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ARCHIVED - Sustainable Development Strategy: 2007–2009

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Catalogue No. CD4-12/2007
ISBN 0-662-49689-2

Message from the Minister
Abbreviations
Executive Summary

Part I - Context and Planning

Part II - Sustainable Development Strategy for 2007-2009

Part III-Supplementary Information

Appendices



Message from the Minister

The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) aims to reduce poverty by helping developing countries satisfy their basic needs and improve their quality of life, without compromising the quality of life for future generations. This is the foundation of our 2007-2009 Sustainable Development Strategy.

In many respects, the world is shrinking. All countries are increasingly interconnected through such global issues as health pandemics, environmental degradation, transboundary conflict, and trade and commerce. These issues, and many others, provide a compelling rationale for strong cooperation and knowledge sharing in order to secure and improve lives around the world and protect Canadian interests. A sustainable development framework helps countries achieve their development objectives and realize concrete results. The framework also allows CIDA to contribute to the Government of Canada's efforts to enhance sustainability.

Sustainable development remains a core challenge for the 21st century. Indeed, globally, some progress has been made. Notably, the Millennium Development Goals were developed by the United Nations in 2000. They chart clear and measurable goals for reaching and maintaining sustainable development. Widespread consensus on how countries will work together to achieve this vision of sustainable development was further established through the 2005 Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. Key to success is recognizing that developing countries are ultimately responsible for their own development, and that the donor community, including Canada, must strive to provide aid that is better coordinated and best suited to the circumstances.

Despite remarkable progress in a number of developing countries, notably in East Asia and South America, many development objectives are still a work in progress. The impacts of natural disasters and environmental degradation continue, and the immediate and growing HIV/AIDS crisis requires development responses that are flexible, multidimensional, and aggressive in their delivery. Bringing peace and security to fragile states also requires dedicated and focussed effort, not just for two or three years, but also perhaps for decades. These environmental, health, and peace and conflict issues are more than humanitarian challenges. They are international in scope and response because their effects are now felt globally. CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy helps provide the direction that can assist Canada to do its part in making our world more prosperous, secure, and equitable.


The Honourable Josée Verner, P.C., M.P
Minister of International Cooperation and
Minister for La Francophonie and
Official Languages


Abbreviations



AIDS
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
ARV
antiretroviral
CIDA
Canadian International Development Agency
CIII
Canadian International Immunization Initiative
CSR
corporate social responsibility
DPR
Departmental Performance Report
EFA
Education for All
EMS
Environmental Management System
FTI
Fast Track Initiative
GDP
gross domestic product
GEF
Global Environment Facility
GHG
greenhouse gas
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus
IAE
International Assistance Envelope
IFC
International Finance Corporation
IISD
International Institute for Sustainable Development
IMTB
Information Management and Technology Branch
MDGs
Millennium Development Goals
MRRS
Management, Resources, and Results Structure
ODA
Official Development Assistance
PAA
Program Activity Architecture
PSD
private sector development
PWGSC
Public Works and Government Services Canada
SDS
Sustainable Development Strategy
SLM
sustainable land management
SMEs
small and medium-sized enterprises
UNICEF
United Nations Children's Fund



Executive Summary

The Canadian International Development Agency's (CIDA) fourth Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS) is part of a broader federal effort to contribute to sustainable development. The process involved in developing this Strategy provides an opportunity for CIDA to plan and reflect upon its contribution to sustainable development both through its internal and programming operations.

CIDA's goal of reduced poverty, promotion of human rights, and increased sustainable development is uniquely relevant to the federal sustainable development framework. Within this context of CIDA's mandate, goals, and objectives and against the federal framework for sustainable development, CIDA has established four core objectives for its Sustainable Development Strategy:
  • support equitable economic development;
  • support social development, with particular emphasis on people living in poverty;
  • support environment and natural resources management; and
  • support progress in democratic governance and human rights.
These four objectives, along with crosscutting themes of the environment and equality between women and men, are mutually reinforcing and crucial to sustainability.

This SDS focusses on what CIDA believes are best practices in international development at the policy, program, and investment level that are leading, or are likely to lead, to sustainable development results. These best practices can serve as models for other initiatives, thereby ensuring that sustainable development increasingly becomes a hallmark of the Agency's work. We have also tried to ensure that these best practices, while focussing on the four core objectives, also reflect the work we do with our various partners: development partners, fragile states and countries in crisis, selected countries and regions, institutions, and Canadians.


Part I - Context and Planning

Introduction

The fourth Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS) of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is part of a broader federal effort to contribute to sustainable development. This step was legislated through amendments to the Auditor General Act in 1995, which require Ministers to prepare sustainable development strategies that outline their departments' objectives and plans for action to further sustainable development, and to update the strategies at least once every three years. The process provides an opportunity for CIDA to plan and reflect upon its contribution to sustainable development both through its internal and programming operations.

CIDA's goal of reduced poverty, promotion of human rights, and increased sustainable development is uniquely relevant to the federal sustainable development framework. Economic well-being, social development, environmental management, and good governance are all key factors that must be respected for sustainable development to be realized in a developing-country context. Equality between men and women and the environment are recognized as crosscutting themes at CIDA, and crucial to sustainability.

It is within the context of CIDA's mandate and goals and against the federal framework for sustainable development that CIDA has established four core objectives for its SDS:
  • support equitable economic development;
  • support social development, with particular emphasis on people living in poverty;
  • support environmental and natural resources management; and
  • support progress in democratic governance and human rights.
Together, actions to support these objectives will increase the sustainability of CIDA's efforts to achieve reduced poverty, promotion of human rights, and increased sustainable development. This fourth SDS builds upon progress achieved since CIDA's third plan: Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006: Enabling Change.

CIDA's approach to this strategy reflects a stronger coherence of sustainable development with key policy directions, notably the Agency's Program Activity Architecture (PAA) and its Management, Resource, and Results Structure (MRRS) inspired by the corporate Logic Model. In line with the federal government's commitment to more effective use of Canadian aid, this new framework enables clear accountability for results.

CIDA's SDS recognizes aid effectiveness principles by including the leadership role of developing countries themselves, mutual accountability, the need for a more effective sectoral and geographic focus, and the significance of greater donor and development policy coherence and coordination in the SDS.

Sustainable Development Strategy Application

This document establishes principles, supported by examples of activities, which define sustainable development within the general context of international development and reduced poverty. As explained further in the body of this document, sustainable development challenges are unique to each country, so no single "common" approach can be followed. CIDA headquarters, field staff, and partners will apply the relevant components of this strategy in planning, implementing, and managing CIDA's development policies, plans, programs, and projects.

Each development objective in the main body of the strategy will be supported by additional context and information including:
  • relevance to reducing poverty, CIDA's contribution to sustainable development, and examples of current initiatives; and
  • targets and initiatives, which correspond to the four core objectives.
CIDA will also take advantage of opportunities to strengthen policy coherence among other government departments and partners in support of development cooperation to achieve greater effectiveness of the international development assistance program.

From 2007 to 2009, CIDA will work actively to apply the four core sustainable development objectives to all development programming channels and policy suite to ensure that the challenges faced by developing countries and fragile states are addressed for the benefit of present and future generations.

CIDA and International Development Cooperation

Responses at the global level to development challenges

The international community reached an unprecedented consensus on five principles of effective development. This consensus is reflected in the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005). It represents the third pillar in global development partnerships, along with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (2000) and the Monterrey Consensus (2002) on the financial and non-aid foundation necessary for development. It provides a framework of commitments to guide the international development community in improving the effectiveness of development assistance in order to help achieve the MDGs.

The MDGs continue to provide a global roadmap for CIDA's development assistance. At the United Nations World Summit in September 2005, participants reviewed their progress toward achieving the MDGs in poverty and hunger eradication, health, education, gender equality, environmental sustainability, and development partnerships.

While clear progress was noted in some areas (e.g. in reducing poverty, there were 130 million fewer people living in extreme poverty in 2001 compared to 1990, representing a decrease from 28 percent to 21 percent of the world's population), the pace was considered too slow to meet the objectives set for 2015, especially those concerning health. For example, while many people have gained access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation services, the actual number of people without access remains static because of global population growth and set-backs related to natural disasters, conflicts, and aging infrastructure.

CIDA's response

CIDA has been active in Asia, Africa, the Americas, parts of Europe, and the Middle East and the Maghreb. The range of development issues in which CIDA engages are diverse and changing, as global circumstances change and the economic, social, and environmental conditions of CIDA's development partners evolve. As noted in the introduction, developing countries continue to face major challenges to reduce the burden of poverty on their populations. At the regional level, particular issues and trends influence the direction of development and the degree of its success. These influences have a very significant impact on CIDA's contribution to development assistance.

The Government of Canada is committed to optimizing the impact of its development assistance program. With the doubling of international assistance between 2001-2002 and 2010-2011, along with a focus on more effective use of Canadian aid dollars, Canada has positioned itself to contribute more strategically to its international policy objectives.

While Canada has earned an international reputation as an effective donor and a responsible steward of development assistance funds, more can be done. The past decades have yielded important lessons for development. Donors and developing countries share responsibility in achieving results. For example, when partner countries display political leadership-exercising leadership over the development process-and true commitment to open and transparent governance, donors can more easily align with the countries' priorities and systems and pursue a productive dialogue with their hosts. Donors have also recognized the need to improve their coordination and harmonize their procedures. Together, donors and partner countries engage in a long-term comprehensive relationship focussed on development results. This mutual accountability underpins CIDA's relationships with our developing partners.

