2013, IDRC was supporting 860 applied research activities and 705 institutions, of which 103 were Canadian.

IDRC also contributes to major Government of Canada initiatives. Examples include the following:

  • Development Innovation Fund
    On behalf of the Government of Canada, IDRC administers a fund that is generating innovations for tackling specific diseases. The $225-million Development Innovation Fund supports the work of Grand Challenges Canada, which aims to enable global health breakthroughs by Canadian and developing-country scientists and the private sector.
  • African Institutes for Mathematical Sciences
    The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) seeks to provide the training and space in which Africa's brightest graduates can be taught by the world's best mathematicians—including Canadians—and access the full power of new technologies to address their countries' challenges. IDRC is responsible for managing the Government of Canada's $20-million contribution, which supports the establishment of five AIMS centres across Africa by 2015.

IDRC supports Canada's international assistance priorities as highlighted through the following examples. More information on IDRC is available at IDRC's Web site.

Securing the Future of Children and Youth

As the world's population ages, there are striking regional contrasts: 41 percent of people in the least-developed countries are under the age of 15, compared to only 16 percent in the most-developed nations.

Meeting the needs of this new generation is a Canadian aid priority, focusing on basic child survival, access to education, and ensuring a safe and secure future for children. IDRC contributes to this effort in a number of key areas: by investing in research that strengthens health care systems, improves family nutrition, and promotes educational reforms to ensure a solid foundation for young people.

For example, current research on health systems in Nigeria is helping to address some of the world's highest maternal and child mortality rates. In India, where girls and women are typically the last to receive medical attention, Canada is supporting efforts to widen health care access. In Lebanon, families are rediscovering healthy traditional foods through a joint Canadian-Lebanese research initiative. In Guatemala, a national think tank has helped shape educational reforms that give children a better start.

Increasing Food Security

High food prices, natural disasters, poor soil, and weak investment in agriculture: any one of these can deepen hunger. Food scarcity is particularly acute in developing countries, which account for 98 percent of the world's undernourished people.

IDRC supports Canada's goal of increasing food security through cutting-edge research on agriculture and the environment. One example is the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund, a multi-year, $125 million partnership with CIDA, that twins Canadian and developing-country expertise. In Ethiopia for example, research on pulse crops is improving both nutrition and soil fertility. In India and Sri Lanka, a new use of nanotechnology is helping reduce spoilage of mangoes.

As part of Canada's commitment to fast-start financing for climate change action in developing countries, IDRC also manages the African Adaptation Research Centres Initiative. Seven centres are now researching water and crop management options to help farmers manage climate risks. And this year, we expanded our focus on climate change hot spots with the launch of the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia, co-funded with the UK Department for International Development.

Stimulating Sustainable Economic Growth

Developing countries have enjoyed unprecedented rates of growth in recent years. But growth alone does not automatically translate into rising incomes or employment, and its benefits may be unevenly distributed.

IDRC supports research that promotes inclusive growth-enhancing opportunities for all, especially the poor. We help build evidence on strategies that create decent jobs and spur entrepreneurship, with a focus on small- and medium-sized businesses. Research has shown these can be gateways for the poor and for women, who make up the majority of workers in small firms.

As the examples that follow illustrate, IDRC supports research that helps government and business fine-tune employment, trade, investment, and enterprise development strategies. In Paraguay, a leading think tank is building an evidence base to strengthen the country's trade strategy. Across Africa, IDRC has worked with TrustAfrica to support research on business and investment that has resulted in a number of practical innovations. In Asia, case studies are shedding light on the factors that lead to small business success. And over the past year, IDRC turned its attention to the pressing lack of job opportunities for youth in Africa.

Across the spectrum, the research we support aims to foster growth, not only for its own sake, but also as a means to reduce poverty and inequality.

Ensuring Security and Stability, and Advancing Democracy

Worldwide, some 1.5 billion people live amid violent conflict or large-scale organized crime. This insecurity deepens human suffering, and undermines progress in all areas of development. The threat of violence and the failure of the state to provide justice and security also limits citizens' representation in society. Past efforts to reduce violence and build secure and just societies have had uneven success in creating legitimate and accountable states.

IDRC addresses insecurity as both a cause and a result of weak governance. Post-war societies struggle to establish good governance. And where governments are corrupt or unstable, criminal organizations flourish—in some regions, controlling entire communities. IDRC's response is to strengthen institutions and build networks that link researchers, governments, and civil society in seeking ways to reinforce stability and security, and to advance democracy.

As the examples that follow show, we focus on the most vulnerable and excluded. In South Asia, for example, new research focuses on legal reforms to reduce sexual violence and ensure perpetrators face justice. And as rapid urbanization threatens poor city neighbourhoods, we have joined DFID in launching a new program of research to support safe and inclusive cities.

In Tunisia and other Arab countries undergoing rapid transformation, we are supporting research efforts to address political participation by women, and to reinforce their rights. This builds on work to understand the political and economic factors influencing transitions in the Arab World, with a view to helping policy actors who are trying to steer the process towards stable democracy and more equitable economic growth.

Our support for research to strengthen democracy also focuses on how states and societies build legitimate and accountable public authorities. In Latin America and the Caribbean, for example, we have long supported research into the use of information technology that is helping create more open and accountable governments.

Engaging Canadians in Development Research

IDRC supports collaboration between Canadian and developing-country researchers and builds relationships with Canadian academic, research, and civil society organizations engaged in international development. Canadian organizations figure prominently among IDRC's largest recipients, notably Grand Challenges Canada, the International Institute for Sustainable Development, and McGill University.

Through its Canadian Partnerships program, IDRC promotes and sustains linkages with Canadian institutions, particularly universities and civil society organizations, by providing grants for applied research and knowledge-building projects, and by funding projects that explore and facilitate connections between Canada and developing countries. In 2012-2013, we made 58 such grants.

Export Development Canada
$197.43 Million

Export Development Canada's ODAFootnote 23 for fiscal year 2012-2013 totalled $197.43 million.

