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ARCHIVED - Sustainable Development Strategy: 2004–2006

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Enabling Change

Catalogue No. CD4-12/2004E-HTML
ISBN 0-662-35999-2

Abbreviations
Executive Summary
Part I - Sustainable Development Planning Context

1. Introduction 2. Departmental Profile 3. Issue Scan 4. Building on CIDA's second dsustainable development strategy
PART II - CIDA's Sustainable Development Action Plan 2004-2006

5. CIDA's Sustainable Development Action Plan 6. Detailed Action Plan 7. Measuring and Reporting on CIDA's Third Sustainable Development Strategy
Annexes
Annex A: Summary of progress against the objectives of CIDA's second Sustainable Development Strategy
Annex B: Public consultations related to CIDA and sustainable development
Annex C: CIDA's organization chart

Tables
Table 1: Highlights of progress toward the goals of CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2001-2003: An Agenda for Change
Table 2: Priorities for achieving Development Results
Table 3: Examples of development outcomes
Table 4: Priorities for achieving Enabling Results
Table 5: Priorities for achieving Management Results
Table 6: Social Development Priorities spending from 2000 to 2003


Abbreviations

AAP
Africa Action Plan
AMEB
Africa and Middle East Branch
AU
African Union
CCIC
Canadian Council for International Co-operation
CDPF
Country Development Programming Framework
CEAA
Canadian Environmental Assessment Act
CEE
Central and Eastern Europe
CFA
Canada Fund for Africa
CFAAs
Country Financial Accountability Assessments
CGIAR
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
CIDA
Canadian International Development Agency
CIT
countries in transition
CPARs
Country Procurement Assessment Reports
CPB
Canadian Partnership Branch
DAC
Development Assistance Committee (of the OECD)
DFAIT
Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade
DND
Department of National Defence
DOTs
Directly Observed Treatment Short Course
DPR
Departmental Performance Report
ECOWAS
Economic Community of West African States
EE
employment equity
EFA-FTI
Education for All Fast Track Initiative
E.U.
European Union
FAO
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FDI
foreign direct investment
FY
fiscal year
GAVI
Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization
GDP
gross domestic product
GE
gender equality
GEF
Global Environment Facility
GFATM
Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria
GNP
gross national product
GOL
Government On-Line
HIPC
highly indebted poor country
HR
human resources
HRDC
Human Resources Development Canada
IAE
International Assistance Envelope
IDRC
International Development Research Centre
IFAD
International Fund for Agricultural Development
IFIs
international financial institutions
IM/IT
information management / information technology
IMM
Integrated Modern Management
IUCN
World Conservation Union
KARs
Key Agency Results
KKZ
Kaufman, Kraay and Zoido-Lobatòn (World Bank Institute) Corruption Control Indicators
LDCs
least developed countries
MDGs
Millennium Development Goals
MEAs
Multilateral Environment Agreements
MOPAN
Multilateral Organizations Performance Assessment Network
MOU
memorandum of understanding
MPB
Multilateral Programs Branch
NEPAD
New Partnership for Africa's Development
NGO
non-governmental organization
OA
Official Assistance
ODA
Official Development Assistance
OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
OECS
Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States
PAHMD
Program Against Hunger, Malnutrition and Disease
PBAs
program-based approaches
PERs
public expenditure reviews
PMF
Performance Measurement Framework
PRSPs
Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers
PSD
private sector development
PSUs
program support units
RBAF
Results-Based Accountability Framework
RBM
results-based management
RMAF
Results-Based Management and Accountability Framework
RPP
Report on Plans and Priorities
SAE
Canada Making a Difference in the World: A Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness
SDPs
Social Development Priorities
SDS
Sustainable Development Strategy
SDS 1997-2000
Our Commitment to Sustainable Development: The Strategy of the Canadian International Development Agency
SDS 2001-2003
CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2001-2003: An Agenda for Change
SDS 2004-2006
Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006: Enabling Change
SEA
Cabinet Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment
SME
small- and medium-size enterprise
STIs
sexually transmitted infections
SWAps
Sector-Wide Approaches
UNAIDS
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
UNCCD
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNIFEM
United Nations Development Fund for Women
WHO
World Health Organization
WSSD
World Summit on Sustainable Development
WTO
World Trade Organization

Executive Summary

The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) shares a long-term vision of sustainable development with the global development community. That vision is embodied in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a set of internationally agreed, time-bound goals and targets for improvements in human development by 2015. CIDA's goal for sustainable development is its mandate: "to support sustainable development in developing countries in order to reduce poverty and contribute to a more secure, equitable and prosperous world." For CIDA, sustainable development is development that is equitable and environmentally sustainable and that strengthens the economic, social, environmental, and governance capacity of women and men, girls and boys. Supporting sustainable development in developing countries and countries of transition is CIDA's business; therefore, this third sustainable development strategy (SDS), Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006: Enabling Change, covers all aspects of the Agency's work. It is a plan that will be updated annually through the Agency's Report on Plans and Priorities (RPP) and reported on through its Departmental Performance Report (DPR).