CIDA is implementing a four-part agenda to strengthen the effectiveness, accountability, and results of Canada's aid program through a more strategic focus on aid programming, strengthened program delivery, a more effective use of Agency resources, and clear accountability for results, including an annual report on development results. Improving effectiveness also involves concentrating a greater portion of bilateral resources on a limited number of countries.

CIDA will integrate lessons of experience on aid effectiveness and successes in development in all programming channels-bilateral, multilateral, and partnership. Implementing these lessons in all countries and initiatives will facilitate greater sustainability in CIDA's work.

CIDA's Operating Environment

The Government of Canada manages the International Assistance Envelope (IAE), which funds international assistance activities through Official Development Assistance (ODA), as defined by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

The IAE is structured into five distinct pools to provide a coordinated and flexible approach to Canada's international assistance. CIDA is responsible for managing the development pool, accounting for most of the IAE funding, and for co-managing the crisis pool along with the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), in consultation with the Department of Finance, Privy Council Office, and the Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS). Further details of the spending profile can be found on CIDA's website.

CIDA delivers development assistance through various branches: Africa; Americas; Europe, Middle East and Maghreb; Canadian Partnership; and Multilateral Programs. Activities in these branches are supported by the work of Policy Branch and other corporate services. (See CIDA's organization chart in Part III - Supplementary Information).

Building on the Previous Sustainable Development Strategy

As a learning organization, CIDA continues to benefit from its experience. It incorporates into its programming the findings of audits, evaluations, and related assessments of projects, programs, sectors, and institutions. This SDS builds upon such lessons and the many changes that the Agency has made since its third SDS.

CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006: Enabling Change (SDS3) served as the Agency's business plan, looking beyond sustainable development as an environmentally based concept and approaching it in a more holistic manner integrating environmental, economic, social, and governance-related aspects of development. SDS3 elaborated on CIDA's sector-based results, which showed the relationship between CIDA's mandate and the MDGs. The overall strategic objectives (development results) of the SDS3 were to achieve sustainable development to reduce poverty in the poorest countries, as measured through progress on the development goals of economic well-being, social development, environmental sustainability, and governance. The table below presents key achievements for the period of the SDS3.

Table 1. Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006: key development results

Objectives 2004-2006 Targeted outcomes Performance
1. Economic Well-being
Equitable economic growth and improved standards of living of poor women and men, girls and boys.
Strengthen investments in agriculture and rural development.
  • Support private sector development that contributes to pro-poor equitable economic growth, and improved and sustainable standards of living of poor women and men, girls and boys.
  • Build capacity to make trade work for poor women and men, girls and boys.
  • Foster an enabling environment for economic growth and investment.
CIDA made notable gains in its support of private sector development between 2004 and 2006.

The Agency launched new programs to foster foreign investment and strengthen local business support organizations, with special attention to the needs of micro and small-sized enterprises.

The Agency achieved numerous concrete results through innovative investments:
  • For example, investments under the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) program resulted in reducing business licensing time in Egypt's Dakhalia Governorate from 336 to 15 days, encouraging more business start-ups and expansions. This breakthrough Canadian model is now being replicated in other countries. Other work on SME development in an Upper Egypt project helped establish 2,000 new enterprises and create 8,000 jobs.
  • Under a CIDA-funded program in Bangladesh, the microfinance client base increased by 37,000, thus raising the total to 504,436; the total number of microfinance branches has increased from 167 to 185; and the total disbursement of loans has increased to $2.0 million from $1.5 million.
  • CIDA's flagship private sector development (PSD) project in Indonesia-Private Enterprise Participation (PEP)-uses the creation of new jobs as one of its targeted results. In 2005, it measured 1,900 new jobs as a result of its technical assistance, institutional strengthening, and micro-credit programs.
  • According to recent estimates, in Vietnam, an improved livelihoods project, which CIDA supported in Thanh Hoa province, has resulted in a 10 percent reduction in the number of poor households; a 37 percent increase in average incomes; a 10 percent reduction in the number of days spent ill; a 10 percent increase in credit availability; an 8 percent increase in households marketing their crops; and a total of 424 infrastructure development projects.
  • In Senegal, support to a savings and credit network, which involves more than 150,000 members, most of whom are women, profited from loans totalling $142 million over the life of the project.
2. Social Development
Improved quality of life of poor women and men, boys and girls through enhanced social services, management of the social impact of reform, progress toward gender equality, and humanitarian assistance.
Strengthen programming in basic education, HIV/ AIDS, health and nutrition, and child protection.
  • Support and promote the integration of gender equality dimensions in all development policies, programs, and projects.
  • Provide humanitarian assistance in times of natural disaster and/or conflict.
CIDA has greatly contributed to:
  • Advances made in combating diseases such as tuberculosis with more than four million people cured and 500,000 lives saved since 2000.
  • Vaccinating groups at risk with 9.4 million children vaccinated against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, and 41.6 million children vaccinated against hepatitis B.
  • Vitamin A supplementation, which is credited with having saved the lives of more than 300,000 children under five years of age.
  • In fall 2004, Canada's quick response to a polio outbreak in Nigeria that threatened the entire region helped enable 1 million vaccinators in 23 countries to immunize 80 million children under the age of five, thereby containing the outbreak.
  • In 2005-2006, more than 28 percent of the Agency's budget went toward health and nutrition initiatives. Over the past five years, CIDA has contributed approximately $740 million to the global response to HIV/AIDS, including $296 million through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), which is the AIDS portion of Canada's overall contribution of $528 million to the Fund during this period.
  • In Eastern Europe and Central Asia, CIDA supported a $1 million, three-year regional program promoting harm reduction to help stop the spread of HIV/AIDS in Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, and Tajikistan. Through this initiative, the Georgian Ministry of Health established an advisory council to recommend policy and legislative changes, and the Ukrainian Prison Administration committed to develop prison-based HIV and drug-use programs.
  • Internationally, Canada has also played a strong supporting role in the Education For All (EFA) initiative. Canada was highlighted in the 2005 EFA Global Monitoring Report as a case study in achieving high standards in education. Canada is recognized for its experience and expertise in education-related fields such as curricula development and training teachers.
  • CIDA's investment in basic education has more than doubled over 2000 levels to reach $223.8 million in 2005-2006. Additionally, Canada honoured its commitment to achieve and maintain an investment level of $100 million per year for basic education in Africa by 2005. CIDA's support to this sector contributed to 6.8 million more children enrolled in school since 2000 in a number of African countries, including Tanzania; and to books being available for more than 3.5 million school children in Mozambique.
  • In Bangladesh, CIDA provided support to BRAC, the largest NGO in the country, to provide non-formal education to 1.3 million poor children (60 to 65 percent of whom are girls) from remote areas who have dropped out of formal schools or have never attended school. This includes children from ethnic minority groups and children with disabilities. In 2005-2006, BRAC ran 32,000 primary schools with an enrollment of 981,000, and ran 20,000 pre-primary schools with an enrollment of 542,000.
  • CIDA supported the implementation of the Gender Reform Action Plan in Pakistan. At the program level, CIDA worked to include gender equality into project design in education, resulting in increased access and higher completion rates in Bangladesh, Egypt, Kenya, Mozambique, Senegal, and Uganda.
  • CIDA also achieves gender equality results through policy dialogue. The Agency currently leads donor dialogue forums on gender equality in Kenya, Cameroon, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, and Mozambique, and actively participates in many other countries. CIDA's participation in these fora has led to improved gender-sensitivity of government laws and activities. For example, in Mozambique, donor advocacy led to integrating gender equality results into the latest version of the country's poverty reduction strategy paper and the approval of the Protocol to the African Charter on Women's Rights.
  • Work was also completed on developing CIDA's Framework for Assessing Gender Equality Results-a performance assessment framework that will help the Agency better track its success in reducing gender inequalities through its investments.
  • In West Africa, CIDA supports a Save the Children Canada project, which addresses child trafficking in the transborder region between Mali, Burkina Faso, Guinea, and Côte d'Ivoire. The project raises awareness and intervenes in dangerous situations to protect migrant children and provide them with referrals to social services.
  • CIDA also provided assistance to fragile countries, including through its leadership role to assist in Haiti's return to stability and democracy, as well as through its contributions in such countries as Iraq and Afghanistan.
CIDA responded effectively to significant crises, including the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the 2005 earthquake in South Asia, destructive hurricanes in the Americas, drought in Africa, and the ongoing conflict in Darfur.
3. Environmental Sustainability
Improved environmental sustainability, through the protection, conservation, and management of the diversity and integrity of the environment.
  • Support and promote the integration of environmental considerations in countries' policies, programs, and projects in support of achieving the MDGs.
  • Contribute to increasing capacities to address environmental issues such as desertification, climate change, and water and sanitation in ways that reflect the priorities and interests of women and men, girls and boys.
With respect to the environment, CIDA systematically integrates the environment in its decision-making processes. New projects that fall under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act are assessed for their environmental impact. As well, CIDA conducts a strategic environmental assessment of any policy, plan, or program that requires approval by the Minister. The Agency has also developed and implemented, as a pilot, a tool that will capture how the environment has been integrated in investments.