The Canadian Government, in agreement with other sovereign creditors of the Paris Club, agreed to forgive the debt of certain heavily indebted countries. Consequently, EDC wrote off $197.43 million of loans and accumulated interest. Of this figure, $133.6 million related to the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire with the remainder, $63.83 million, relating to the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Citizenship and Immigration Canada
$112.51 Million

Citizenship and Immigration Canada's official development assistance (ODA)Footnote 24 for 2012-2013 totalled $112,509,765. This figure amounts to the federal support provided to refugees and vulnerable persons in their first 12 months in Canada.

According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, there were about 10.5 million refugees in the world at the end of 2012, many of whom had been living in exile for decades. Promoting human rights and protecting refugees has been a cornerstone of Canada's humanitarian tradition since the Second World War. By offering a safe haven to refugees and other persons in need of protection, and through active participation in international forums on refugee protection, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) plays a significant role in upholding Canada's international obligations and humanitarian tradition.

Canada's refugee protection programs are in the first instance about saving lives and offering protection to the displaced and persecuted. In accordance with the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1951), Canada provides protection to asylum seekers who have landed in Canada and have been determined to be in need of protection. Flowing from Canada's international and domestic legal obligations, the in-Canada asylum system evaluates the claims of individuals seeking asylum in Canada and grants protected person status when a positive decision is rendered by the Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. In 2012-2013, Canada granted protection to 8,973 asylum seekers who received positive determinations by the Immigration and Refugee Board.

Canada also protects refugees and vulnerable persons by resettling them to Canada as part of the managed immigration plan. In 2012-2013, Canada resettled 5,235 government-assisted refugees and 4,650 privately sponsored refugees, from refugee populations all over the world. Particular focus was placed on Iraqi refugees in the Middle East, Bhutanese refugees in Nepal, vulnerable religious minorities, and members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community. Resettlement spaces were also used for Afghans who supported the Canadian mission in Kandahar, as well as Haitian women and their families who were displaced by the 2010 earthquake and were victims of sexual and gender based violence. These individuals received resettlement services similar to what is offered to government-assisted refugees.

CIC funds a variety of settlement services to help refugees and vulnerable persons integrate into Canadian society, so that they can overcome obstacles and fully participate in the social, cultural, civic and economic life of Canada. Through the Settlement Program, refugees and vulnerable persons are eligible for services including needs assessments, language training, employment counselling, community orientation, support services (including translation and interpretation), and referrals to other health and social services. Refugees who arrive as government-assisted refugees also receive support through the Resettlement Assistance Program, which provides income support for up to 12 months (up to 36 months in exceptional cases), and immediate settlement support including initial reception services at the port of entry, assistance with finding accommodation, financial and community orientation, and referrals to other settlement programs.

Refugees access health services through the federally funded Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) and/or provincially funded health care. Since the June 30, 2012 implementation of the reformed IFHP, refugees receive differential coverage, depending on their immigration status. The reforms ensure that IFHP beneficiaries do not receive taxpayer-funded benefits that are more generous than those provided to Canadians. Refugees, whether successful asylum seekers or resettled refugees who are under private sponsorship, access health services through the federally funded IFHP, until they are eligible for provincially funded health care. Refugees who arrive as government-assisted refugees also receive coverage for supplemental services and products (such as post-arrival health assessments, prescription medications, emergency dental care, vision care, assistive devices and rehabilitation services) during the period they receive federal government income support.

Reporting the assistance provided to refugees during their first 12 months in Canada as ODA is consistent with guidelines provided by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. For developing countries, which host the majority of refugees, caring for refugees implies a significant additional burden to an already-fragile economy. Providing asylum and resettlement to refugees in Canada therefore contributes to poverty reduction in developing countries. By providing refugees with settlement services and, in some cases, income support, CIC ensures that refugees have the support they need to overcome challenges and fully integrate into Canadian social and economic life.

CIC works closely with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to ensure that Canada's resettlement program is able to offer protection to those most in need and is used strategically to relieve the responsibility of refugee protection on host states in the developing world. In addition, CIC frequently discusses the assistance provided to refugees during their first year in Canada with stakeholders including provinces and territories, the Canadian Refugee Sponsorship Agreement Holders Association, the National Settlement Council, service-providing organizations, and the Canadian Council for Refugees.

For more information on Canada's refugee programs, please visit Citizenship and Immigration CanadaRefugees.

Environment Canada
$52.61 Million

In 2012-2013, Environment Canada provided a total of $52.61 million in official development assistanceFootnote 25 through three types of activities: i) support for multilateral environmental organizations; ii) climate change actions in developing countries supported by Canada's fast-start financing; and iii) bilateral technical cooperation and capacity-building with developing countries.

Environment Canada recognizes that international cooperation on environmental issues is of growing importance, and that environmental sustainability is an essential element for global economic and social well-being. For developing countries that must depend on ecosystem goods and services for their livelihood, environmental changes caused by overexploitation of natural resources and degradation of the environment directly harm their most vulnerable populations. However, efforts to preserve and improve the environment in developing countries lead to enhanced fulfilment of basic needs, improved living standards, and a safer, more prosperous future.

i) Support for Multilateral Environmental Organizations

Environment Canada provides support to various multilateral organizations to assist developing countries in improving environmental conditions and, therefore, improving the livelihoods of vulnerable populations in these countries. Environment Canada provides annual support to the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, which works to ensure that the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances does not adversely affect the economies of developing countries. Environment Canada also provided funds for Canada's annual core contribution to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Based in Kenya, an important part of the UNEP's work focuses on environmental issues facing developing countries. Environment Canada provided financial support to specific purpose funds managed by UNEP, specifically: the UNEP Global Environment Monitoring System Water Programme, the primary source for global water quality data; and the trust fund supporting the negotiations process to prepare a global, legally binding instrument on mercury.

