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ARCHIVED - Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessments in Developing Countries: Index of Useful Resources

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The Public Participation in Environmental Impact Assessments (EAs) Index of Useful Resources is a compilation of both French and English resources related to environmental assessment public participation practices, tools, and techniques undertaken in developing and Central and Eastern Europe countries. Although the public participation resources deal mainly with environmental assessment in developing countries, some useful general references have also been included. The types of resources include publications, internet websites, CD-ROM's and videos. The aim of this Index is to serve as a guide to information that may prove helpful in dealing with public participation in EAs.

Not only does the involvement of the public in the EA process often strengthen the project, but public participation is required by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA). "Assuming the participation of beneficiaries and partners" has also been identified by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) as an essential component of sustainable development in its Sustainable Development Framework (CIDA's Strategy p.3, Our Commitment to Sustainable Development, 1997).

CIDA's role in all stages of program and project development is evolving. "Traditionally a project proponent, the Agency is performing increasingly as a "player at the table", being simultaneously a stakeholder, arbitrator, catalyst, facilitator and coordinator. Playing this role well and to greatest effect requires CIDA to: ..."ensure that all partners have access to the best international expertise on participatory approaches, especially in project design". (CIDA's Strategy p.17, Our Commitment to Sustainable Development, 1997).

There is a vast amount of resources available in this area. We have been very selective in choosing resources for this Index that relate strictly to public participation techniques, tools and guidelines in environmentally-related endeavours in developing countries, as well as Central and Eastern Europe countries. The Index is divided into 'English Resources', 'French Resources', and 'Resources Available in both French and English'. Each section is sub-divided into 'Publications', 'Internet Websites', and 'Other (examples: videos, films, tool kits, CD-ROM's etc. Included in this Index are the title of the resource, its publication information/internet address/inquiries contact/etc., and a brief summary of the relevant information contained in the resource.

This Index has been prepared by Melisa Hoard, Melanie McDonald and Jacqueline Bilodeau of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). The Index can be found on CIDA's Environmental Assessment - Resources website. We express our thanks to Rita Hamm, Executive Director of the International Association of Impact Assessment (IAIA) and Mary McCabe, Chair, IAIA Publications Committee, for their support in putting the Index on the IAIA home page so that the EA community can better benefit from it.

If you are aware of other public participation resources related to environmental impact assessments that should be included in this Index, wish to suggest a revision to this material, or would like a hard copy of the document, please e-mail: Jacqueline Bilodeau

English Resources


A Guide to Public Involvement
Canadian Standards Association Z76496. 1996.

  • This guide will help you determine whether or not to involve the public in making a decision or dealing with an issue in which both you and it have an interest. The Guide will assist you in determining the extent of your need to involve the public in an upcoming decision; decide what form of public involvement is most appropriate for you; design a detailed plan for public involvement; carry it out; and evaluate results.

Inquiries: Visit the Canadian Standards Association website or E-mail

Beyond Boundaries: The International Dimensions of Public Participation For The Countries of Central and Eastern Europe
Budapest: The Regional Environmental Center (REC) for Central and Eastern Europe, 1996.

  • This manual looks at public participation in environmental decision making. It covers the international dimensions of public participation with an emphasis on the role of NGOs in the public participation process. Case examples from Central and Eastern Europe are presented.

Inquiries: Visit the REC website or E-mail

EIA - New Challenges, New Practices: Social Impact Assessment: Indigenous Communities and Cultural Sites
Seventh Environmental Assessment TRIPARTITE WORKSHOP, Ministry for the Environment - Maruwhenua - New Zealand. 1994

  • Covers: background to Consideration of Indigenous Peoples Issues in Resource Management, Resource Management Act, Crown Minerals Act, Fisheries Act, Historic Places Act, Specific Mechanisms for consideration of "Cultural Effects" in the Assessment of Environmental Effects, Honing the Mechanisms, Social Impact Assessment and the Indigenous Peoples Issues, the use of indigenous consultants to provide the input into reports and the issue of consultation, Treaty Claims and Treaty Settlements, and Getting "Authoritative Voices" and competency in reporting directly from the New Zealand native group Tangata Whenua, where to go from here.

Inquiries: Visit New Zealand's Ministry for the Environment website

Social Development Notes: "Meaningful Consultation" in Environmental Assessments
Social Development Family in the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network of the World Bank.

  • Covers: context of the consultative process, identification of affected groups and local NGOs, consultation facilitators, timing and implementation of the consultative process, information and communication, documentation of consultative process, and a checklist for reviewing and evaluating public consultation plans and processes.