Examples of environmental sustainability results from 2004-2006:
  • CIDA supported its partners' efforts to regulate and protect their environment. For example, the World Fisheries Trust and its Brazilian partners are working closely with local communities along the São Francisco River to establish fisheries regulations and management processes to ensure sound river management, a pollution-free environment, and sustainability of the fisheries.
  • A major initiative in Eastern Europe and Central Asia has helped build the capacity of public sector and civil society partners to integrate environmental issues, that affect conflict and security, into their policies, plans, and programs, serving not only to promote environmental sustainability, but also better governance.
  • In Vietnam, CIDA-funded technical assistance has helped the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment to develop statutory instruments in environmental monitoring, pollution prevention and control and awareness raising, and to improve the Law on Environmental Protection to make it more practical to implement and consistent with industrial pollution management best practice.
  • CIDA support to the Ombudsman in Peru is enabling it to review and advise on an increasing number of cases of environmental conflicts between local communities, and the mining and hydrocarbon industries.
  • Assistance to rural water development and agroforestry initiatives in Mozambique have improved access to potable water for 123 communities and expanded the use of agroforestry techniques to farmers.
The greening of CIDA operations is presented in more detail below.
4. Governance
Improved governance structures and institutional capacity, strengthened civil society, improved peace and security, and enhanced respect for human rights and democracy.
  • Promote public sector reform and greater use of rules-based systems to govern economic, political, environmental, and social affairs.
  • Build democratic institutions and processes that represent and engage all members of society.
  • Support the increased promotion and protection of human rights by institutions, governments, and civil society organizations.
  • Increase attention to conflict prevention, post-conflict reconciliation, peacebuilding, and security.
Democratic governance and human rights are essential for development progress. A democratic society-built on a foundation of freedom, human rights, the rule of law, an engaged civil society, and effective and accountable public institutions-is more able to provide human security and poverty alleviation for its citizens. With this recognition, CIDA has promoted democratic governance and human rights for over a decade.

Examples of governance-related results from 2004-2006:
  • Progress was steady in terms of governance programming, particularly in the areas of justice and public service reform, human rights, conflict prevention, and peacebuilding. A significant development in 2004-2005 was the establishment of Canada Corps, which undertook its first official electoral observation mission in December 2004 to support the presidential elections in Ukraine.
  • CIDA supported the African Parliamentarians' Network Against Corruption for the development of anti-corruption laws and guidelines for member countries; its success has already attracted funding from other donors.
  • In Bosnia and Herzegovina, training in alternative dispute resolution helped increase Banja Luka's court efficiency and reduce case backlog (some cases, which had been in the court pipeline for an average of six to eight years, were resolved in a matter of days).
  • In Mali, CIDA provided $1 million to support the implementation of a national judicial reform program to strengthen legal institutions, authorities, and systems.
  • In Sri Lanka, CIDA is providing $4 million to support the Child Rights Project that aims to strengthen the capacity of selected organizations to promote and protect the rights of children in especially difficult circumstances utilizing a rights-based approach-the project runs between 2002 and 2007.
  • In Bolivia, a $5 million contribution to the Defensor del Pueblo (DDP-Human Rights Ombudsman) has already shown significant results. Activities include radio, television, and interactive workshop discussions to promote the rights of prioritized vulnerable groups; training in human rights for over 4,000 public servants including the army, police, and teachers; and the launch of an anti-discrimination campaign using mass media on 129 different radio and television channels.
  • Other examples of improvements in democratic governance and human rights include creating a permanent national voter registry and registering 8.5 million voters in Tanzania; capacity building for policy analysis and formulation in Ukraine; and 43,000 women elected to local government in Pakistan.

While the Agency focussed on these priorities, programming continued in other areas where Canada has a significant role to play and the needs are great.

Greening of CIDA's internal operations was also a key element of the previous SDS. The following table identifies initiatives related to greening CIDA's operations that were part of the 2004-2006 Sustainable Development Strategy (Priority M.4.3 of the SDS 2004-2006, "The greening of CIDA: Improved practice of stewardship and conservation in Canada").

Table 2. Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006: key internal operations

Objective Targets and initiatives Performance achieved
1. Reduce the environmental impact of CIDA's headquarters' operations. Maintain 70 percent or more solid-waste recycling. The 2005-2006 solid-waste audit results show that CIDA recycled 86 percent of its solid waste, an increase of 16 percent compared to the target established by Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGCS) and also by the 2002 audit base results.

The implementation of a new recycling program for batteries resulted in recycling 125 kg of batteries in 2005-2006.

600 fax machine cartridges were recycled in 2005-2006 as a result of a recycling initiative.

Initiatives were taken within each branch to participate in the Greening Program, such as giving a second life to the used paper left at printers and photocopiers.

A program has been implemented in each branch to promote reusable cups in order to reduce the volume of polystyrene sent to landfill.

The distribution of government and city telephone books to CIDA employees has been reduced by 98 percent.
  Maintain the use of ethanol blend in 75 percent of CIDA vehicles when possible. 85 percent of the gasoline purchased for CIDA's vehicles is ethanol blended.

The President's official car has been replaced by a hybrid Toyota Camry.
  Continue to develop the Environmental Management System (EMS) related to internal greening, and implement the Agency's Action Plan. CIDA's Environmental Management System (EMS) has been developed in accordance with ISO 14001 standards.

An action plan has been developed in accordance with the Agency and the government priorities.
  Develop strategies and action plans to increase solid-waste recycling. The replacement of all the solid-waste recycling centres has been completed and the signage updated in order to maximize the recycling. CIDA has sent 1,800 computers and also monitors, laptops, printers, servers, mice, and keyboards to the Computers for Schools program for reuse or recycling.
  Assist Agency personnel with green purchasing. Assist Agency personnel with green purchasing by publishing PWGSC's green sites.
  Seek options to deliver training on best practices for greening CIDA. Five percent of CIDA employees enrolled in the Transit Pass Program implemented in 2006 in order to benefit from a fare reduction and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Awareness campaigns such as Environment Week and One Tonne Challenge involved the participation of up to 10 percent of employees.

Best practices have been promoted via Entre Nous publications to educate and inform employees on initiatives such as green purchasing, etc.

Reflections on the SDS3 that were undertaken to both report on our achievements and improve the development of our fourth SDS have revealed positive results, as indicated above, but they have also revealed some useful feedback to incorporate into developing the fourth SDS. In terms of areas for improvement under SDS4, the SDS3 had too many individual indicators to be able to highlight and draw on specific best practices in sustainability. As well, SDS3 could have done more to recognize the significant role of our partners in achieving planned results. Finally, the role that the SDS3 served as an overarching framework for the Agency's work has been superseded by other corporate tools and frameworks; namely, the corporate logic model and the Program Activity Architecture (PAA).


Part II - Sustainable Development Strategy for 2007-2009

CIDA's Vision

CIDA embraces a vision of sustainable development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This vision contains within it two key constructs: first, the concept of needs-in CIDA's context-the basic needs of our developing-country partners; and second, the notion of limits of the natural environment, and social and technical innovation, to meet present and future needs. CIDA's assistance to developing countries to reduce poverty, without compromising the quality of life for future generations, requires a continuing balance between these key constructs.

The Agency's operations, which have sustainable development as an integral element, are framed by the Agency's Program Activity Architecture (PAA) and supports CIDA's goal of reduced poverty, promotion of human rights, and increased sustainable development. The Agency's two strategic outcomes are:
  1. increased achievement of development goals consistent with Canadian foreign policy objectives; and
  2. sustained support and informed action by Canadians in international development.

CIDA's Approach

Sustainable development at CIDA continues to evolve both as a concept and in terms of demonstrable implementation through a variety of policies, programs, and projects, including CIDA's work at the highest levels. Incorporating sustainable development principles into program delivery continues to strengthen aid effectiveness and to deliver favourable results.

This SDS emphasizes practical, focussed measures that demonstrate long-term sustainability. In order to bring implementation into sharper focus, the sustainable development model is comprised of the three traditional sustainable development "pillars"- economic development, social development, and environmental management-and a fourth, governance. Greater emphasis on democratic governance (which includes freedom and democracy, human rights, rule of law, and accountable public institutions) reflects the need to incorporate this fundamental aspect in programming and within CIDA's internal operations. It also clearly relates to the sixth federal SDS goal, governance for sustainable development. Equality between women and men, girls and boys is identified as crosscutting. These four pillars, along with equality between women and men, are inextricably linked and are mutually reinforcing.

This SDS is not intended to encompass all of CIDA's operations; rather, it focusses on what CIDA believes are best practises in international development at the policy, program, and investment level that are leading, or are likely to lead, to sustainable development results. These best practices can serve as models for other initiatives, thereby ensuring that sustainable development increasingly becomes a hallmark of the Agency's work. We have also tried to ensure that these best practices, while focussing on the four core objectives, also reflect the work we do with our different partners; namely: development partners; fragile states and countries in crisis; selected countries and regions; institutions; and Canadians.