The prospects for global sustainable development today are set against a complex backdrop of progress and setbacks in international development. There has been considerable advancement in many areas, including health and education and rapid economic growth. However, persistent poverty and marginalization, especially in Africa, as well as ongoing problems, including HIV/AIDS, conflict and insecurity, soil degradation, climate change, human rights violations, and gender inequality, continue to blight the lives of millions of people and hinder the development of their societies. At the same time, there is unprecedented international consensus on development goals, a new partnership of shared responsibility and accountability between developed and developing countries, renewed global commitment to development financing and sustainable development, and a set of international principles for development effectiveness that include clearer recognition that there must be greater coherence between aid and non-aid policies to improve the prospects for global development.

This Strategy brings together and builds upon many of the changes that the Agency has made since its second plan for sustainable development, CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2001-2003: An Agenda for Change, to meet these challenges and make development more effective. One of the most important changes was the release in 2002 of Canada Making a Difference in the World: A Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness (SAE), which outlines CIDA's plans to implement the internationally agreed principles of aid effectiveness through new programming approaches and a better focusing of effort. The Agency's new policies on sustainable rural development through agriculture and on private sector development in 2002 and 2003 reflect a renewed emphasis on economic well-being, complementing CIDA's Social Development Priorities (SDPs). The announcement in the 2003 federal budget of an 8 percent annual increase in Canada's international assistance from 2003 to 2005, with a view to doubling assistance by 2010, has also brought new energy to Canada's work in international development.

The Agency is using a number of tools to implement these changes, including the Key Agency Results (KARs), a results-based framework for planning, resourcing, and reporting to Canadians. KARs (Development Results) represent CIDA's objectives for sustainable development in four areas: economic well-being, social development, environmental sustainability, and good governance. KARs also identify the programming strategies and management approaches the Agency employs to achieve its development results. KARs provide the basic structure for the sustainable development action plan in this Strategy.

The key directions set out in this Action Plan are:

  • greater alignment of aid with the plans and priorities of partner countries;
  • sharpened poverty focus (including greater concentration of resources on the poorest countries that are committed to improved governance and effective use of funds);
  • improved coherence between aid and non-aid policies;
  • greater emphasis on security and development;
  • enhanced complementarity between social development and economic well-being;
  • continued improvement in the management of development cooperation;
  • strengthened effectiveness of institutional partners; and,
  • renewed efforts to engage Canadians, especially young Canadians, in development.

Over the next three years, in its efforts to enable more effective development, CIDA will increasingly use new programming approaches and funding modalities in which multi-donor support is aligned with partnercountry poverty reduction strategies or national development plans. CIDA will increase the untying of its aid program to open contracting to the full spectrum of bidders, including Canadian and developing-country suppliers. The Agency will also develop and implement renewed communications and public engagement strategies to guide collaboration with partners and promote better public understanding of, and engagement in, the aid program. Finally, CIDA will work more closely with its partners across the Government of Canada, recognizing the fact that aid is only one facet of our relations with developing countries. These relations include trade, agriculture, immigration, the environment, and many other areas.

The transformation envisaged in SAE calls for major reforms in CIDA's processes, systems, and practices that will improve the Agency's ability to deliver on its development commitments. Improved allocation of resources to strategic priorities is a critical part of that reform. A major component will be improved management of the portion of the federal budget for international assistance-the International Assistance Envelope (IAE)-in consultation with other government departments. CIDA will also continue to strengthen the corporate planning process to ensure implementation of a rigorous budgetary planning and resource allocation process and continue to enhance risk management and results measurement systems.

Finally, CIDA also continues to strengthen its performance measurement and reporting. While CIDA shares accountability for achieving development results with developing countries, the global development community, and its Canadian partners in government, civil society, and the private sector, it is fully accountable for the strategies and management approaches it uses to contribute to those results. This Strategy contains newly developed targets and indicators in several areas to help measure progress. The Agency's review mechanisms-performance measurement, evaluations, and internal audits-continue to be improved as a basis for learning and continuous improvement and better accountability to Canadians.


Part 1 - Sustainable development Planning Contrext

1. Introduction

1.1 Sustainable development: The challenge of the 21st century

In today's increasingly interdependent world, industrialized and developing countries are linked as never before. The growing economic and demographic weight of countries like Brazil, China, and India is having a major impact on employment, trade, travel, immigration, and other areas. The global marketplace blurs the lines between national economies; the communications revolution brings together cultures, knowledge, and information. Issues that all countries must deal with-health, the environment, and peace and security-are increasingly global. And the ongoing tragedies of persistent poverty, disease, and conflict have become not just humanitarian concerns, but shared problems as they spill over borders and affect countries around the world.