Inquiries: E-mail <> or <>

Bramwell, Roberta. 1993. An Ethnographic Evaluation of Education for Participatory Development
Dialogue on Development, Report No. R93/2. Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary

  • Re: Canada-Asia Partnership (CAP) - evaluation of courses offered by CAP in Canada, Thailand, and the Philippines in 1992.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Brinkerhoff, Merlin B. 1998. Dialogue on Partnership: Proceedings from the International Participatory Development Symposium
Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary

  • Covers: issues of gender and development, towards institutional strengthening and human resource development: the role of University training, reflections on partnership, challenges of participatory management, evaluation and research, and many other articles re: participatory development.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). Guidelines For Environmental Assessment and Traditional Knowledge

  • Covers: the need for guidelines, traditional knowledge, development projects and indigenous people, and guidelines for Indigenous People re. EAs.

Inquiries: Peter Croal (Environment Specialist, CIDA)

Canter, Larry. 1996. "Public Participation in Environmental Decision Making" in Environmental Impact Assessment
USA: McGraw-Hill.

  • Covers: definitions, regulatory requirements, advantages and disadvantages of public participation in the EIA, objectives of public participation, identification of publics, selection of public participation techniques, techniques for conflict management and dispute resolution, considerations for implementing a public participation program, and the incorporation of results in decision making.

Inquiries: E-mail

Cernea, Michael M. 1992. The Building Blocks of Participation: Testing Bottom-up Planning
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.

  • This paper discusses developing methodologies for participation, building capacity in projects, the three phases of participatory local planning, and lessons on generating a social methodology.

Inquiries: E-mail

Chambers, Robert. Paradigm Shifts and the Practice of Participatory Research and Development
England: Institute of Development Studies, Working Paper 2, 1994.

  • This working paper discusses the paradigm shifts of participation as well as the practice of participatory research and development.

Inquiries: E-mail

Connor, Desmond M. 1996. Public Participation: A Manual
Victoria, B.C.: Development Press.

  • This manual covers topics such as preventing and resolving public controversy, case studies, techniques: the four basic building blocks of a good public participation program, a generic design for public involvement programs, basic principles, and other resources.

Inquiries: E-mail or visit Public Participation Around the World

Davis, Shelton H. 1996. Public Involvement in Environmental Decision-Making: The Experience of the World Bank
Theme Paper. World Bank

  • Covers: history of the World Bank and participation, public involvement as an instrument of environmental reform, a social communications approach to participation, social actors, social arenas, and social fields, public involvement tools and techniques, and social learning and sustainable development.

Inquiries: E-mail

Davis, Shelton H. 1996. Public Involvement in Environmental Decision-Making: Some Reflections on the Western European Experience
World Bank

  • Covers: public involvement in the European environmental system, national political cultures and experiences, moving towards integrated environmental assessment, and the involvement of the World Bank in the Western European Experience.

Inquiries: E-mail or

Division of International Development. 1994. Style Manual and Writing Guidelines for Publications, Proposals and Reports
Dialogue on Development, Technical Paper No. TP94/1. Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary.

  • This is a 'how-to' guide on writing publications, proposals, and reports; assists in choosing fonts, how to write the report according to the target audience, how to do figures, tables, and boxes.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Environment Ontario. 1990. Public Consultation: A Resource Kit for Ministry Staff.

  • This kit presents information on managing a workshop, running a public meeting, establishing a public committee, holding an open house, and providing proper notification. A public participation checklist is also included.

Inquiries: Ontario Ministry of the Environment or E-mail

Environmentally Sustainable Development. 1996. World Bank Participation Sourcebook.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.

  • Covers: definitions, shared experiences, methods and tools, and working paper summaries. It also offers practice pointers in participatory planning and decision making.

Inquiries: E-mail

Freedman, Jim. 1994. Participatory Evaluations: Making Projects Work
Dialogue on Development, Technical Paper No. TP94/2. Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary.

  • This is a guide to the project process. It includes useful evaluations, and education re: participation in projects, methods, creating a team, identifying problems, and how to carry out the project.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Freedman, Jim. 1995. Developing From Within. Essays on Organizing Communities for Self-Sufficiency
Dialogue on Development, Discussion Paper No. DP95/3. Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary.

  • Covers: community organizing for sustainability, confronting the cultures of poverty, and techniques for participation action.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Inglis, Andrew S. 1997. Innovative Participatory Methodologies for Environmental Interventions at the Community Level in Somalia

  • This report tries to document, in a transparent manner, all the influences which led to the process and methodologies being proposed for the Somali Natural Resources Management Programme for local level environmental interventions.