Relationship Between the Sustainable Development Strategy and Other Agency Corporate Documents

In 2006, CIDA established a clear performance management framework based on a PAA for the Agency. The goal was to develop an approach truly reflective of the Agency's business by program activities, which as of 2007-2008 would subsequently allow a Management, Resources, and Results Structure (MRRS) to be built on the PAA. This coherence will better link our resources, both financial and human, with the results the Agency wants to achieve and wants to communicate as CIDA's contribution to the final outcome of reduced poverty, promotion of human rights, and increased sustainable development.

In the context of the government's focus on accountability and the importance placed on demonstrating an effective use of aid resources, for the first time CIDA's governance structure has adopted a corporate Logic Model and revised PAA based on our relationships with partner countries, partner institutions, and Canadians, effective April 1, 2007. This model will better reflect CIDA's contribution to our partners' ability to achieve their development goals. It has been designed as a stable results structure that represents CIDA's core mandate and that will be durable over time.

It is within this context that the Agency's SDS4 was developed. The four outputs of the SDS4, namely economic development, social development, environmental management, and governance, will ultimately contribute to sustainability and support the Agency's final outcome as described in the Logic Model as well as in the PAA's Strategic Outcomes.

This close alignment allows sustainable development to continue being a central and prominent concept and practice, and ensures consistent direction.

CIDA shares accountability with its partners, not only accountability for actual outputs and outcomes, but also for impacts, albeit to a lesser extent. Therefore, our Logic Model seeks to demonstrate our contribution to achieving development results. Our contribution to these results depends highly on the relationships CIDA has developed and nurtured with its partners. The nature of these relationships varies, and they have driven the identification of our program activities.

In some cases, the effectiveness of Canada's aid is optimized through longer-term engagement, as in the case of development partner countries and partner institutions-Canadian, multilateral, and international. In order to deliver on the final outcome of reduced poverty, promotion of human rights, and increased sustainable development, strategic relationships must be fostered with developing countries, partner institutions, and Canadians. While those relationships have been at the heart of CIDA's management approach for a number of years, they are now fully reflected in CIDA's performance measurement framework.

SDS3 has been updated annually through CIDA's Report on Plans and Priorities (RPP) and reported on through its Departmental Performance Report (DPR). The same planning and reporting process will apply to SDS4. In addition, as part of the Agency's commitment to clearer accountability for results, the Agency will table annual reports on development results.

CIDA's Sustainable Development Objectives and Activities

Each sustainable development objective in this strategy is based on a pillar of sustainable development (see previous section). Each pillar will be substantiated by one objective and one or two activities to support the objective. Profiled, selected initiatives demonstrate how CIDA is helping achieve results in a sustainable manner.

In reflecting on the results achieved under this fourth SDS, the selected initiatives, as well as other similar initiatives supported by CIDA, will provide a well-balanced illustration of how CIDA contributes to sustainable development through its various partners. In collaboration with these partners, each initiative is expected to contribute to the targets and planned results associated with its respective sustainable development objective.

Sustainable development objectives support the Agency's goal of reduced poverty, promotion of human rights, and increased sustainable development by contributing to the Agency's Strategic Outcomes (SO1 and SO2).

Figure 1. CIDA's planned outcomes and contribution to sustainable development

Chart of CIDA's planned outcomes and contribution to sustainable development

Activity 1-Promote pro-poor and equitable growth and improved standards of living for women, men, and children

Economic development and poverty reduction

Economic development is fundamental for reducing poverty. The primary focus of economic development in the Agency is private sector development (PSD). CIDA has identified PSD as an ongoing priority sector for Canadian development assistance. The importance of this priority is consistent with the international consensus on the role of the private sector in helping achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), particularly the first MDG of halving extreme poverty. No country has met the material needs of its citizens in a framework of sustainable development on an ongoing basis without a dynamic private sector to generate economic growth, mobilize savings and investment, create meaningful jobs, meet consumer demand, and generate tax revenues. In accordance with the principle of local ownership, which is so critical to aid effectiveness, and based on widely recognized Canadian experience and competence, many developing countries have identified PSD as a priority sector for development cooperation with CIDA.

Given the composition of the economy in many developing countries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have the potential to play a major role in growth; however, entrepreneurs and smaller enterprises continue to face significant barriers to doing business in the formal economy, and in accessing markets for their goods and services. Reducing poverty will depend on efforts to promote local entrepreneurship; to create a sound enabling environment for doing business and to address widespread informality; and to support access to new commercial opportunities in national, regional, or global markets.

How CIDA contributes to sustainability through economic development

CIDA has been programming in the area of PSD for more than three decades. Given its rich experience and resources, CIDA is poised to demonstrate leadership in responding to the unique needs and priorities of developing countries in fostering sustainable PSD and resultant economic growth. Canada can offer its recognized experience and world-class capacity in several areas, including: tax reform and financial sector development, and regulation; experience and capacity in supporting microfinance; strong historical experience in rural development, including capacity building for cooperatives, based on the rich experience of the Canadian cooperatives movement; skills and experience in environmentally and socially sustainable business practices; experience in facilitating investment linkages; widely recognized experience in trade negotiations, implementation of trade agreements and trade-related capacity building; and expertise and experience in promoting the empowerment of women and addressing the gender dimension of PSD for effectively reducing poverty.

CIDA will continue to support investments in basic infrastructure through multilateral channels and viable new financing approaches, while promoting transparent access to competitive procurement opportunities for interested Canadian firms.

Table 3. CIDA contribution to sustainable development through equitable economic development: 2007-2009

Objectives Target Timeline Planned Results
1. Support equitable economic development. Promote pro-poor and equitable growth and improved standards of living for women, men, and children in CIDA's partner countries. By 2009 In collaboration with the full range of CIDA's partners, CIDA will contribute to achieving the following results:

Promoting entrepreneurship: Increased productivity, innovation and employment, and income opportunities, especially for women and rural poor.

Creating an enabling environment: More effective laws, policies, and regulations conducive to savings, investment, business formation, and responsible enterprise; and sound, effective, and accountable private and public institutions.

Connecting to markets: Increased ability of developing countries to benefit from the global trading system; and the creation of fair economic and market access opportunities for entrepreneurs, particularly the poor.

Note: Indicators to measure the achievement of these results will be part of policy direction and documents now under development.

Selected initiatives

The initiatives below represent a range of forward-looking investments, which, in collaboration with our partners, are expected to contribute to achieving results that support equitable economic development.
  • CIDA is working with other donors to support new approaches to mobilizing the entrepreneurial poor-often in the informal sector-through the International Finance Corporation's (IFC) Strengthening Grassroots Business Initiative and the Inter-American Development Bank's Multilateral Investment Fund. The Canadian Investment Fund for Africa (CIFA) aims to stimulate African and foreign investment in the continent through risk capital. Since becoming fully operational in June 2005, the CIFA has raised US$212 million for private sector investments into Africa. While still at the early stage, CIFA investments will lead to job creation, increased income, and improved local community infrastructure and services.

  • CIDA also supports rural entrepreneurs. In Burkina Faso and Senegal, CIDA is regrouping economic actors on production, transformation, and marketing to generate a dynamic sector. In Ghana and Ethiopia, CIDA's support is oriented at increasing the government capacities to assist rural entrepreneurs.

  • CIDA is supporting the Small Enterprise Development Facility, a multi-donor funding facility in Bangladesh managed by the IFC and the World Bank's SME department to address constraints in developing SMEs in selected sectors, such as ready-made garments, light engineering, agri-business and information technology, by increasing their access to finance and business services, and improving the business environment for SMEs.

  • On a different scale, a CIDA Trade and Environment in the Americas project, to be managed by the Organization of American States Office of Sustainable Development, addresses environmental and trade issues in the region, as identified by countries through the Free Trade Area of the Americas' (FTAA) Hemispheric Cooperation Program, and specifically through the National Trade Capacity Building Strategies as developed by each country. Three trade-related environmental capacity-building priorities have been identified: strengthening regulatory capacities in response to trade-related changes in production; responding to obligations in trade agreements; and responding to regional cooperation opportunities.

Activity 2a-Improve prevention and control of high-burden, poverty-linked disease.

Health and poverty reduction

Ensuring good health status for the world's population is key to laying the foundation for sustainable social, economic, and human development. Despite progress in achieving certain health indicators, this benefit has not been widely shared within and across countries, as the greatest burden of disease is borne by the poor.

There is a continued spread of high-burden, poverty-linked diseases that continue to devastate many developing countries. HIV/AIDS has had a profound impact in many regions of the world, reversing recent human development gains and increasingly taxing the public health sector. Mitigation of the impacts of HIV/AIDS is complicated further by the persistent web of poverty, inequality, and stigma attached to the disease. Quality, efficiency, and equity also persist as major gaps in health services. Food insecurity and limits in agricultural production contribute to the world's major health problems: HIV/AIDS, under-nutrition, malaria, water-borne disease, diet-related chronic diseases, and the potential for a global influenza pandemic. In addition, lack of investment and sustainable financing from both the global community and national health structures for public health systems and human resources for health over the past two decades has led to a dramatic deterioration of the health systems in a significant number of developing countries.

How CIDA contributes to sustainability through health initiatives

The global architecture of funding for health and HIV/AIDS programming has changed tremendously recently. This includes significant increases in funding through international organizations and initiatives, many of which play a key role in policy dialogue, implementation, and coordination, often leading health strategies at the country level. Other changes include support to public-private partnerships, a stronger focus on results on the ground, including monitoring and evaluation systems, emphasis on evidence-based policy and programs, and an increased focus on health financing and governance. This sectoral focus has been informed by a human rights framework with health placed as a human right: it is identified in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 25) as well as the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Article 12).