Support to other multilateral organizations included funding to the International Maritime Organization to support training workshops for developing countries on compliance with the London Protocol, and to the Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research to support research and training in the Americas. Finally, Environment Canada also provides Canada's annual contribution to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), as well as voluntary contributions to WMO-managed trust funds, which support developing countries in strengthening their national meteorological and hydrological services.

ii) Climate Change Actions in Developing Countries Supported by Canada's Fast-start Financing

As a constructive and active party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Canada has significantly scaled up its climate change related support to accelerate global progress and effective action by all countries. Over the past three fiscal years (2010-2011 to 2012-2013), Canada has fully delivered on its commitment to provide its fair share of fast-start financing. Over the fast-start period, $1.2 billion in new and additional climate change financing has been issued. With approximately $400 million in each of the three years, Canada's support primarily focuses on three broad areas: adaptation by the poorest and most vulnerable countries; clean energy; and forests and agriculture.

In 2012-2013, Environment Canada itself provided $45.69 million to support a variety of projects in each of these three areas. In the adaptation sector, for example, Environment Canada provided support to the World Meteorological Organization for projects aimed at enhancing the availability of weather services via modem for vulnerable countries. In the area of clean energy, Canada provided funding for the start-up of the Climate Technology Centre and Network, which will provide tailored advice and technical assistance to developing countries to support the implementation of technology actions for mitigation or adaptation objectives. Finally, in the forests and agriculture sector Environment Canada has supported initiatives in Chile and Guatemala, for example, to help restore degraded soils, and strengthen local capacities in forest management.

iii) Technical Cooperation and Capacity Building with Developing Countries

Environment Canada engages in technical cooperation and capacity building with various developing countries on environmental issues that directly affect the environment and well-being of developing country citizens. This included support for international training events and capacity building initiatives on key environmental issues, including bilateral capacity-building workshops with Chile on addressing invasive species and migratory birds. Environment Canada, through the Canadian Wildlife Service, also provided support to countries throughout South America to provide capacity development to enable the long-term monitoring and conservation of waterbirds through the Neotropical Waterbird Census.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police
$34.10 Million

The official development assistanceFootnote 26 provided by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) during 2012-2013 totalled $34,101,660.

The RCMP, on behalf of the Government of Canada, deploys police officers to peace operations around the world. In 2012-2013, the RCMP's International Policing Development Branch (IPDB), formerly International Peace Operations Branch, deployed Canadian police to 12 separate missions in nine countries. Canadian police assist in rebuilding and strengthening police services in countries that have had, or are currently experiencing, conflict or upheaval. By building the capacity of foreign police to maintain law and order, Canadian police, in cooperation with international partners, help create a safer and more stable global environment. This in turn paves the way for long-term development and can also prevent illicit activities from spilling across borders into other countries, including Canada.

Foreign requests for Canadian police assistance come from organizations such as the United Nations, the European Union or from specific countries. The decision to deploy Canadian police was made within the framework of the Canadian Police Arrangement (CPA) a partnership between DFAIT, CIDA, Public Safety Canada and the RCMP. Funding for salaries, benefits, and Operations and Maintenance (O&M) was provided by the RCMP, while funding for incremental costs was provided by DFAIT through the Global Peace and Security Fund (GPSF). See GPSF ODA reporting in DFAIT section.

Under the CPA, the RCMP is responsible for all operational activities. As such, IPDB is responsible for managing every stage of deployment including selection and pre-deployment training, ongoing medical and logistical support, performance management, and reintegration of returning personnel. More information on the CPA and the IPDB is available on the RCMPFootnote 27 website.

The experience and skills of Canadian police officers have ensured that they are welcomed, highly valued, and well-regarded in all international peace operations to which they are deployed. This reputation facilitates their work and impact while on mission.

Canadian police participated in the following operations and organizations during 2012-2013:

  • Afghanistan: NATO Training Mission (NTM-A)/Combined-Security Transition Command Afghanistan (CSTC-A)
    Within NTM-A/CSTC-A, Canadian police officers mentored and trained the Afghan National Police (ANP) with the aim of increasing the ANP's operational capabilities and sustainability, while advancing security, the rule of law and human rights. Canadian police officers also assisted in the reform of the Afghan Ministry of Interior.
  • Afghanistan: European Union Police Mission (EUPOL)
    Canadian police officers within EUPOL worked towards the creation of a professional, functional and ethnically balanced Afghan police force under Afghan ownership that respects human rights, operates within the framework of the rule of law, and is both trusted by the Afghan population and responsive to their needs.
  • Afghanistan: Canadian Embassy
    Police officers posted at the Canadian Embassy in Kabul provided technical expertise and strategic advice to Canada's Head of Mission on the reform of the ANP. They also provided policing advice to the Ambassador and acted as a command function for the Canadian police deployed in Afghanistan.
  • Canada's Permanent Mission to the UN in New York (PRMNY)
    Assigned to the Police and Military Section, the Senior Police Advisor at PRMNY acted as the focal point at the Canadian Mission for all United Nations policing issues, including coordination of international deployments.
  • Côte d'Ivoire: United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (UNOCI)
    Canadian police in Côte d'Ivoire have worked in various positions within UNOCI including HIV/AIDS training, coordinating logistics and Formed Police Units, and heading up a post in Abidjan. These tasks contribute to the restoration of the Ivorian police presence throughout the country including the restructuring of the internal security services, monitoring and mentoring, and ensuring compliance with international criminal justice and human rights standards.
  • Democratic Republic of Congo: United Nations Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO)
    Canadian police officers within MONUSCO worked to build the capacity of the Congolese National Police (CNP) in a variety of areas through monitoring, mentoring and training on CNP reform, selection and training, and human rights and gender issues.
  • Kyrgyzstan: Organization for Security and Co-operation (OSCE)
    A Canadian police officer, working with the OSCE's Community Security Initiative, assisted in strengthening the professionalism and development of the local police. The Canadian also helped implement community policing practices to support the local police's ability to be more responsive to the needs of the local population.
  • Haiti: United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)
    As Canada's largest deployment, Canadian police officers were a key component of MINUSTAH, which supports the Government of Haiti in restoring the rule of law and contributing to public security through professionalization of the Haitian National Police. Canadian police officers consistently held key leadership roles within MINUSTAH.
  • Special Tribunal for Lebanon in The Hague, Netherlands (non-ODA)
    A Canadian police officer participated in the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (STL) in The Hague, Netherlands, which is mandated to prosecute persons responsible for the February 2005 attack resulting in the death of former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri and the death or injury of others. The Canadian police officer worked with the tribunal to review, collect, source and verify information in order to prepare for trial. Canadian participation ended in October 2012.
  • South Sudan: United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS)
    Within UNMISS, Canadian police officers played a key role in the training and mentoring of senior South Sudan National Police Service officers to increase their capacity to provide policing services for the South Sudanese population. Canadian police participation was suspended in February 2013 pending review by Government of Canada officials.
  • South Sudan: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
    Within the UNDP Rule of Law mission, Canadian police officers worked in the Community Security and Arms Control Project (CSAC), which aims to build confidence, security and stability in South Sudanese communities. Canadians provided technical expertise to help assess police services at the state and county level. This includes project management, mentoring, training and advising members of the South Sudan Police Service, and assisting in the planning and installation of police posts within the country.
  • West Bank: European Union Police Coordinating Office for Palestinian Police Support (EUPOL COPPS)
    Canadian police officers participated in EUPOL COPPS, which supports the Palestinian Authority (PA) in building policing and criminal justice institutions in the West Bank. Canadian police officers assisted the Palestinian Civil Police by training and advising its members, specifically senior officers, on criminal justice and rule of law, in accordance with the best international standards. Canadians sought to assist the PA in making the Palestinian Civil Police a competent security force based on the principles of democratic policing, neutrality and community service.
Table 4 : Total 2012-2013 ODA Disbursements