Inquiries: Visit the IUCN - World Conservation Union Web site or E-mail

Justice, Judith, Hemang Dixit, Dick Harding and Philip Cox. 1995
Nepal Health Development Project: Process Evaluation Final Report
Dialogue in Development, Report No. R95/3. Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary.

  • This report documents the health development project in Nepal. It covers how and why the process evaluation was carried out, evaluation findings, and recommendations from the process evaluation.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Kakonge, J.,O. 1996. Problems with public participation in EIA process: examples from Sub-Saharan Africa, in Impact Assessment, IAIA, vol. 14, no. 3.

  • This paper discusses factors impeding public participation in the EIA process in Africa, advantages of public participation in the EIA process, strategies for public participation in the EIA process, ways to improve public participation, and incorporating EIA into the project's decision-making process.

Inquiries: E-mail or

Kemp, Martin, and Kent Schroeder. 1995. "Living Bibliography" on Participatory Development and the Environment (a work in progress)
Discussion Paper No. B95/1. Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary.

  • This is a bibliography which makes reference to publications in the following categories: Administration, Education, Environment, Evaluation, General, Institutional Strengthening, Research, and Theory.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Keough, Noel, Micheal Gismondi and Joan Sherman. 1997. Case Studies in Environmental Protection: Popular Education, Community Sustainability, and Global Connections
Athabasca University

  • An extensive study guide covering case studies re: environmental protection; unit 4 is specifically EIA and Community Participation.

Inquiries: Visit Athabasca University Library website or E-mail

Keough, Noel. 1994. Community-Defined Sustainability Indicators: A Contribution to Creating Sustainable Communities
Dialogue on Development, Discussion Paper No. DP94/1. Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary.

  • Covers: current work on sustainabiliy indicators, arguments re: community-based indicator design, a case study of the Al-Pac EIA hearings, and theoretical considerations and proposed workshops for community-defined sustainability indicators.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Kershner, Joseph. Resource Book on Participation: Annex C: Annotated Bibliography. Inter-American Development Bank
January, 1997.

  • This publication is a compilation of resources dealing with public participation. Resources which deal specifically with incorporating public participation in EAs can also be found within this document.

Inquiries: Visit the Inter-American Development Bank website or E-mail

Kurtz, Suzanne M., Barbara J. Spronk and Kathleen J. Foreman. 1997. Reflections on Participatory Education in Cross-Cultural Settings
Canada-Asia Partnership, Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary.

  • Covers: orientation, dimensions, strategies, and post-course issues re: The Canada-Asia Partnership (CAP) and participatory development.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Leal, Pablo and Donna Maher. Linking Participatory Processes and Environmental Assessment (EA)
Gatineau, Quebec: Environmental Assessment and Compliance Unit, Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), October 1997.

  • This is a book of the proceedings for the workshop held at CIDA on June 26, 1997. This workshop explored the significance of participatory approaches and methods and how they could be integrated into the Environmental Assessment process. This book covers such topics as 'Examining Institutional and Professional Behaviour and Attitudes', 'Mapping Participation', 'Participation in Development and the Project Cycle', 'Exploring some methods', and much more.

Inquiries: Jacqueline Bilodeau (Environment Specialist, CIDA)

Macapagal, Juanita, and Gloria Nayal. 1994. Participatory Development from the Perspective of the Community
Canada-Asia Partnership Program (Philippines)

  • Covers: participatory development, people's views, shared experiences, stories of leaders, and case studies.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Maseru, Lesotho. 1995. Impact Evaluation: A New Path for Developing an Equitable, Participatory, Sustainable Approach to Evaluating for Impacts: Report of the Process and Outputs of a Consultation on Impact Evaluation, February 20-25, 1995
Mwelekeo Wa NGO (MWENGO) and Partnership Africa Canada

  • Covers: overview of the consultation process, framework for evaluating for impact, and a summary of how to develop impact evaluation strategies in the development process.

Inquiries: E-mail, Telephone: 263-4-721469 or Fax: 263-4-738310

Narayan, Deepa and Lyra Srinivasan. 1994. Participatory Development Tool Kit: Materials to Facilitate Community Empowerment.

  • This kit will help project managers, trainers, social scientists, and other practioners incorporate participatory processes and methods into their programs. The activities and materials in this tool kit are applicable to many fields, although they were developed for the water and sanitation sector.

Inquiries: E-mail

New Zealand Ministry for the Environment, 1991. Resource Management: Consultation with Tangata Whenua

  • This 'manual' was prepared as a guide to consultation with the New Zealand native group Tangata Whenua; it is designed to assist local authorities in meeting the consultation requirements of the Resource Management Act 1991.
  • Covers: background history, Treaty of Waitangi, legislation, and public participation procedures.