Building on lessons learned and best practices in health and HIV/AIDS programming over many decades, CIDA will continue to collaborate with key Canadian, international, and developing-country partners in an effort to build country capacity. CIDA will strive to support policies, initiatives, and relevant research that: prevent and control high-burden, communicable, poverty-linked diseases; combat HIV/AIDS; improve infant and child health; improve sexual and reproductive health and reduce maternal mortality; improve food security and nutrition; and strengthen health systems.

Table 4. CIDA contribution to sustainable development through health programming: 2007-2009

Objectives Target Timeline Planned Results
2. Support social development with particular emphasis on people living in poverty. Improve prevention and control of high-burden, poverty-linked disease in CIDA's partner countries. By 2009 In collaboration with the full range of CIDA's partners, CIDA will contribute to achieving the following results:

Prevention and control of high-burden, communicable, poverty-linked diseases: By 2015, CIDA's partner countries will have increased equitable access to prevention and treatment programs, appropriate drugs/commodities, and routine/supplementary outreach immunization programs for new and underused vaccines.

Combating HIV/AIDS: By 2015, CIDA's partner countries, in efforts to achieve universal access, will have increased access to effective HIV prevention (including tools, information, and commodities); voluntary, confidential counselling and testing; antiretroviral treatment; and care and support.

Improving infant and child health: By 2015, CIDA's partner countries will have strengthened primary health care systems that strive to provide appropriate health interventions to girls and boys, including an integrated package of prevention and treatment services.

Improving sexual and reproductive health and reducing maternal mortality: By 2015, CIDA's partner countries will have increased equitable access to proven and comprehensive sexual and reproductive health information, services, and care.

Improving food security and nutrition: By 2015, CIDA's partner countries will demonstrate reduced rates of malnutrition and low birth weight by improving nutrition and food security, particularly in rural communities.

Strengthening health systems: By 2015, CIDA's partner countries will have increased sustainability of primary health care systems that are more accessible, efficient, equitable and responsive, particularly to the most vulnerable segments of the population.

Note: Indicators to measure the achievement of these results will be part of policy direction and documents now under development.

Selected initiatives

The initiatives below represent a range of forward-looking investments, which, in collaboration with our partners, are expected to contribute to achieving results that support social development with particular emphasis on people living in poverty.

CIDA continues to contribute to greater sustainability by collaborating with various multilateral partners, with a goal of ensuring that these partnerships support, and occur within, country ownership and policies. Some recent initiatives and achievements, which will be built upon in ongoing programs, include:
  • Reducing the incidence of malaria: CIDA has given approximately $32 million to the Canadian Red Cross and UNICEF to purchase long-lasting, insecticide-treated bednets for free distribution to children under five to prevent malaria. Approximately four million bednets will be distributed under these programs.

  • Reducing micronutrient deficiency: CIDA contributes approximately $29 million annually to the Micronutrient Initiative, a global program dedicated to eliminating micronutrient deficiencies in children and women in developing countries. UNICEF estimates that more than 1.5 million children's lives have been saved through the vitamin A initiative.

  • Increasing vaccination coverage: Since 2001, CIDA has contributed $182 million to the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) that provides new and underused vaccines to developing countries. This represents the highest ever grant from a donor country. Since 1998, CIDA has been a major funder of the Canadian International Immunization Initiative (CIII), providing $130 million to this Canadian initiative. In its first five years, the CIII grant has contributed to saving the lives of over 500,000 children. CIDA has also been a substantial supporter of polio eradication efforts, providing more than $165 million to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative since the 1990s.

  • Providing access to HIV/AIDS treatment: Between 2003 and 2005, CIDA's leading support to the World Health Organization's 3 by 5 Initiative helped more than one million people in the developing world gain access to drug therapy, an increase of 200 percent.

    • CIDA programming in Zimbabwe has helped provide: education and awareness workshops about HIV transmission to over 14,000 women; testing and counselling services to over 6,500 women; and access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment to more than 800 women and 650 infants.

    • CIDA's support in Mozambique has helped expand access to ARV treatment from 6,500 people in 2004 to 20,000 people in 2005. Similarly in Tanzania, CIDA support has helped enrol 26,000 women and men in ARV treatment programs.

  • CIDA programming in Zimbabwe has helped provide: education and awareness workshops about HIV transmission to over 14,000 women; testing and counselling services to over 6,500 women; and access to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment to more than 800 women and 650 infants. CIDA's support in Mozambique has helped expand access to ARV treatment from 6,500 people in 2004 to 20,000 people in 2005. Similarly in Tanzania, CIDA support has helped enrol 26,000 women and men in ARV treatment programs.


Activity 2b-Strengthen programming in basic education

Basic education and poverty reduction

Education is a human right, a basic component of open, democratic and equitable societies, and essential for sustained social and economic development. Basic education, and the acquisition of skills and knowledge, are understood to be a main driver in reducing poverty and in sustainable development. Education plays a central role in reducing child mortality, curbing population growth, preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS, providing protection from abuse and exploitation, and achieving equality between men and women. Education is a transformative change agent, empowering individuals to contribute to their own social and economic well-being and to that of their communities..

How CIDA contributes to sustainability through basic education initiatives

Canada, a world leader in child-centred, girl-friendly education, remains committed to strengthening basic education as a priority sector for Canadian development assistance because of its direct and proven impact on reducing poverty and sustainable development. Within the area of basic education, CIDA will work to address persistent gaps in quality, access, and equality as priority objectives. Given the emerging and critical impact of education for HIV prevention and the effect of HIV/AIDS and conflict and emergencies on the education sector, CIDA will focus specifically on programming and/or policy development in these areas in order to achieve quality, access, and equality in the education sector. These priorities are interrelated and taken together contribute to achieving the MDGs, and within the broader Education for All (EFA) Framework, address the basic education needs of early childhood learners, children, youth, and adults.

Canada's commitment to basic education is reflected in its support of a number of international agreements, which include the EFA Framework, the MDGs and Millennium Declaration, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and the 1995 Beijing Declaration. These agreements stress the importance of basic education, calling for universal access to free, compulsory primary education of good quality, for gender equality in education, and for improvements to the quality of education. These agreements also imply that education policy and programming should be consistent with human rights principles including the participation of girls, boys, men, and women in decisions that affect them; non-discrimination; state accountability for fulfilling human rights; and the interdependence of rights such as education, freedom of thought, and protection from exploitation.

To ensure that Canada's education investments lead to sustained economic and social development and reduced poverty, CIDA's education programming will be aligned with the priorities of our country partners. Working within the principles of country-led, country-driven development, CIDA will promote the preparation of sound national education sector strategies, policies, and plans that are fully integrated into national poverty-reduction strategies, developed and endorsed in a participatory process by all stakeholders. As country partners make progress in achieving basic education, CIDA will seek to accompany those partners in support of initiatives within the broader education sector, which contributes directly to reduced poverty and sustainable development.

Table 5. CIDA contribution to sustainable development through education: 2007-2009

Objectives Target Timeline Planned Results
2. Support social development, with particular emphasis on people living in poverty. Strengthen programming in basic education in CIDA's partner countries. By 2009 In collaboration with the full range of CIDA's partners, CIDA will contribute to achieving the following results:

Education for all: CIDA will work with partner countries to develop credible national education plans that seek to increase access and improve the quality and relevance of basic education.

Gender equality: CIDA will assist partner countries to reduce barriers that prevent closing the gender gap in education by mainstreaming gender equality in national education sector plans and by strengthening programming in girls' education.

Strengthened action against HIV/AIDS through the education sector: With CIDA's support, partner countries will improve the capacity and coordination of the education sector's response to HIV/AIDS, increase the integration of HIV/AIDS into national education sector plans, and increase the number of HIV/AIDS education policies and programs.

Improved stability and protection for children in emergency settings: In situations of conflict, post-conflict and emergencies, CIDA will work to improve coordination among partner countries and organizations, and provide more immediate access for children living in crisis situations to safe, secure and child-friendly formal and/or non-formal basic education programs.

Note: Indicators to measure the achievement of these results will be part of policy direction and documents now under development.

Selected initiatives

The initiatives below represent a range of forward-looking investments, which, in collaboration with our partners, are expected to contribute
  • In Africa, CIDA is currently involved in sector-wide education programming that focusses on universal primary education of good quality in Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda. The value of these multi-year investments is over $245 million.

  • As a mechanism for supporting education planning and harmonizing donor support, the Education for All - Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) is aligned with the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and builds on the Monterrey Consensus on mutual accountability. The EFA-FTI has been identified as a model of sector-specific aid effectiveness and sustainability, as it is founded on sound sector policies in education and delivered on adequate and sustained domestic financing for education and increased accountability for results. In 2002, Canada established the G8 Education Task Force where the EFA-FTI was set in motion, served as the first bilateral co-chair of the FTI, and has worked within the FTI Partnership since 2002. At the 2006 G8 Summit, Canada reconfirmed its support for basic education by committing $25 million to the EFA-FTI.