Mission A-Base including EBP
Afghanistan CSTC-A 2,661,770
Afghanistan Eupol 3,490,279
Afghanistan Kabul Embassy 575,897
Congo 608,147
Côte d'Ivoire 1,198,786
Guatemala 7,792
Haiti 13,977,505
HQ Support 8,361,270
Kyrgyzstan 132,178
Palestine—Eupol Copps 277,313
PRMNY 217,316
South Sudan 2,304,400
South Sudan—Rule of Law 289,007
Total Peacekeeping 34,101,660

Notes:

  1. Total cost includes Employee Benefit Plan (EBP)
  2. The total cost does not include expenditures associated to the corporate infrastructure, rent and the contingent liability.
  3. Canadian participation in Guatemala ended April1, 2012; however, end of mission costs were incurred in 2012-2013

Health Canada
$11.87 Million
and Public Health Agency of Canada
$11.74 Million

The official development assistanceFootnote 28 provided by Health Canada and Public Health Agency of Canada during 2012-2013 totalled $23,612,047.

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) serves as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization, as well as the technical health agency of the Organization of American States. PAHO's mission is to lead strategic collaborative efforts among member states and other partners to promote equity in health, combat disease, and improve the quality of life and lengthen the lifespan of peoples of the Americas. Canada's assessed contribution to PAHO supports this mission. Canada played a leadership role in advancing governance and program policy issues at PAHO, having been an active member since 1971. Through PAHO, Canada advances multilateral and bilateral relations in health, and provides technical cooperation and capacity building.

The Office of International Affairs for the Health Portfolio (OIA) is responsible for managing Canada's relationship with PAHO in consultation with other federal departments. Canada's technical cooperation in the region reflects shared principles and approaches, and uses joint expertise from Canada and PAHO member states to improve health conditions and reduce inequities throughout the Americas. Technical cooperation takes various forms. Canadian experts attend technical meetings, participate in technical advisory groups, and provide bilateral support/capacity building to PAHO country offices and Ministries of Health in the Region. Canada also hosts regional meetings to support and influence the PAHO agenda. Technical cooperation in the region is also carried out through the Canada-PAHO Biennial Work Plan, which is jointly managed by OIA and PAHO.

More information on Canada's cooperation with PAHO is available on the PAHO-Canada Portal websiteFootnote 29.

Natural Resources Canada
$3.16 Million

The official development assistance of Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) for fiscal year 2012-2013 totalled $3,161,257 delivered through the African Model Forest Initiative (AMFI), a follow-up to Canada's commitments made at the 2008 Francophonie Summit in Quebec City.

The AMFI aims to improve the conservation and sustainable management of forest resources in francophone Africa, including the Congo Basin and Mediterranean region (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia) through a well-established approach to integrated natural resource management and social engagement pioneered by Canada more than twenty years ago.

The AMFI supports good governance, human resource development, local economic development, and responsible resource use in the context of integrating resource decision making on very large landscapes. Bilateral assistance is provided to local, regional and national organizations to support local initiatives aimed at enhancing ecological and community sustainability through Model Forest development. Activities undertaken by the AMFI make a positive contribution in support of transparent and inclusive decision-making processes related to natural resource management and land use among both government and civil society stakeholders.

The African Model Forest Network (AMFN) was established in 2009 as a subset of the International Model Forest Network, the Secretariat for which is based at NRCan. The AMFN 's mission is to facilitate the development of a pan-African network of Model Forests representative of the continent's wealth and diversity. The AMFN currently includes Model Forests at various stages of development in Algeria, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Morocco, Rwanda, and Tunisia. Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia are also involved in the Mediterranean Model Forest Network (MMFN), which includes Model Forest initiatives in Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Spain and Turkey. The MMFN and AMFI are two of six regional networks of the International Model Forest Network that represent a global learning network in support of sustainable resource management.

Through the AMFI, NRCan supports partnerships between the AMFN and Canadian Model Forests, universities and non-governmental organizations in areas of participatory governance, community and economic development, research and capacity building.

Between 2010 and 2012 NRCan actively supported, along with the Canadian International Development Agency and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, the Government of Canada's Facilitation of the Congo Basin Forest Partnership. NRCan views the AMFI program as a key contribution to the success of the Facilitation. The AMFI also works with Canadian organizations with the aim of integrating and complementing programming where possible. The Congo Basin is one of the regions with the most severe illegal logging problems in the world, causing serious economic, social and environmental problems.

Parks Canada
$2.16 Million

Parks Canada's official development assistanceFootnote 30 for the 2012-2013 fiscal year amounts to $2,156,798.