International development cooperation is increasingly viewed as a necessary response to these global challenges because it is within this context of shared interests, and complex and profound inter-linkages that efforts to pursue sustainable development take place. The dimensions of sustainable development encompass the full range of economic, social, environmental, and governance activities, and they too are interdependent and mutually reinforcing. For example, no economic initiative that depletes the natural resources upon which it depends will last; no new schoolroom will give children a place to be educated if they instead have to go to work to survive; no agricultural production program will be sustainable unless women, often the main food producers, are involved; and no country can lift itself out of poverty if it is struggling to pay back debts or end armed conflict.

In many ways, the prospects for sustainable development around the world are more promising today than they were a decade ago. A global development agenda, agreed by all the world's countries, has now emerged, based on more than fifty years' experience with development cooperation. With the Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) issued by the United Nations in 2000, the world community has committed to a set of clear and measurable targets for sustainable development. There is also widespread consensus on how countries will work together toward these goals through the application of international principles of development effectiveness, including local ownership and donor harmonization.

At the United Nations Conference on Financing for Development in Monterrey in 2002, world leaders established a new compact for sustainable development. At the heart of this compact is the understanding that developing countries bear the primary responsibility for their own development while developed countries have a duty to provide effective and predictable aid and to remove the inconsistencies in their broader policies that affect developing countries. The principles of mutual accountability were put into effect at the G8 Summit, held in Kananaskis, Alberta, June 2002, which focused on Africa, resulting in the G8 Africa Action Plan (AAP). The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg in September 2002 renewed the global community's efforts in many areas of sustainable development, including water and sanitation, agriculture and food supply, and sustainable production and consumption. All these international agreements establish a common foundation of values and reflect an unprecedented consensus on the goals, conditions, and resources needed to achieve sustainable development.


1.2 CIDA's approach to sustainable development

Sustainable development-development that is equitable and environmentally sustainable and that strengthens the economic, social, environmental, and governance capacity of women and men, girls and boys-is CIDA's business. This third strategy for sustainable development, Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006: Enabling Change, is therefore the Agency's business plan. This strategy brings together and builds upon many of the changes that the Agency has made since its second plan, CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2001-2003: An Agenda for Change (SDS 2001-2003), to respond to the new global consensus on aid. These changes include the adoption in 2002 of a new results framework for the Agency that reflects the four interconnected dimensions of sustainable development: economic well-being, social development, environmental sustainability, and good governance. These KARs are fully consistent with the MDGs (consult Section 2.3). They also recognize that gender equality and the environment are important crosscutting themes that are prerequisites to achieving sustainable development. KARs are now used as the basis for all planning, resourcing, implementation, and reporting across the aid program (consult Section 4.1).

CIDA has also strengthened its prospects for contributing to sustainable development through the adoption and implementation of Canada Making a Difference in the World: A Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness (SAE). This 2002 policy, on the international principles of development effectiveness, is leading to increased attention to the leadership role of developing countries, greater geographic and sectoral focus, better coordination with other donors, and greater coherence between Canada's aid and non-aid policies affecting developing countries.

Further impetus to CIDA's work has been provided by the infusion of an 8 percent annual increase from 2002 to 2005 to the portion of the federal government's budget that funds international development activities, the International Assistance Envelope (IAE).1 CIDA will work in closer consultation with other government departments in the allocation of the IAE, strengthening policy coherence in support of development cooperation across the Government of Canada and leveraging the effectiveness of the cooperation program. This is fully in line with the efforts to bring together diplomacy, development, and defence in a coherent, whole-of- government vision for sustainable development in developing countries and countries in transition.

"Sustainable development does not define a particular path for development, but focuses on what would enhance the quality of life. It requires the capacity to adapt to constantly changing conditions, as well as the flexibility to work with uncertainty, and with differences in local conditions and in public expectations shaped by culture, values and experience. Above all, it is participatory, ensuring that local communities and individuals have substantive input into designing and implementing development programs and projects. Only when local people have a sense of ownership and personal investment in their own development will they have a stake in ensuring its long-term sustainability."
- Our Commitment to Sustainable Development:
The Strategy of the Canadian International Development Agency 1997-2000

2. Departmental Profile

2.1 Canada and international development cooperation

For more than three decades, Canada has supported the social and economic development programs of countries and organizations around the world. CIDA administers most of Canada's official development assistance (ODA) program in developing countries, and, since 1995, its official assistance (OA) program in countries in transition in Central and Eastern Europe.2

Over the years, CIDA has earned a reputation for promoting innovative approaches, including the involvement of voluntary sector and private sector partners in its development assistance program; championing human rights, gender equality, and environmental sustainability; and advocating for greater development effectiveness. Throughout this period, the Agency has worked to develop open and strong relationships with its developing-country partners.