  • In Vietnam, CIDA has played a strategic role in the Government of Vietnam's reform efforts in the education sector. In particular, as a result of CIDA's intervention, the multi-donor Targeted Budget Support for EFA Implementation program (2005-2010) includes a separate Government of Vietnam project focussed on capacity building. The objective of the project is to strengthen the capacity of the Government of Vietnam to manage the education sector budget and ODA resources dedicated to education programming. This, in turn, will help achieve the objectives of the National Education Development Strategy (2001-2010) and the MDGs and EFA goals.

Activity 3a-Greater integration of environment into CIDA decision making as well as increased capacity of developing countries to manage their environment and natural resources.

Environmental sustainability and poverty reduction

Environmental sustainability is defined as meeting current human needs without undermining the capacity of the environment to provide for those needs over the longer term. Environment is defined as the components of the Earth, and includes a) land, water and air, including all layers of the atmosphere; b) all organic and inorganic mater and living organisms; and c) the interacting natural systems that include components referred to in (a) and (b).

Environmental sustainability is ensured through a combination of environmental protection and enhancement, risk management, and the responsible management of natural resources, including both renewable resources (e.g. air, water, fish, forests, soil) and non-renewable resources (e.g. minerals, fossil fuels, metals). These resources, including energy, are the foundation of human well-being, economic production, and ecological support systems referred to as ecosystems.

Sustainable development and reducing poverty in developing countries are intrinsically linked to environmental sustainability and associated sustainable natural resource management. Many of the most important global environmental challenges facing the planet, such as climate change, desertification, and the loss of biological diversity, have broad implications for developing countries, notably due to their limited resources for responding to these challenges. At the same time, the global nature of these problems makes a concerted and coordinated response from the international community, including developing countries, essential. Canada and other developed countries have commitments to help support developing countries in meeting the goals of a number of international environmental agreements. CIDA has an important role to play in this regard. Given all the realities above, it is clear that addressing environmental sustainability is essential to achieving the MDGs, as goal seven makes clear.

How CIDA contributes to sustainability through environmental and natural resources management initiatives

Canada's development cooperation recognizes environmental sustainability as a key component in its development policy and subsequent activities. Canada has considerable expertise in a number of related fields in this area, both in terms of technologies and know-how. For example, Canada has an established reputation regarding both environmental and natural resource policy leadership and research and development on the international stage.

The assistance CIDA provides to developing-country partners will recognize and respect their in-country policies and supporting regulatory frameworks and standards. In terms of CIDA's standards, both the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), which is mandated by the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program proposals, are applicable to development assistance.

Environmental sustainability, in support of sustainable development and reduced poverty, is a priority for CIDA. CIDA will systematically and explicitly integrate environmental considerations into decision making across all policies, programs, and projects.

Table 6. CIDA contribution to sustainable development through environment and natural resources management: 2007-2009

Objectives Target Timeline Planned Results
3. Support environmental and natural resources management. Greater integration of the environment into CIDA decision making as well as increased capacity of CIDA's partner countries to manage their environment and natural resources. D'ici 2009 Environmental integration will have been strengthened into decision making across all CIDA policies, plans, programs, and projects.

In collaboration with the full range of CIDA's partners, CIDA will contribute to achieving the following results:

CIDA will make progress toward the MDG 2015 target of having contributed significantly in the developing world to integrate the principles of environmental sustainability in support of sustainable development into country policies, programs, and projects, and reverse the loss of environmental resources.

CIDA will make progress toward the MDG 2015 target of having provided targeted support to help developing countries enhance their capacity to implement international environmental agreements.

Note: Indicators to measure the achievement of these results will be part of policy direction and documents now under development.

Improve the greening of CIDA's operations at headquarters.
Details in the table below

This integration is important across sectors. As well, gender equality will be systematically and explicitly integrated in all environmental and natural resources programming and activities.

In a world where pollution grows largely unabated, CIDA will assist developing countries in managing their natural resources, recognizing that natural resources represent critical assets for enhancing health and livelihoods of the poor. Within this context, CIDA's strategic priorities will include sustainable land management, sustainable integrated water management, and building the poor's adaptive capacity to address their vulnerability to environmental stresses and change.

CIDA will assist, in a targeted manner, developing countries to enhance their capacity to implement international environmental agreements. This will include strengthening institutional capacity and accountability in relation to the environment and natural resources.

Selected initiatives

The initiatives below represent a range of forward-looking investments, which, in collaboration with our partners, are expected to contribute to achieving results that support environmental and natural resource management.
  • The Global Environment Facility (GEF) was created in anticipation of the 1992 Earth Summit to provide new and additional grant and concessional funding to address global environmental issues. The GEF supports implementation of the United Nations Conventions on biodiversity, climate change, land degradation, persistent organic pollutants, and ozone depletion in developing countries and economies in transition, in addition to addressing international waters issues. Negotiations for the Fourth Replenishment (2006-2010) saw donors agree to a US$3.1 billion replenishment, the highest in GEF history. Canada maintained its 4.28 percent share of donor contributions to the GEF replenishment, agreeing to provide $158.9 million over four years. The GEF continues to achieve significant, positive environmental benefits in the areas of biodiversity, climate change, international waters, and ozone depletion. Its future plans for 2006 to 2010, build on previous initiatives; for example:

    • Biodiversity: objectives include catalyzing sustainability of protected area systems at the national level, with the target of protecting 80 million hectares, and mainstreaming bio-diversity conservation to achieve 75 million hectares in production landscapes and seascapes.

    • Climate change: the GEF's objective is to develop, expand, and transform the markets for energy and mobility so that over the long term, they will be able to grow and operate efficiently toward a less carbon-intensive path. Targets to support this objective include 1,200-1,600 million tons of CO2e avoided, and 125 market transformations from mitigation projects.

    • International waters: to contribute, primarily as a catalyst, to implementing a more comprehensive, ecosystem-based approach to managing international waters, and to expanding capacity building to a limited number of new transboundary systems through integrated approaches.

    • Land degradation: to mitigate and reverse the causes and negative impacts of land degradation, especially desertification and deforestation, through sustainable land management (SLM) practices. Targets include applying innovative SLM practices in at least 25 community-based initiatives, and removing SLM barriers in at least 20 additional countries.

  • The Ecofondo project (2004-2009) in Bolivia is working to promote sustainable development. With a budget of $5 million over five years, its objectives are to decrease poverty levels and improve incomes, improve the environmental situation, discourage the cultivation of illegal crops, and promote organizational participation and capacity strengthening. In particular, its activities focus on ecological agricultural production, environmental conservation, and the elaboration of policies and institutional capacity building.

  • A CIDA-funded project is underway in Haiti's Artibonite region, in the town of Marmelade, and is taking a participatory approach to help farmers in the community control their personal and collective development. This will help increase their income through diversification and improve their agricultural production while conserving the soil. With CIDA's $5 million contribution for the second phase (2005-2010), this project supports the local community through training new landowners and local committee members. It emphasizes efforts to increase farm production, product processing, and marketing efforts.

  • The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) is an internationally recognized Canadian organization that provides important policy and programming support to CIDA. IISD advances policy recommendations to government, the private sector, and civil society on international trade and investment, economic policy, climate change, measurement and indicators, and natural resource management to make development sustainable. CIDA currently provides a three-year core funding grant to the IISD for 2005-2008 for $3.72 million. Expected results under this agreement include sustainable management of ecosystem services in national development and poverty-reduction strategies in seven countries in Africa; development of multi-scale integrated environmental information, assessment, and reporting systems; and the development of new methods for sustainability communications.

Table 7. CIDA contribution to sustainable development through the greening of internal operations: 2007-2009

Objectives Targets and Initiatives Timeline Performance Indicators
To incorporate the commitments of the Agency's Environmental Policy on Internal Operations into decision making and operations. Apply the recommendation following the Environmental Management System (EMS) Review: By 2009  
  Update the Environmental Policy on Internal Operations.   Policy updated, approved, and published.
To maximize procurement to protect the environment and support sustainable development. Apply the recommendations of the EMS Review: By 2009 Report on the tools developed to implement the policy.
  Implement the Green Purchasing Policy approved by Treasury Board.   Report annually on the percentage of employees in the procurement area who have been trained.