These contributions have been identified and tabulated consistent with both the Government of Canada's Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and with reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the OECD.

Overall, Parks Canada provides official development assistance at two levels, multilaterally and bilaterally. Its multilateral funding includes i) its annual core contribution to UNESCO's World Heritage Fund; ii) membership dues to ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property); and iii) its membership dues as Canada's representative to the World Conservation Union, in the amounts of $99,000, $80,000 and $429,000 respectively.

Bilateral ODA work was undertaken by Parks Canada in 2012-2013 through Fast-Start Program financing approved in December 2011. Parks Canada provided contributions to authorities in Chile, Colombia, Kenya and Mexico responsible for the establishment and management of national parks and other protected areas in their respective countries to support climate change adaptation efforts. These contributions total $1,548,798.

Labour Program
$1.9 Million

The Labour Program's official development assistance (ODA) for fiscal year 2012–2013 totalled $1,895,000Footnote 31.

The Labour Program negotiates and administers Canada's Labour Cooperation Agreements (LCAs), which are signed alongside free trade agreements. LCAs include commitments to protect internationally recognized core labour rights and to enforce domestic labour laws. LCAs are intended to protect workers' basic rights and improve working conditions and standards of living in the signatory countries. These agreements also ensure fair competition for Canadian industry in a globalized world. Canada's latest generation of LCAs contains mechanisms to receive and investigate complaints and impose penalties, where warranted.

In addition to negotiating and administering LCAs, the Labour Program provides technical assistance to developing countries. This assistance funds capacity-building projects that support the modernization of labour policy and administration. Such projects foster better enforcement of national labour laws and greater respect for internationally recognized core labour standards.

Through its technical assistance program, the Labour Program seeks to strengthen institutions of democratic governance, promote economic growth while respecting workers' rights, and improve the quality of working conditions in partner countries.

In fiscal year 2012–2013, the Labour Program provided a total of $1,280,000 in ODA through grants to the International Labour Organization (ILO) for the implementation of projects in Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Jordan, Peru and Vietnam. The promotion of social dialogue, the enhancement of occupational health and safety, and compliance with internationally accepted labour standards are key objectives of these projects.

In addition, the Labour Program provided $498,000 in ODA to the ILO-affiliated International Institute for Labour Studies to undertake research, develop knowledge of effective approaches to addressing the labour provisions of Free Trade Agreements, and strengthen relationships that foster collaboration, alliances and networks to address trade and labour issues.

The Labour Program also provided $117,000 to the Université de Montréal to organize the Canada-China Joint Seminar on Labour Dispute Resolution. This seminar sought to strengthen Canada-China labour cooperation and support respect for fundamental labour and human rights, good governance, and the rule of law in China.

Industry Canada
$856,440

Eighteen percent ($865,440) of Canada's assessed contribution to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) for fiscal year 2012-2013 is ODA-applicable.Footnote 32 This means that it has been budgeted for development-related activities. This amount is disbursed within the development sector to help offset costs for staff, activities and/or programs.

Organization

  • ITU membership includes 193 member states as well as some 700 sector members and associates representing a cross-section of the telecommunication and information technology industry, and a multitude of international, regional, scientific and development organizations in the communications field.
  • Industry Canada is Canada's official representative in the ITU and coordinates Canadian participation at conferences, meetings and other activities.
  • Canada has served as an elected Council member since 1947, the Union's governing body comprised of 48 member states.
  • Some 20 Canadian organizations participating as paying sector members, associates or academia include: Ericsson Canada, BlackBerry, Telesat Canada, Bell Canada, Telus Communications, Microsoft Canada, Rogers Communication Partnership, Ebrisk Video, The Institute of Mobile Technologies, etc. (The list of members is available on the ITU website under ‘‘Membership’’).

Role of the ITU

  • The mandate of the ITU is to enable the growth and sustained development of telecommunications and information networks, and to facilitate universal access so that people everywhere can participate in, and benefit from, the emerging information society and global economy. The ability to communicate freely is a pre-requisite for a more equitable, prosperous and peaceful world. The ITU assists in mobilizing the technical, financial and human resources needed to make this vision a reality.
  • All the elements of ITU's work are centred around the goal of putting every human being within easy and affordable reach of information and communication and to contribute significantly towards economic and social development of all people. This is carried out through the development of standards to create infrastructure to deliver telecommunication services on a worldwide basis. A key activity is the equitable management of the radio frequency spectrum and satellite orbits to help bring wireless services to every corner of the world. It also provides support to countries as they pursue telecommunication development strategies.
  • ITU also concentrates on strengthening emergency communications for disaster prevention and mitigation. While both developing and developed countries are equally vulnerable to natural disasters, poorer nations are hardest hit because of their already fragile economies and lack of resources.
  • ITU's dual responsibility as a UN specialized agency and an executing agency for implementing projects under the United Nations development system or other funding arrangements consists of the following:
    • assisting countries in the field of information and communication technologies (ICTs), in facilitating the mobilization of technical, human and financial resources needed for their implementation, as well as in promoting access to ICTs;
    • promoting the extension of the benefits of ICTs to all the world's inhabitants;
    • promoting and participating in actions that contribute towards narrowing the digital divide; and
    • developing and managing program that facilitate information flow geared to the needs of developing countries.

In 1997, the ICT Development Fund was established for specific telecommunication development projects primarily in the least developed countries, small island developing states, landlocked developing countries, and countries with economies in transition. At the end of 2012, of the 94 projects commenced within the program supported by the Fund, 71 had been successfully completed.

Results

In accordance with ITU financial rules, the overall budgetary appropriation is divided by ITU sector (radio sector, standards sector, development sector) as opposed to specific development activities or programs. Therefore, a detailed cost breakdown is not available.