2.2 CIDA's mandate

CIDA's mandate is to:

  • support sustainable development in developing countries in order to reduce poverty and to contribute to a more secure, equitable, and prosperous world; and
  • support democratic development and economic liberalization in countries in transition in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.

CIDA supports long-term development, working with its developing-country partners, international institutions, other Government of Canada departments, and Canadian partners in the voluntary sector and the private sector to promote, facilitate, and support the efforts of people in developing countries and countries in transition to achieve sustainable economic, social, environmental, and political development. The Agency is also actively involved in efforts to ease human suffering by providing appropriate, timely, and effective humanitarian assistance in response to emergencies: natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, droughts, and earthquakes; and crises of human origin, such as wars and civil conflicts.


Canada's international goals

The three goals of Canadian foreign policy, as outlined in the 1995 foreign policy statement, Canada in the World, are the:

1) promotion of prosperity;
2) protection of Canadian and global security; and
3) projection of Canadian values.

CIDA fulfils its mandate within this international policy framework.

2.3 CIDA's long-term vision of sustainable development

CIDA shares a long-term vision of sustainable development with the global development community. That vision is embodied in the MDGs, a set of internationally accepted quantitative and timebound goals that address the key elements of human development (consult box). The MDGs, with their associated targets and indicators, provide a shared vision of a much-improved world by 2015 and a common framework for concerted and concrete action by developed and developing countries toward global poverty reduction. The MDG targets, therefore, also serve as development targets that CIDA works to support. CIDA's programming also contributes to results in areas not explicitly defined in the MDGs, such as human rights, democracy, and good governance, which are recognized in the Millennium Declaration as part of the fundamental values underpinning the achievement of the MDGs.

The Millennium Development Goals

In September 2000, 147 world leaders gathered in New York and issued the Millennium Declaration, outlining their collective commitment to sustainable development and poverty reduction. The MDGs were prepared by the UN Secretary General in response to serve as a guide in the implementation of the Millennium Declaration. The goals and targets are to:

  1. Eradicate poverty and hunger: halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day; halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger;
  2. Achieve universal primary education: ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling;
  3. Promote gender equality and empower women: eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015;
  4. Reduce child mortality: reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-5 mortality rate;
  5. Improve maternal health: reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality rate;
  6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases: halt by 2015, and begin to reverse, the spread of HIV/AIDS. Halt by 2015, and begin to reverse, the incidence of malaria and other major diseases;
  7. Ensure environmental sustainability: integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water. By 2020, achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least one hundred million slum dwellers; and
  8. Develop a global partnership for development: develop further an open, rules-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system. Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small-island developing states. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term. In cooperation with developing countries, design and implement strategies to create decent and productive work for youth. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable and essential drugs in developing countries. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially in information and communications.
The MDGs include a set of 48 indicators of progress against commitments.

Achieving the MDGs will be difficult, but not impossible. The World Bank has estimated that the cost of reaching the MDGs is an additional C$100 billion per year to 2015 in development assistance. In Africa, for example, the costs are estimated at C$40 billion to assist the thirty or so countries considered to be in a position to use external assistance effectively. Achieving the MDGs will not only require increased development assistance, but also improved development effectiveness and greater domestic resource mobilization, foreign direct investment (FDI), trade opportunities, and debt relief.


2.4 How CIDA works

CIDA provides assistance to developing countries in Africa and the Middle East, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as to the countries in transition in Central and Eastern Europe. Recognizing the need to focus its aid efforts geographically for greater impact and to concentrate its resources in countries that are poor but committed to improved governance and effective use of funds, in 2002, CIDA identified an initial list of 9 countries3 among the world's poorest in which it will focus more resources in the coming years. Of these, 6 countries are in Africa. Furthermore, in 2003, CIDA substantially increased its support to Iraq and Afghanistan, with some of the largest pledges in its history, for post-conflict reconstruction and development. Canada now spends at least $50 million per year in each of the top 5 countries4 in which it delivers programming via all channels of delivery (there were no countries receiving $50 million per year in FY 2000/2001), and approximately $20 million per year in each of the top 20 countries (up from only 15 countries in FY 2000/2001).

In all its partner countries, CIDA works with national, regional, and local governmental bodies, voluntary sector organizations, institutions, and private sector firms. Internationally, CIDA cooperates with UN agencies and programs such as UNICEF and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); technical cooperation and research organizations and networks like the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR); multilateral development finance organizations such as the World Bank and the regional development banks; and international networks and non-governmental organizations such as the World Conservation Union (IUCN).