Policy implemented.
To reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy, and water consumption. In collaboration with SNC-Lavalin ProFac, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC), and Accommodation Services, establish measures to reduce GHG emissions, and energy and water consumption by: By 2009  
  Seeking approval for a feasibility study on replacing the fire suppression system in the server room on the 9th floor in order to reduce gas emissions.   Feasibility study on replacing the fire suppression system in the server room completed.
  Organizing an awareness campaign to reduce energy and water consumption.   In collaboration with PWGSC, report annually on energy and water consumption.
  In collaboration with CIDA's Information Management and Technology Branch (IMTB), evaluating the possibility of a "forced shutdown" of computers every day.   Feasibility study of a forced shutdown of all the computers completed.
  Reducing the number of servers in the informatics centre.   Number of servers reduced in the informatics centre.
  Exploring opportunities to offset the energy consumption at CIDA headquarters.   Opportunities and process to offset carbon emissions with credit purchased in Canada with direct benefits to Canadians is documented.
To improve the environmental performance of CIDA's vehicles.. Invest in hybrid and high-efficiency vehicles and rationalize vehicle size by: By 2009  
  Completing the renewal of 75 percent of the vehicles owned by the Agency to hybrid models.   Report on the number of vehicles replaced for hybrid models.
  Proceeding with the application of the Alternative Fuel Act.   Report annually on the percentage of gasoline purchased for CIDA vehicles that is ethanol blended.
To improve environmental stewardship and best practices among CIDA's branches. Strengthen partnership with branches and help them define ecological targets in their work plans, such as by: By 2009  
  Applying a green meeting protocol.   Green meeting protocol approved, published, and posted in all meeting rooms.
  Seeking approval for creating a green team in the Agency.   Green team created
  Organizing awareness campaigns to reduce paper use.   Report annually on the reduction of paper purchased.
  Evaluating the initiative for sending used paper to schools abroad.   Evaluation of the initiative completed.
  Reducing the number of government, city, and CIDA telephone books purchased for CIDA employees in Canada and abroad.   Report on the reduction of government, city, and CIDA telephone books purchased.
  In collaboration with IMTB, implementing the double-sided printing by default feature.   Double-sided printing by default feature implemented and used by 85 percent of employees.
To improve partnership with SNC-Lavalin ProFac and Public Works and Government Services Canada, and to support the initiatives and projects within the Agency. Strengthen the partnership with PWGSC, SNC-Lavalin ProFac, and leading departments to implement new initiatives such as: By 2009  
  Construction of kitchenettes on every floor.   Report on number of kitchenettes constructed.
  Collection of hand paper towels in washrooms for composting.   In collaboration with PWGSC, report annually on the reduction of hand paper towels sent to landfill.


Activity 3b-Improve the greening of CIDA's operations at headquarters

How CIDA contributes to sustainability through responsible procedures and practices at its head office

The greening of CIDA's operations at its headquarters continues to be an important component of the Agency's sustainable business and administrative operations. To move beyond the previous SDS, CIDA is increasingly focussing on how its operations can become greener through initiatives such as implementing the Green Purchasing Policy and offsetting energy consumption at CIDA's headquarters.

The following table identifies objectives, initiatives, and performance indicators that contribute to greening CIDA's operations These measures, in turn, demonstrate the importance CIDA places on environmental sustainability, by taking environmental considerations into account when making decisions about internal operations.

Activity 4-Strengthen civil society, public institutions, and non-governmental organizations engaged in democratization, human rights, rule of law, and public sector performance and accountability

Democratic governance and poverty reduction

Democratic governance is essential for reducing poverty and for long-term sustainable development in developing countries. It is one of the keys to building effective, pluralistic states that allow individuals to realize their human rights and to manage conflict and change without violence. It is also essential for national, regional, and global stability, and helps ensure Canada's security and prosperity in an interdependent world.

For democratic governance to be effective, it must be multidimensional, incorporating respect for human rights, equality between men and women, and the rule of law. It requires accountable and inclusive public institutions with the technical and organizational capacities to deliver a wide range of policies and services. It also requires a commitment to democracy, civic participation, independent media, and an active civil society that can provide checks on corruption and the abuse of power.

Democratic governance for reducing poverty must be coupled with progress in human rights. Canada's developing-country partners have committed to international human rights conventions that have been adopted almost universally by the world community. Protection, promotion, and fulfillment of human rights also depends on strong democratic systems, capable public sector institutions, independent bodies that judge and remedy violations, and civilian-controlled security forces that protect and enforce human rights.
The Government of Canada is committed to supporting freedom, democracy, human rights, and the rule of law in its international assistance policies. Our approach to democratic governance is a reflection of who we are as a nation: a diverse, pluralist society; with a federal system of government; two legal systems; and a tradition of strong civic engagement. Our governance experience has been informed by distinctly Canadian approaches to federalism and the decentralization of government, pluralistic legal traditions, a Charter of Rights and Freedoms and our approach to bilingualism, Aboriginal inclusion, and multiculturalism.

CIDA now has over three decades of experience in development assistance and a decade of policy and programming experience in governance. We know that while the country contexts may vary, the desired end results of democratic governance are universal: citizens have a voice; leadership is accountable; and governments can respond to the rights and needs of the people.

How CIDA contributes to sustainability through democratic governance initiatives

CIDA's priority for democratic governance is well reflected in its annual disbursements, which have grown from $355 million in fiscal year 2001-2002 to $376.7 million in fiscal year 2005-2006. During fiscal year 2005-2006, CIDA made significant progress in developing a revised performance measurement framework that will allow the Agency to improve its capacity to communicate to Canadians its contribution to the broader objective of reducing poverty in a manner that promotes human rights and democratic governance and increases sustainable development. The framework will be completed during the 2006-2007 fiscal year, and will outline a clear results statement, supported by indicators and targets, strengthening, therefore, the Agency's capacity to assess its performance.

The growing importance of democratic governance is in part a reflection of CIDA's efforts to make its aid more effective and to align with the agreements of the Paris Declaration. As the importance of making partner governments more responsible by transferring funds within larger sectoral and direct budget programs grows, so too does the importance of supporting their financial management capacities..

CIDA's approach is founded on principles of effective, accountable government, democratic participation, and equality and non-discrimination. Based on these principles, CIDA programming will focus at national, regional, and local levels in four mutually reinforcing areas of governance: democratization; public sector performance and accountability; human rights; and rule of law. Supporting these four areas through an integrated approach is essential because each contributes to the effectiveness of the others. CIDA will pay particular attention to ensure that its investments in these areas deliver results for the poor.

A commitment to enhance equality between men and women informs all CIDA governance programming. CIDA will support programming that increases women's empowerment and participation in democratic institutions and processes, in public sector functions such as budget allocation and monitoring, and as leaders and decision makers. Initiatives to reduce and eliminate gender discrimination and gender-based violence will also be a particular priority for CIDA.

Selected initiatives

Democratic governance and human rights will be a vital element of all of CIDA's bilateral programs. CIDA will focus its programming at national, regional, and local levels in four mutually reinforcing areas of governance: democratization; human rights; rule of law; and public sector performance and accountability. The initiatives below represent a range of forward-looking investments, which, in collaboration with our partners, are expected to contribute to achieving results that support progress in democratic governance and human rights.

Table 8. CIDA contribution to sustainable development through democratic governance and human rights programming: 2007-2009

Objectives Target Timeline Planned Results
4. Support progress in democratic governance and human rights. Strengthen civil society, public institutions, and non-governmental organizations engaged in democratization, human rights, rule of law, and public sector performance and accountability in CIDA partner countries. By 2009 In collaboration with the full range of CIDA's partners, CIDA will contribute to achieving the following results:

Democratization: Developing-country partners demonstrate improvement in electoral and legislative institutions and processes, and increased participation of women and marginalized groups in public policy decision making at national and local government levels.

Public sector performance and accountability: Developing-country partners demonstrate strengthened core capacities of their public sector institutions to ensure accountable, effective, and inclusive implementation of their national development priorities with a positive impact at the local level.

Human rights: Developing-country partners demonstrate improved promotion and protection of the rights of all peoples, particularly women, children, and marginalized groups, through strengthened institutions, civil society initiatives, and inclusive public policies.

Rule of law: Developing-country partners demonstrate strengthened legal and judicial institutions and improved access to justice and procedures that ensure predictable and fair application of entitlements and rights for all peoples in society, and particularly women, children, and marginalized groups.

Note: Indicators to measure the achievement of these results will be part of policy direction and documents now under development.

  • CIDA's Strategic Governance Mechanism, in Bolivia, will help upgrade the systems, policies, and procedures of three key "islands of efficiency" within the state-the auditor general, the national electoral commission, and the national statistics institute.

  • At the International Conference for the Economic and Social Development of Haiti, Canada announced that it would allocate $520 million for the reconstruction and development of Haiti. CIDA will allocate $485 million to strengthen government institutions, such as Parliament, Justice, and the Electoral Commission, as well as providing access to basic services for the population in areas of health, education, financial services, and job creation.

  • On a very local scale, a CIDA project in Honduras, in its third phase (PASOS III), aims to strengthen the capacity of municipalities to provide safe water and sanitation services to communities in the north coast of Honduras through improved and responsive local management and municipal governance. The project will build on the lessons of previous interventions in Honduras.

Equality Between Men and Women

Equality between men and women and poverty reduction

Gender inequality remains pervasive worldwide, limiting a country's ability to govern effectively, to grow sustainably, to reduce poverty, and to provide for peoples' well-being. Gender disparities tend to lower labour productivity and efficient allocation of labour in households and the economy, intensifying the unequal distribution of resources. For example, within developing countries, 60 percent of women workers are concentrated in the informal sector (excluding agriculture) and often carry out the most precarious types of work, thereby limiting their access to and control over resources. Gender inequality also contributes to non-monetary aspects of poverty-lack of security, opportunity, and empowerment-that lower the quality of life for both men and women. According to the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), one in three women has been beaten, coerced into sex, or experienced some other type of gender-based abuse in her lifetime. While women and girls bear the largest and most direct costs of these inequalities, the costs cut broadly across society, ultimately hindering development and reduced poverty for all.

Canada has been a leading promoter of gender equality and women's human rights internationally reflecting Canadian values as well as its international and national commitments to human rights. Gender equality is essential to fulfilling CIDA's goal to reduce poverty, promote human rights, and increase sustainable development.