Inquiries: E-mail

Oakley, Peter et al. 1991. Projects with People: The practice of participation in rural development
Geneva: International Labour Organisation.

  • This book covers a wide range of experiences in which genuine attempts are being made to promote the participation of the people within the broad framework of rural development projects. The study presents a selection of case studies drawn from the three developing regions of the world, highlighting the methodological approach applied in promoting participation within a variety of sectoral, institutional and policy settings. Elements of a strategy and of a methodology for promoting people's participation are drawn from these case studies.

Inquiries: Visit International Labour Organisation website or E-mail

Oakley, Peter and David Marsden. 1984. Approaches to participation in rural development
Geneva: International Labour Organization.

  • This book discusses the context and concept of participation as well as the emerging strategy to facilitate the participation of the rural poor in development. Case studies are also documented to give the reader a better understanding of the ways in which the public can be involved.

Inquiries: Visit International Labour Organisation website or E-mail

Pelayo, Aurora L. 1994. Participatory Development: Lessons from Selected Philippine Cases
Canada-Asia Partnership (CAP-PHILIPPINES).

  • Covers: round table discussions, participatory development re: Primary Health Care and Enterprise, community organizing through participatory action research, environmental management, and partnerships and participation in local development councils.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Porter, Alan L. and John J. Fittipaldi. Environmental Methods Review: Retooling Impact Assessment for the New Century
Fargo, North Dakota, USA: The Press Club, March 1998.

  • This book provides reviews of the many processes for EIA including strategic assessments, risk assessments, and domain-oriented impact assessment. Within this context, there are several references to public involvement, methods, techniques, etc.

Inquiries: E-mail or

Praxis. 1988. Public Involvement: Planning and Implementing Public Involvement Programs.

  • This manual is designed for those with responsibility for planning and implementing public involvement programs as part of the Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP) requirements. It contains three volumes covering such topics as planning for public involvement, trends in public involvement, public involvement processes, a dictionary of public involvement techniques, and case studies.

Ìnquiries: E-mail

Rietbergen-McCracken, Jennifer and Deepa Narayan. 1997. Participatory Tools and Techniques: A Resource Kit for Participation and Social Assessment
Social Policy and Resettlement Division, Environment Department, The World Bank.

  • Provides participatory tools and techniques regarding social assessment, stakeholder analysis, participatory rural appraisal, SARAR (self-esteem, associative strength, resourcefulness, action planning, and responsibility), beneficiary assessment, and participatory monitoring and evaluation.
  • This kit also provides a video entitled "Participatory Techniques in Action" which brings together some of the best examples of recent World Bank experiences in participatory approaches. (See 'English Resources - Other')

Inquiries: E-mail

Roberts, Richard. 1995. "Public Involvement: From Consultation to Participation" in Environmental and Social Impact Assessment
Edited by F. Vanclay and D.A. Bronstein. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  • This chapter covers the following topics: The Rise of Public Involvement, Participation and Democracy: The Ongoing Dilemma, Public Involvement: A Definition, The Benefits of Public Involvement, Relationships with Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, Who is the Public?, When Will the Public be Involved?, Degrees of Public Involvement, Developing a Public Involvement Strategy, A Coordinated Framework for Public Involvement, Stages in Public Involvement, Knowing When Trouble is Around the Corner, Current Issues in Public Involvement, Precedent-setting Guidelines, The Future of Public Involvement, and The Challenge of Public Involvement.

Inquiries: Richard Roberts

Rogers, Carol, Lana Wylie, Sheila Robinson and Philip Cox. 1995. Telling Their Own Story: A case study approach to development issues - Vignettes from Nepal
Dialogue on Development, Case Study No. CS95/1. Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary.

  • Covers: 5 case studies from Nepal re: different issues ranging from 'experience with Smokeless Stoves' to 'experience as Community Development Worker'.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Schroeder, Kent. 1998. Pursuing Participatory Development through Cross-Cultural University Partnering
Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary.

  • Covers: background to the Canada-Asia Partnership (CAP), the CAP program, and lessons learned.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

Scott Wilson Resource Consultants (Ron Bisset). 1996. "Role of Stakeholder Involvement" in Environmental Assessment: Issues, Trends and Practice
Kenya:United Nations Environment Programme, Environmental and Economics Unit.

  • This chapter examines the need for stakeholder involvement in EIA systems and studies. It also provides guidelines for creating and implementing a framework for stakeholder involvement in EIA.