In Canada, CIDA's partners include voluntary sector organizations (such as non-governmental organizations, volunteer cooperation agencies, cooperatives, unions, professional associations, and educational institutions) and private sector firms. Because international development is part of a broader international policy governing many aspects of Canada's relationships with developing countries, CIDA also collaborates closely with other federal government departments to improve policy coherence across the spectrum of Canadian policies affecting developing countries and countries in transition. Federal, provincial, and municipal departments and agencies also implement some of CIDA's development assistance programs.

CIDA has approximately 1,700 employees. The Agency is organized into six program branches (CIDA's organization chart is presented in Annex C). In 2002-2003, Canada's aid budget was $2.3 billion. The February 2003 federal budget increased this by an additional $1.4 billion over three fiscal years (2002-2005), the first increment toward an eventual doubling of the budget by 2010 as proposed in the September 2002 Speech from the Throne. This increase-at least half of which will be invested in Africa-has added new energy to the cooperation program and Canada's ability to help achieve the MDGs.


2.5 Development: An investment in a shared future

Canada's aid program has a central role to play in supporting the three goals of Canada's international policy: prosperity, security, and the promotion of Canadian values. Canadians have supported their aid program since its beginnings in 1968, and public opinion surveys show that their support remains solid today, although they want to be assured of aid effectiveness (consult Annex A, Objective 6). This consistent support is a reflection of values important to Canadians: humanitarianism, generosity, equality, and social justice. There is a genuine desire to help those in need and to make the world a better place. However, in today's interdependent world, Canadians find that their interests, as well as their values, are engaged in the developing world and on a broad range of issues with development implications. Economically, all countries, including those with mid-sized trade-based economies such as Canada's, benefit from broad-based and equitable growth in developing countries and countries in transition. This kind of growth plays a critical role in poverty reduction, creating jobs and income, generating tax revenues to invest in social programs, and creating new markets for trade in goods and services. Canadians realize that global issues like public health, the environment, and peace and security can only be addressed through cooperation with developing countries.

CIDA's investments in poverty reduction, health (including HIV/AIDS), education, environmental sustainability, peacebuilding and conflict resolution, human rights, and good governance also contribute to increased stability and security, an important issue for all the world's countries.


3. Issue Scan

3.1 Development context

International development cooperation involves confronting some of the most pressing issues and challenges of our time: poverty, conflict and terrorism, HIV/AIDS, environmental deterioration, gender inequality, human rights violations, barriers to trade, technological change, and the information revolution. Despite the severity of many of these problems, developing countries-in partnership with industrialized nations, international institutions, voluntary sector organizations, and private sector firms-have made significant progress in just over a generation.

International cooperation for development has made a difference:

Since 1970, several of the main indicators of human well-being have improved:

  • Economic development: In the 1990s alone, the proportion of people living in extreme poverty dropped from 30 percent to 23 percent. This was most pronounced in Southeast Asia, where per capita income quadrupled and national economies grew by 6 percent a year, on average, from 1976 to 1999;
  • Social development: Worldwide, life expectancy at birth rose by eight years, and illiteracy was cut nearly in half;
  • Environmental sustainability: Some 800 million people gained access to safe water supplies, 750 million more now have better sanitation services, and there has been improved international cooperation to reduce harmful substances such as persistent organic pollutants; and
Governance: Worldwide, there has been a marked trend toward democratically elected governments, and greater attention to human rights is also evident in the formation of human rights commissions and legal reform in all regions. Further, the tremendous growth in influence of voluntary sector organizations and global civil society networks has increased public participation in governance locally, nationally, regionally, and internationally.

However, major challenges remain:

  • Economic development: There is an increasing gap between the rich and poor in a world where the richest 5 percent have incomes 114 times those of the poorest 5 percent. More than 54 countries, mainly in Africa, actually became poorer in the 1990s. Progress on trade issues is slow, notably in the reduction of agricultural subsidies that protect Northern markets from developing-country products and severely limit the ability of the poor to better their lives;
  • Social development: Women represent 70 percent of the world's poor, at least two thirds of the world's illiterates and 10 percent of the world's decision-makers. Nevertheless, they produce at least 60 to 80 percent of the world's food, form at least 40 percent of the labour force everywhere but Africa and western Asia, and remain responsible for domestic chores and care-giving. More than 42 million people have AIDS today, and that figure will more than double by 2010. More than 130 million children are still out of school, two thirds of whom are girls, and 250 million children are forced to, or need to, work;
  • Environmental sustainability: Soil degradation affects the livelihoods of up to one billion people, and a third of the developing world's population live in countries facing water scarcity. Deforestation rates continue to be high in many developing countries, reducing biodiversity and contributing to climate change; and
Governance: Armed conflicts continue to rage across the globe: an estimated 3.6 million people, 90 percent of them civilians, have perished since 1990. Many countries still struggle with the legacy of inappropriate policies, undeveloped capacity, corruption, and high debt burdens that divert resources from development, and legal, regulatory and financial systems that discourage private investment. More than a hundred governments still restrict political and civic freedoms.5