How CIDA contributes to sustainability by integrating equality between men and women into its programming

CIDA has a strong mandate to promote gender equality and has placed gender equality at the forefront of policy and programming. Gender equality will be a central area of leadership and among the key criteria in decision making as the Agency selects and shapes its initiatives and selects its partners.

Table 9. CIDA contribution to sustainable development through equality between men and women: 2007-2009

Objectives Targets and Initiatives Timeline Performance Indicators
5. Support gender equality as a cross-cutting theme and increase specific programming. Through specific programming, CIDA will target key gaps or challenges to achieving gender equality and women's empowerment and will promote an enabling environment to achieve these results at the country level and among partners in Canada and abroad. Moreover, gender equality results will be explicitly and systematically integrated into all policies, programs, and projects across all sectors.

See Selected initiatives on page 35.
By 2009 In collaboration with the full range of CIDA's partners, CIDA will contribute to achieving the following results:

Decision making: Equal participation of women with men as decision makers in shaping the sustainable development of their societies.

Rights: Women and girls are able to realize their full human rights.

Development resources and benefits: Reduced inequalities between women and men in access to and control over the resources and benefits of development.

Note: Indicators to measure the achievement of these results will be part of policy direction and documents now under development.

Gender equality is a key priority in Canada's international development cooperation and will be a cross-cutting theme across all policy and programming areas. In conjunction with integrated programming, CIDA will increase its emphasis on specific programming for gender equality. Through specific programming, CIDA will target key gaps or challenges to achieving gender equality and women's empowerment and will promote an enabling environment to achieve these results at the country level and among partners in Canada and abroad. Moreover, gender equality results will be explicitly and systematically integrated into all policies, programs, and projects across all sectors.

Selected Initiatives

The initiatives below represent a range of forward-looking investments, which, in collaboration with our partners, are expected to contribute to achieving results that support gender equality as a crosscutting theme and increase specific programming.
  • CIDA was among the first development organizations to champion the role of women as full partners in their society's development. CIDA's first written commitment to gender equality, the Women in Development (WID) Guidelines, came out in 1976, building on the momentum of the First World Conference on Women (Mexico, 1975). CIDA renewed and strengthened its commitment through revising its policy in 1984, 1995, and 1999. The Agency has continued to build substantial expertise in gender equality through practices as well as policies. For example, in 2005 CIDA released its Framework for Assessing Gender Equality Results making it one of the first donors to elaborate a framework to assess results for a crosscutting theme. This will be used to assess the implementation of the 1999 policy.

  • Branches have produced gender equality tools that are used to disseminate knowledge on issues of gender equality in international development and to guide individuals and groups in carrying out gender-based analysis and isolating explicit gender equality results, such as the tipsheets on Gender Equality and Public Sector Capacity produced by Asia Branch.

  • Several of CIDA's programming initiatives advance gender equality through training and education initiatives focussed on contributing to social change. CIDA funding, from 2005 to 2008, will assist BRAC in providing non-formal education to 1.3-1.5 million children, of which 60-65 percent will be girls, targeting children who have dropped out of formal schools or who have never attended any schools. In Honduras, the PASOS III project (2005-2010) aims to develop gender-sensitive community services to eight municipalities through training and capacity building, as well as increase the participation of women in decision-making positions that deal with municipal water management. In South Asia, support to the Asia-Pacific Advisory Forum on Judicial Education on Equality Issues (2003-2007) has facilitated judicial education on equality issues at regional and national levels to more than 450 judges and community leaders.
Other initiatives in gender programming include the Sexual Violence Project in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This project, which will receive CIDA funding from 2005 to 2009, is a comprehensive effort to fight sexual violence primarily against women and girls, but also against men and boys in two seriously affected provinces. In Haiti, the decentralized gender-equality fund Kore Famn (2003-2007) has given support to fulfilling the basic needs and promoting the human rights of women in Haiti. To date, this fund has achieved several significant results including providing assistance to over 100 women who have experienced sexual violence including access to medical treatment including antiretroviral medication, as well as treatment for other sexually transmitted diseases. In Mali, funding in the Bandiagara Circle provided through the Gender and Development Fund (1998-2007) has so far led to eliminating the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in 68 villages, affecting the lives of approximately 47,000 women and girls of reproductive age.

Measuring and Reporting Performance

Communicating specific, measurable, and illustrative results of policy initiatives and program activities is an integral component of the aid effectiveness agenda. This information is crucial to increasing the understanding of and support for the international development assistance program by the Canadian public. As noted in each activity area, specific initiatives with targets, timelines, and planned results have been identified.

CIDA will systematically report on results to Parliament and to the public through its annual Departmental Performance Report (DPR) and a new annual report on development results.

The 2004-2005 fiscal year marked the introduction of the Treasury Board Secretariat's (TBS's) Management, Resources, and Results Structure (MRRS) policy. CIDA began the process of migrating from its performance framework based on Key Agency Results, to the new framework supported by a preliminary Program Activity Architecture (PAA) in 2005. As mentioned earlier, a new PAA was approved in 2006 and its implementation as of 2007-2008 will provide a stronger framework for performance measurement and reporting within the Agency, as well as a basis for strategic alignment of CIDA's resources and broader Government of Canada international policy priorities. A more focussed approach to performance measurement will enhance policy and programming initiatives, including those of this SDS.


Part III-Supplementary Information

Figure 2. CIDA's Organization Chart

Chart of CIDA's organization

Figure 3. CIDA's Logic Model

Chart of CIDA's logic model

Summary of Sustainable Development Strategy Public Consultations

In response to an invitation from CIDA to provide input into CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy (2007-2009), participants met on September 22, 2006. The process for developing the SDS, opportunities and challenges for CIDA, and a proposed approach and framework were presented.

Questions and comments followed, initially based on four questions, and then broadened to discuss other SDS-related issues.

The following are some of the comments and questions that were raised during the consultations:
  • How would the SDS fit within a broader foreign policy? It is a corporate document, which is required by an amendment to the Auditor General Act, and is one of a number of regularly occurring tabling and reporting processes. Foreign policy, in contrast, would be an issue that the government, through a Cabinet committee, would consider. An SDS would support a foreign policy, in part to promote sustainable policies and initiatives.

  • Environment has ebbed and flowed at CIDA over the years. In terms of how to move forward on environmental issues, one way could be to move from a focus on environmental impact assessment, to broader issues of how to support natural resources management, to maintain a steady and sustainable flow of ecosystem goods and services.

  • The SDS should be couched within CIDA's mandate. No new government resources should be used to monitor and report on implementing the SDS.

  • Little progress can be made regarding the three "pillars" of sustainable development-economic, social, environment-without rights and justice. Rights and justice underpin sustainable development; they are the "glue."
  • CIDA's SDS, to be effective, needs to be both bottom-up and top-down. It would be an achievement to have all CIDA staff, and our partners, be able to identify the four SDS objectives. A greater challenge is to make the SDS "real" and context-specific. Related to that, at the field level, creating empowerment and independence means that working oneself out of a job is desirable, and CIDA should reflect on this philosophy.

  • Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is related to sustainable development; perhaps there is a role here for the CSR community in Canada. As well, the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development is an international sounding board for sustainable development issues; there are other global and regional fora as well. There are many regional and intergovernmental organizations that are economic, but have the capacity to address broader issues.

  • CIDA is one of the smaller development players; it should develop a niche, e.g. a natural resource issue such as forestry or water, or rights and justice. "Governance" is too broad; if we want to provide leadership, we need to identify a niche within governance.


Appendices

Millennium Development Goals

In September 2001, the countries of the world met in special session at the UN General Assembly and endorsed the Millennium Development Goals. Canada is a strong supporter of these goals. The eight goals are as follows:
  1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.

  2. Achieve universal primary education: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

  3. Promote gender equality and empower women: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and at all levels of education by 2015.

  4. Reduce child mortality: Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the mortality rate among children under five.

  5. Improve maternal health: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio.

  6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases: Halt, by 2015, and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. Halt, by 2015, and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

  7. Ensure environmental sustainability: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs, and reverse the loss of environmental resources. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. Achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020.

  8. Develop a global partnership for development: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system. Address the special needs of the least-developed countries. Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing states. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term. In cooperation with developing countries, design and implement strategies to create decent and productive work for youth. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable, essential drugs in developing countries. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications technologies.

Federal Sustainable Development Strategy Goals

For the fourth round of sustainable development strategies, the federal government has worked to develop a set of six sustainable development goals related to clean air, clean water, reduce green-house gas emissions, sustainable development and use of natural resources, sustainable communities, and governance for sustainable development. In addition to strengthening coherence and accountability among departmental SDSs, these goals integrate and complement the objectives set in 2006 with respect to the greening of government operations.

It is hoped that by identifying how departmental activities support broader federal goals and objectives in respect of sustainable development that Canadians will gain a clearer picture of how the federal government works, in an ongoing way, to ensure improvements in our quality of life. At the same time, improved coordination will strengthen accountability, drive government-wide performance, and focus and stimulate activity in some key areas.

More information on the federal sustainable development goals and on work for greening government operations is available at www.sdinfo.gc.ca

Environmental quality
  1. Clean water
  2. Clean air
  3. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions
Sustainable development management
  1. Sustainable communities
  2. Sustainable development and use of natural resources
  3. Governance for sustainable development



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