Sources

  • ITU website
  • Information and Communication Technologies Development Fund (Council 2013, Contribution #45)
  • Official Departmental Financial System
  • Branch Budgetary Reporting
  • Statutes of Canada 2008 - Chapter 17 - Official Development Accountability Act (ODAAA) s.5(1)

Transport Canada
$290,211

Transport Canada's official development assistance (ODA) for fiscal year 2012-2013 totalled $290,211.Footnote 33

The Canada Post Corporation makes an annual assessed contribution to the Universal Postal Union. This contribution has been reflected in previous reports on ODA. The assessed contribution for 2012 was 1,670,800 Swiss Francs (or approximately $1.5 million Canadian). It is expected that the 2013 contribution will remain the same, although the amount is subject to change following budget discussions at the Universal Postal Union, which will take place in the fall.

Appendix: Summary of CIDA's 2011-2012
Departmental Performance Report

In 2011-2012, CIDA contributed to ensuring food security, generating sustainable economic growth, giving children and youth a better future, and responding to humanitarian crises.

To carry out its mandate and maintain its operations in 2011-2012, CIDA planned $3,445,591,000 in spending, with total authorities of $4,279,352,000. Actual spending for that period was $3,896,369,000. The variance of $834 million between 2011-2012 planned spending and authorities reflects the supplementary funding received for programs and initiatives such as the Fast Start Financing Initiative on climate change and humanitarian assistance following the East African drought. Authorities also include the Pakistan-Canada Debt for Education Conversion initiative.

Overall Performance

CIDA's Report on Plans and Priorities for 2011-2012 set out three indicators of progress in poverty reduction.

1. Reduction in the percentage of population below the international poverty line of US$1.25 per day in countries where CIDA engages in international development.

Results in CIDA's countries of focus vary significantly from country to country. The average decrease in the percentage of the population living under the $1.25 poverty line in countries of focus between 2005 and 2010 is 3.7 percent. Every country experienced a decrease in absolute numbers of poor. The most dramatic decreases were in Bangladesh, Colombia and Honduras. The smallest decreases were in Mali, Pakistan, Ukraine and West Bank/Gaza.

2. Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in countries where CIDA engages in international development.

With less than two years before the 2015 deadline, there is broad progress towards universal primary education, improving child and maternal health, and combating major diseases. However, socioeconomic inequality within countries detracts from these gains.

In almost every indicator, sub-Saharan Africa remains most in need. There were significant improvements across the board in the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education from 2005 to 2010, particularly in Ethiopia, Mozambique, Senegal and Vietnam. Other improvements can be seen in antenatal care in countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan and Tanzania. Infant mortality per 1,000 births between 2005 and 2010 decreased in all but two countries for which data is available. One MDG indicator that achieved varying degrees of success is AIDS, as some countries saw decreases in deaths while others saw increases.

3. Increase in the value of the United Nations Gender-related Development Index in countries where CIDA engages in international development.

Progress in global gender equality is mixed. The Gender Inequality Index (GII) shows the loss to potential achievement in a country due to gender inequality across three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment, and the labour market. Most of CIDA's countries of focus have reduced gender inequality since 2008. Bangladesh, Bolivia and Pakistan improved the most. Colombia, Ghana, Indonesia, Sudan and Tanzania saw small improvements while Mali, Mozambique and Senegal saw no change.

Priorities

In 2011-2012, CIDA made progress in all of its five program and management priorities.

1. Canada's strategic role in Haiti and Afghanistan

CIDA made some progress on this priority in 2011-2012, applying its experience to strengthen Canada's role in the reconstruction and development of these two countries:

  • Afghanistan: CIDA disbursed $118.69 million in bilateral aid to Afghanistan in 2011-2012. In line with Government of Afghanistan priorities, Canada is focusing on four key themes until 2014: children and youth; security, rule of law and human rights; regional diplomacy; and humanitarian assistance. Notable examples of successful CIDA programming in 2011 include: helping provide polio vaccines; helping 7.48 million students gain access to education; and creating 5,000 construction jobs through the Arghandab Irrigation Rehabilitation Project. In addition, CIDA has supported the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission.
  • Haiti: CIDA spent a total of $150.56 million in bilateral assistance to Haiti in 2011-2012. The Agency continued to address both the short-term post-earthquake needs of the population and the country's long-term development challenges. Examples of CIDA's achievements include helping 330,000 pregnant women gain access to free obstetric care, and helping 2,335 families resettled from the Champ de Mars refugee camp following the earthquake.

2. Increasing food security

CIDA's Food Security Strategy follows three paths: sustainable agricultural development, food assistance and nutrition, and research and development. In line with this strategy, significant progress was made by CIDA.

  • As part of the 2009 G8 L'Aquila Food Security Initiative, Canada funded a food-for-work project in Ethiopia that helped 7.6 million food-insecure people. In Ghana, CIDA's support to the Ministry of Food and Agriculture contributed to an increase in production of staple food of 763,000 tonnes.
  • In 2011-2012, CIDA chaired the negotiations of the new Food Assistance Convention, an international treaty with the objective of ensuring quality food aid is available on a predictable basis to help meet the food needs of developing countries. Canada successfully met its objective of ensuring that the new treaty provides a broad range of food assistance interventions, such as micronutrients and new nutritional products.

3. Securing the future of children and youth

  • Child survival including maternal health: Canada, through CIDA, continued to support the Muskoka Initiative for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health that was launched in 2010 at the G8 Summit. This support was manifested by a partnership with the GAVI Alliance to improve access to immunization in developing countries. Canada also supported the H4+ health partnership, an initiative of UN agencies to strengthen the delivery of maternal, newborn and child services in countries with high levels of maternal and child mortality.
  • Access to a quality education: In Bangladesh, CIDA helped to establish more than 6,600 learning centres and helped improve the literacy, numeracy and life skills of more than 122,000 children—60 percent of whom were girls.
  • Safe and secure futures for children and youth: In Colombia, CIDA collaborated with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to protect the rights of more than 84,000 internally displaced children and youth, ensuring that they were registered, received identity cards, and gained access to government services including education.

4. Stimulating sustainable growth

CIDA's Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy focuses on three paths: building economic foundations, growing businesses, and investing in people. In 2011–2012, CIDA focused on natural resource governance, women's economic empowerment, and support for the production and selling of products. A key CIDA initiative in this area was the creation of the Canadian International Institute for Extractive Industries and Development, announced by Prime Minister Stephen Harper on October 27, 2011. The Institute will support policy development, good governance, and responsible management of the extractive sector in developing countries through capacity building, technical assistance, and applied research.