Each of these areas-economic, social, environmental, and governance-affects the others and can contribute to the vicious circle that perpetuates poverty. Without a solid base for economic growth, there are no opportunities for poor people to improve their incomes and the tax base is too narrow to fund social or environmental programs that might help them. Without sufficient education, health care, or child protection, people seldom have the capacity to take advantage of any economic opportunities that might lift them out of poverty. Poor environmental management undermines the economy and threatens the livelihoods and health of all people, rich and poor, and inadequate governance can result in the inability of governments to address any of these challenges, creating social unrest and instability.

The challenges are most acute in Africa, where slow economic growth, the rising toll of HIV/AIDS, and brutal conflict are wiping out development gains and causing untold human misery. Africa has 13 percent of the world's population, 1 percent of global investment, and less than 1.6 percent of global trade. Half the population lives on less than $1 a day, and the population is increasing at an annual rate of 3 percent. More than 12 million children have lost one or both parents to AIDS. Life expectancy has fallen to age 47, and women, the main food producers, are now more affected by AIDS than men. In fact, the food crises in the Horn of Africa and in southern Africa are directly linked to AIDS. In addition, an estimated 14 countries in Africa suffer from severe water stress. More than half of Africa's countries are affected by conflict, and many countries' abilities to cope with these challenges are limited by corruption and weaknesses in governance.

In Asia, rapid economic growth and increasing urbanization have occurred in several countries, including China, India, and Vietnam. Trade is growing, and many countries are retooling their economies and regulatory systems to better compete in world markets. However, this growth is not equally shared, and income disparities are deepening. Asia continues to be home to half the world's population and two thirds of the world's poor. Gender inequality, particularly in South Asia, perpetuates poverty, and the growing menace of HIV/AIDS threatens to undermine progress in several countries. Further, security is a major issue in this region: the intersection of terrorism with long-running conflicts on the border between India and Pakistan, and internal strife in Indonesia and the Philippines, are deflecting resources and limiting progress.

In Latin America and the Caribbean, the greatest gaps between rich and poor in the world continue to be a barrier to social and economic development. There has been a modest return to economic growth since the "lost decade" of the 1980s, but it has not reached all sectors of the population. Debt, economic dependency on a narrow range of commodities, and political instability limit growth; and environmental degradation, combined with vulnerability to natural disaster, threatens the long-term sustainability of progress in several countries. The region is still volatile and vulnerable to civil unrest. The illegal trade in drugs and small arms is contributing to a growing level of violence. Economic troubles in Argentina and Bolivia and political unrest in Colombia are spilling over into neighbouring countries. The region is still pursuing close economic links with North America, aiming to diversify its economies, increase its competitiveness, and strengthen its bargaining position in trade negotiations.

The countries in transition in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union present a contrast. Eight will become members of the European Union in 2004, thanks to their progress in shifting to more democratic forms of government and market economies. Stability is returning to the Balkans, while endemic poverty and tenuous security conditions continue in the southern Caucasus and central Asia. There are a large number of states where ineffective institutions and governments combine with corruption and crime to perpetuate poverty and instability, and growing HIV infection rates have the potential to curtail future growth, particularly in Russia.


3.2 Responding to the challenges

Progress in meeting these challenges will be increasingly achieved by developing countries themselves. They will establish their own priorities and programs, mobilize financial and human resources, and institute the necessary reforms. Donors such as Canada can play an important role in supporting their efforts. In fact, a number of key steps have already been taken by the international community to accelerate progress toward sustainable development:

More effective aid: There is an unprecedented global consensus on the principles of development effectiveness, which is transforming how developed and developing countries work together (consult "The principles of development effectiveness").

Stronger partnerships: At the UN Financing for Development meeting in Monterrey, Mexico, in March 2002, a new relationship was forged between developing and industrialized countries. The Monterrey Consensus is a new partnership compact in which developing countries hold primary responsibility for achieving the MDGs, and industrialized countries are committed to supporting their efforts. Today, Canada sees its role as a facilitator and a partner who shares knowledge, experience, and financial resources as a complement to the efforts of its developing-country partners.

Increased resources: At the Monterrey meeting, world leaders also agreed that more resources are needed if developing countries are to achieve the MDGs. The long decline in international aid spending has been reversed, rising from its 2001 total of $52.3 billion to $57 billion in 2002.