Inquiries: E-mail

Seargeant, John and Jane Steele. 1998. Consulting the Public: Guidelines and Good Practice
London: Policy Studies Institute.

  • This guide informs you about the benefits of consultation, purposes of consultation, identifying the consultees, methods, planning the process, and managing the process. Case studies provide a good reference to different project areas.

Inquiries: E-mail

Suderman, Beverly A., Jeffrey C. Jacob and Merlin B. Brinkerhoff. 1995. Sustainable Development in the 21st Century Americas: Alternative Visions of Progress - Conference Proceedings
Dialogue on Development, Report No. R95/1. Calgary: Division of International Development, International Centre, The University of Calgary.

  • This report includes entries from many people re: sustainable development - challenges, international & global initiatives, national & regional initiatives, local initiatives, and tools.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

The DPA Group (International) Inc. 1992. Public Participation Procedures.

  • This manual was prepared for CIDA. Covers: key definitions, role of public participation in EA, public participation procedures (Canadian and Foreign), management of the public participation component of EA, and implementation of public participation procedures in the Bilateral and Canadian Partnership Branches.

Inquiries: University of Calgary Library

The World Bank. 1991. "Social and Cultural Issues in Environmental Review" and "Community Involvement and the Role of Non-governmental Organizations in Environmental Review" in Environmental Assessment Sourcebook: Volume 1: Policies, Procedures, and Cross-Sectoral Issues
World Bank Technical Paper Number 139. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.

  • This sourcebook covers issues regarding Indigenous Peoples, cultural property, and land settlements. It also includes the World Bank Policy, roles, responsibilities, and procedures regarding public involvement in the EA process.

Inquiries: E-mail

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) & Environment and Economic Unit (EEU). Environmental Impact Assessment: Training Resource Manual
June 1996

  • The main objective of the Training Resource Manual is to enable trainers, particularly, in developing countries and countries in transition (CITs) to develop tailor-made training courses for the different target groups concerned with EIA. The use of the manual will help build local capacity to develop EIA procedures and legislation, to conduct EIAs, and to monitor and evaluate the implementation of EIA. The proceedings of the regional workshop on "Capacity Building in EIA and trialling of the UNEP EIA Training Resource Manual" and a translation of the UNEP EIA Training Resource Manual in Vietnamese have recently been finalized and submitted.

Inquiries: Visit the EIA Network website or E-mail

Zarzar, Alonso, 1996. Community Relations Guidelines for Shell and Contract Workers.

  • This 'manual' documents the Camisea Gas Project. This booklet was provided by Shell Prospecting and Development (Peru) B.V. for workers and staff active in the Camisea project. The objective is to provide for an agreed code of relations between the Native Communities in the area of Shell operations along the Urubamba river and tributaries and Shell and its contractors.
  • Covers: goals, behaviour, and benefits.

Inquiries: Jacqueline Bilodeau (Environment Specialist, CIDA)


Article 5: Public Participation in Environmental Decision-Making

  • Part of the Globe International web site, this site offers a look into article 5: Public Participation in Environmental Decision-making.

Inquiries: E-mail

Australian Commonwealth Government

  • Through the search tool, search for "public participation"; choose 'environment' portfolio to limit search to public participation regarding the environment only - this site allows you to view EIA consultancy reports regarding public participation and analysis of EIA practice & procedures in other countries, case studies, and documents regarding Indigenous participation in commonwealth EIA.

Inquiries: E-mail


  • Eldis is a gateway to online information on development or the environment, focusing on countries of the South. This site provides you with links to major resources on participation for example, Participatory Initiatives WWW, Participation Collection and Database, IDS, Communities Online, Structural Adjustment Participatory Review Initiative (SAPRI), and more.

Inquiries: E-mail

International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA)

  • This web site contains information regarding IAIA, as well as direct links to professional internet sites (such as the Australian EIA Network, International Rivers Network, Econet, etc.), the Impact Assessment Journal, and the IAIA Newsletter. Its resources section covers ten areas in impact assessment, including risk assessment, social impact assessment, policy assessment and training.

Inquiries: E-mail or

International Association for Public Participation (IAP2)

  • This site offers an on-line source of information on public participation. The network includes articles, announcements, and ongoing dialogues on the latest issues and trends in public participation.

Inquiries: E-mail

International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)

  • The IIED Resource Centre is part of an interantional network of Resource Centres (RCPLA) which is dedicated to the sharing, exchange and promotion of good quality information concerning participatory approaches to development. This site provides you with information on Environmental Planning, Environmental Economics, Participatory Learning & Action, Eents, Courses, and Workshops, and much more.

Inquiries: E-mail