5. Achieving management and program delivery excellence

CIDA has restructured and streamlined its management and internal services to increase efficiency, effectiveness and timeliness of program delivery. The Agency has moved more functions to the countries where its programming is located to increase management and program delivery excellence. As of 2011-2012, 12 of 15 targeted country programs now have decentralized management teams. CIDA has also delivered development assistance faster and more efficiently by introducing streamlined, standardized and automated business processes; these processes have helped CIDA put a greater focus on fewer country programs, untie its aid, and reduce red tape.

Program Activities

CIDA defined six core program activities that support its strategic outcome in its Program Activity Architecture (PAA).

These program activities are based on the PAA in effect during the 2011-2012 reporting period.

1. Fragile States and Crisis-Affected Communities
($788.2 million)

The significant progress made by CIDA in this program activity contributed to the following:

A) Enhanced responsiveness of humanitarian assistance to address the immediate needs of crisis-affected populations

  • Complex humanitarian situations – In 2011-2012, CIDA responded to complex emergencies in 40 countries, including Côte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Libya, and Sudan. CIDA also launched the East Africa Drought Relief Fund, a mechanism to encourage the generosity of Canadians.
  • Natural disasters — CIDA responded to 50 natural disasters in 2011-2012, including Tropical Storm Wash in the Philippines; flooding in Cambodia, Thailand, and Central America; and the earthquake in Turkey.
  • Food assistance — With CIDA's support, the Canadian Foodgrains Bank delivered 40,849 tonnes of food assistance to 2.2 million people in 36 countries, and the United Nations World Food Programme delivered 3.6 tonnes of food assistance to more than 99 million people in 75 countries.

 B) Increased effectiveness of public and civil institutions to respond to the needs of women, men and children

  • Afghanistan — The program exceeded expectations in improving the quality of education and in clearing minefields. CIDA's support also expanded the availability of better quality health services. However, governance challenges continue to slow progress towards democratic governance and accountable public institutions.
  • Haiti — In 2011-2012, Canada fulfilled its two-year, $400-million commitment for the reconstruction and development of Haiti in response to the January 2010 earthquake. While targets for most projects were met, some were constrained by the absence of a formal government until May 2012.
  • South Sudan — CIDA continued to make significant contributions to improving food security and access to basic services for children and youth. CIDA also contributed to improving the public financial management that is essential to ensuring the accountable and effective use of public resources and service delivery.

2. Low-Income Countries ($862.5 million)

CIDA's Low-Income Country Program Activity made good progress in 2011-2012 in increasing access to services such as health, education, water and sanitation, food security and economic opportunities for women, men, and children. CIDA also made progress in increasing the accountability and effectiveness of public and civil institutions to respond to the needs and aspirations of women, men and children. With its partner countries, CIDA has undertaken activities that fall under three thematic priorities: children and youth, food security, and sustainable economic growth. These are some of the specific results:

  • In Pakistan, the program made an important contribution to providing access to education. CIDA supported the education sector in selected remote districts where primary school enrolment increased by 14 percent from 2009 to 2011, bringing 250,000 more children to school.
  • In northern Ghana, CIDA provided nutrition assistance to nearly 328,000 people, including through supplementary feeding provided to 67,000 children under the age of five and to 101,500 pregnant and lactating women suffering from malnutrition.
  • In Mali, CIDA helped increase the primary education completion rate from 56 percent in 2009 to 58 percent in 2011. For girls, the ratio increased from 47 percent in 2009 to 51 percent in 2011. Governance initiatives to reduce corruption and increase access to justice were also on track.

3. Middle-Income Countries ($297.1 million)

CIDA's Middle-Income Country Program Activity contributed to strengthening citizen participation in social and economic progress and to increasing the accountability and effectiveness of public and civil institutions. CIDA programming targeted social and economic development opportunities that had the potential to significantly improve the lives of their citizens, often by strengthening key institutional capacities. These are some of the specific results:

  • In Colombia, CIDA was particularly successful in promoting children's rights. The program supported the rights of more than 18,000 children and youth, including their protection, participation in decision-making structures, and access to quality education.
  • In Ukraine, CIDA contributed to significant improvements in the agriculture sector. Overall, CIDA helped 5,421 smallholder farmers to increase their competitiveness through the cultivation of high-value crops. These farmers' incomes have increased by 60 percent since 2009.
  • In the Caribbean, the program had success in supporting the management of public finance, entrepreneurship and connection to markets, and disaster preparedness. For example, CIDA supported the government of Saint Kitts and Nevis in successfully completing a major commercial debt restructuring, which will shave 50 percent off the total amount of government debt.

4. Global Engagement and Strategic Policy   ($1,558.5 million)

This program activity shapes international development policy in Canada and globally in support of CIDA's strategic direction, and Canada's broader international assistance objectives and commitments. In 2011-2012, CIDA continued to implement the objectives in its Multilateral Effectiveness Strategy and the accompanying institutional strategies for its 18 key multilateral partners. Among the main results of this program activity were the following:

  • UN Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health: With support from Canada and co-chaired by Prime Minister Harper, the Commission set out a multistakeholder accountability framework and 10 recommendations to improve the oversight of results and resources at the global and country level of maternal and child survival spending. Working with other governments, multilateral institutions, and civil society organizations, Canada proposed a new methodology to track and report reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health spending by development partners.
  • Nutrition: Canada has been a leader in the Scaling Up Nutrition movement since 2009. This movement aims to intensify national governments' and other stakeholders' efforts to address undernutrition, including several UN organizations. As part of its contribution, Canada supported the Regional East African Community Health (REACH) Initiative, a partnership of multilateral agencies that builds national capacity to scale up nutrition interventions and integrate nutrition into sectors such as health, agriculture and education.
  • Aid Effectiveness: In November 2011, the Minister of International Cooperation led a Canadian delegation to the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, South Korea. At the Forum, Canada emphasized the need to re-centre the development dialogue on results and accountability and highlighted its leadership in enhancing accountability in the health sector through the G-8 Muskoka Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Child Health and the UN Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health. The Forum resulted in the endorsement of the Busan Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation, an international agreement articulating core principles for effective development, and a commitment to establish a multistakeholder global partnership.
  • Transparency and Accountability: CIDA took important steps to increase Canadian's access to data and information. Its Open Data portal, launched in July 2011, provides access to a wealth of information on CIDA's activities in data sets and machine-readable formats. The portal also provides easy access to CIDA's country strategies, evaluations, audits, and annual statistical and results reports. Furthermore, in November 2011, CIDA became a member of the International Aid Transparency Initiative, a standard that expands the range of information published by donors.
  • Fragile and Conflict-Affected States: CIDA contributed to the World Bank World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and Development in the form of funding and round table discussions. CIDA was also able to increase the effectiveness of Canadian development cooperation by engaging with multilateral and global organizations to achieve development results. Furthermore, CIDA enhanced the effectiveness of its investments with multilateral partners in many ways.

5. Canadian engagement ($282.3 million)

Ratings of 38 initiatives demonstrate that CIDA is on track to meet the expected result of improved delivery of services, such as health and education, to marginalized women, men, and children through Canadian organizations and local partners. Below are a few examples of how CIDA achieved this result through its Partners for Development Program in 2011-2012:

  • CIDA co-invested in some 150 health projects, 28 of which directly contributed to the efforts of the Muskoka Initiative Partnership Program. Results achieved for 2011-2012 included 844 community health workers trained in front-line illness management and referral protocols; systems established to supervise and manage community health workers; and more than 100 community dialogue sessions organized.
  • CIDA's education partners strengthened national education institutions through teachers' professional development and policy development initiatives. In Tanzania, the Canadian Organization for Development through Education improved student performance in 141 schools that benefited from comprehensive reading programs.
  • CIDA's Canadian partners implemented 106 projects to increase access for marginalized communities to services and opportunities for entrepreneurship and employment, agricultural development, and food security. For example, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges helped colleges in Mozambique, Senegal and Tanzania to train workers and entrepreneurs. In Kedougou, Senegal, 86 percent of the students who graduated from the Electromechanical Engineering Technician Program in June 2011 found employment within nine months.

CIDA was also able to increase awareness of international development issues and participation in Canada's international development efforts through the Global Citizens Program. Results included the following:

  • The International Aboriginal Youth Internship Initiative and the International Youth Internship Program sent 55 and 515 interns respectively to countries throughout the developing world.
  • CIDA supported nine Canadian organizations that send volunteers to the developing world. In 2011-2012, 1,750 volunteers were placed and they drew on their expertise to work with local partners to improve service delivery to the poor, as well as to increase awareness of international development in Canada.

6. Internal Services ($107.7 million)

The introduction of streamlined, standardized, automated business processes, a greater focus on fewer country programs, the transfer of program management to the field, and the reduction of red tape have all helped CIDA reduce its net operating budget from 7.6 percent (of its entire budget) in 2007–2008 to below six percent by the end of 2011–2012. During that year, the Agency made progress in two areas:

  • Decentralization — Decentralization is on track, with staff and functions being devolved to the field. The total number of positions at headquarters (as measured on March 31, 2012) decreased from 2,070 (in 2011) to 1,936. Program management and delivery capacity was successfully transferred to the field in Ethiopia, Mozambique, Peru and Tanzania. Field access to information technology systems, corporate applications, online courses, and other services have also been expanded.
  • Business Modernization — A number of processes, including aid delivery, financial and human resources management, and information technology services have been streamlined, standardized and automated into a central repository of rules and tools accessible to both headquarters and field staff. The February 2012 launch of CIDA@Work, a comprehensive, centralized electronic repository of Agency processes and their related guidelines, rules, and tools, has enhanced staff efficiency. Aid delivery processes has been simplified and captured in the Agency Programming Process, which was developed in 2011-2012 with rollout planned for 2012-2013.

Notes

Footnote 1

The term "department" is used here for any Canadian federal entity that reports ODA, as per the Act.

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Footnote 2

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 3

In order to carry out its activities, CIDA received services without charge from various federal departments, including Public Works and Government Services Canada, Justice Canada, Treasury Board Secretariat, and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.

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Footnote 4

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 5

Millennium Development Goals

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Footnote 6

Includes emergency food assistance of $190.81 million.

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Footnote 7

Does not include emergency food assistance, which is included in food security spending.

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Footnote 8

Includes health, education and social services not targeting children or youth.

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Footnote 9

Other includes legacy programs coded as multisector aid as well as development-awareness programs.

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Footnote 10

Scaling Up Nutrition

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Footnote 11

United Nations Transformative Agenda

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Footnote 12

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 13

International Development Association

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Footnote 14

Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative

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Footnote 15

Department of Finance

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Footnote 16

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 17

The non-ODA portion of assessed contributions, including UN peacekeeping, are not considered to be a part of the International Assistance Envelope (IAE) and, therefore, are excluded from this report.

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Footnote 18

The Program provided $12 million in 2011-2012 to meet the needs of the UNODC in both 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. As such, no disbursement was necessary in 2012-2013 to meet the $6 million annual commitment.

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Footnote 19

This total includes $1.22 million in disbursements to the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development (Rights & Democracy).

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Footnote 20

On May 18, 2012, the Minister of International Trade ordered the suspension of the Investment Cooperation Program. The program remains suspended pending a final decision on its future.

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Footnote 21

The Office of Religious Freedom was announced on February 19, 2013, established in 2012-2013, and will begin programming in 2013-2014.

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Footnote 22

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 23

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 24

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 25

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 26

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 27

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

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Footnote 28

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 29

PAHO-Canada Portal

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Footnote 30

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 31

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

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Footnote 32

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

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Footnote 33

The assistance reported meets the requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act and is consistent with the reporting guidelines for development assistance prepared by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

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Alternate Format

Report to Parliament on the Government of Canada's Official Development Assistance 2012-2013 (PDF, 48 pages, 1.1 MB)

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