A focus on Africa: Throughout 2002-2003, a series of other international commitments continued to focus resources on specific development challenges in the world's poorest countries. In June 2002, the G8 Summit hosted by Canada centred on Africa, resulting in the Africa Action Plan (AAP).

The principles of development effectiveness

There is a consensus in the international community, based on more than thirty years of development cooperation, that the following principles are critical to more effective development:
  • local ownership and local priorities;
  • improved donor coordination;
  • stronger partnerships with well-defined responsibilities;
  • greater policy coherence between aid and non-aid policies; and
  • taking a results-based approach to programming.

    A number of key factors also contribute to sustainability and have been taken up by CIDA as crosscutting factors in its approach to sustainable development:
    • good governance, which is the most important determinant of aid effectiveness and development progress;
    • building capacity to ensure progress is sustained after donor countries have left; and
    • engaging civil society to help meet the needs of the people and ensure local ownership at the grassroots level.
These principles underpin CIDA's 2002 Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness and all CIDA's programming.

Renewed emphasis on sustainable development: The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in South Africa in September 2002 reaffirmed the global community's commitment to sustainable development and established a number of targets in support of the MDGs and other priority aspects of sustainable development. CIDA's priorities to follow up on the WSSD are presented in Chapter 5.

Increasing donor harmonization: In early 2003, the first High-Level Forum on Harmonization endorsed an international agenda for accelerated harmonization of donor procedures, policies, and programming in alignment with developing-country priorities, cycles, and systems to increase aid effectiveness and support local ownership.


3.3 Managing risk

Risk refers to the uncertainty that surrounds future events and outcomes,6 and international development is an inherently risky area of work, both in terms of the need for CIDA to work in some of the highest-risk situations in the world (such as conflict, humanitarian and natural disasters, political and economic instability, and extreme human deprivation) and because development at the local and national levels is complex and involves many uncertainties.

CIDA is taking a more systematic approach to its traditional efforts in risk management. The Agency's new Integrated Risk Management Framework will help address risk at five levels:

1. Internationally, risks such as health, financial, security, or environmental problems are mitigated by working in partnership with other donors such as through the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), programming in Afghanistan and Iraq, and the WSSD;

2. At the country level, risks such as social or political instability, national debt, or poverty are mitigated by using a Country Program Risk Assessment to identify, assess, and integrate vulnerabilities;

3. At the institutional level (multilateral or national), risks such as financial management are mitigated through measures like financial assessments of CIDA's partner organizations;

4. At the project level, all activities have a risk strategy that is adjusted as necessary as part of the Annual Project Performance Reports; and

5. At the Agency level, risks in legal, human resource, and technology-related areas are mitigated through the implementation of policies such as Integrated Modern Management (IMM).

Risk-mitigation strategies for the types of jointly funded, shared programming in which CIDA is increasingly engaged (for example, pooled funding or direct budget support) include all of the elements above plus some specifically related to shared accountability. For example, financial risk can be reduced by pooling funds at the outset and/or phasing the project with assessments at each stage, as well as having clear written agreements such as Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) and codes of conduct that specify how funding is triggered. For non-financial risk, the programs must be based on transparent partnerships between all the participants, including, for example, sharing common assessments of critical assumptions and key risk factors; clear articulation of the roles of each partner based on relative capacity; joint review, evaluation, audit, and monitoring; and integration of adjustments to risk strategies in annual project and program performance reports.

4. Building on CIDA's second sustainable development strategy

4.1 An overview of progress in implementing the second Sustainable Development Strategy

CIDA's SDS 2001-2003, the Agency's second plan for sustainable development, provided a detailed framework of goals, objectives, and actions to help CIDA align its work more explicitly with its mandate. Shortly after, in an effort to clarify its accountability and the sequencing of its results over time, CIDA established a set of Key Agency Results (KARs). KARs show the relationship between CIDA's mandate, the MDGs, and the principles laid out in the second strategy, including integrated policy, programming, management, and continuous improvement. KARs are used to guide consistency in CIDA's planning, resourcing, and reporting.

The elaboration of KARs represents the most significant step forward for CIDA since SDS 2001-2003, and they form the core of CIDA's results-based accountability to Canadians. CIDA's KARs are defined as follows:

Development results (strategic outcomes) are the impacts CIDA aims to have in partner countries in four interconnected areas: economic well-being, social development, environmental sustainability, and governance. They reflect the MDG commitments, as well as Canada's contributions to development that are not explicit in the MDGs (such as in the area of governance). CIDA shares accountability with the international development community and many other partners for the achievement of these results. Because development is a complex, long-term process, these results have a horizon of at least five to ten years;

  • Enabling results identify strategies to ensure that the right programs are in place at the right time to enable the achievement of development results. These strategies are grounded in the principles of development effectiveness and constitute an appropriately allocated and effective portfolio of international programs. CIDA is fully accountable for these results. Enabling results are demonstrable in the shorter term, and have a horizon of at least three years; and

  • Management results set out the approaches CIDA will deploy in areas such as human resources, knowledge and information management, and planning to support enabling results and thus achieve development results. CIDA is fully accountable for these results. Management results are also achievable in the shorter term, and have a horizon of approximately three years.
There is an important connection between the three areas of key results: efficient management approaches support effective enabling strategies that in turn contribute to development results. For example, a greater concentration of CIDA's resources in a limited number of countries and sectors, in alignment with partner countries' locally owned poverty reduction strategies and in partnership with other donors, should contribute to achieving development impacts at the country level more efficiently and sustainably.

As part of the development of this third SDS, CIDA has updated and refined elements of its KARs to ensure they reflect new policies, directions, and commitments since 2002. All of these changes will also facilitate the development of annual, results-based, costed work plans that connect and consolidate resource allocation with results at all levels within the Agency. These work plans will help measure progress toward new directions, and monitor and determine allocation priorities of CIDA's operating budget.


CIDA's Key Agency Results

Chart of CIDA's Key Agency Results

4.2 Progress against goals

While the elaboration of KARs represents a major achievement in CIDA's implementation of SDS 2001-2003, the Agency and its partners made progress in many areas, as reported in CIDA's yearly Departmental Performance Reports (DPRs). In addition, in early 2003, CIDA produced a special report summarizing progress, achievements, and ongoing activities and actions against the objectives and anticipated results that were envisioned in SDS 2001-2003. That report, Highlights of Progress in the Implementation of CIDA's Second Sustainable Development Strategy, February 2001 to January 2003, is updated to September 2003 in Annex A. The following chart summarizes CIDA's progress against the three goals of its second strategy.

Table 1: Highlights of progress toward the goals of CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2001-2003: An Agenda for Change
Three goals of SDS 2001-2003 Highlights of progress achieved 2001-2003
1. To support sustainable development in developing countries in order to reduce poverty and to contribute to a more secure, equitable, and prosperous world.


  • Secured increase of 8 percent in international assistance annually to 2005, with a view to doubling international assistance by 2010;
  • Established KARs, including alignment of Development Results to MDGs;
  • Conducted long-term review of key policy, program, and institutional changes required, culminating in the release of Canada Making a Difference in the World: A Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness;
  • Established Action Plans for SDPs, with quadrupling of investments in basic education, and HIV/AIDS and child protection; and doubling of investments in health and nutrition, with gender as a crosscutting priority;
  • Established new policies: Promoting Sustainable Rural Development Through Agriculture: Canada Making a Difference in the World and Expanding Opportunities: Framework for Private Sector Development;
  • Identified nine focus countries for increased geographic concentration, including six in Africa, as well as increased support for Africa through the Canada Fund for Africa;
2. To support democratic development and economic liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe by building
mutually beneficial partnerships.
  • Secured increase of 8 percent in international assistance annually to 2005, with a view to doubling international assistance by 2010;
  • Established KARs, including alignment of Development Results to MDGs;
  • Conducted long-term review of key policy, program, and institutional changes required, culminating in the release of Canada Making a Difference in the World: A Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness;
  • Established Action Plans for SDPs, with quadrupling of investments in basic education, and HIV/AIDS and child protection; and doubling of investments in health and nutrition, with gender as a crosscutting priority;
  • Established new policies: Promoting Sustainable Rural Development Through Agriculture: Canada Making a Difference in the World and Expanding Opportunities: Framework for Private Sector Development;
  • Identified nine focus countries for increased geographic concentration, including six in Africa, as well as increased support for Africa through the Canada Fund for Africa;
  • Increased alignment of country programs within locally developed national development plans;
  • Focused on coherence between aid and non-aid policies with involvement in G8 and NEPAD, Financing for Development, trade negotiations, WSSD;
  • Focused strongly on capacity development, particularly for the environment (multilateral environmental agreements, desertification, climate change);
  • Continued emphasis on gender equality as both sectoral priority and crosscutting theme;
  • Increased use of new program-based approaches and systematized learning;
  • Adopted new policy on untying aid;
  • Worked with the voluntary sector in Canada to further develop the voluntary sector in developing countries, reduce poverty through targeted programming, and build knowledge in Canada and developing countries through policy dialogue;
3. To apply a management-system approach based on continual improvement in implementing CIDA's sustainable development mandate.
  • Established Results-Based Management and Accountability Framework (RMAF) focused on KARs for accountability to Canadians;
  • Based Enabling Results on principles of aid effectiveness;
  • Enhanced partnerships developed with developing-country recipients, Canadian partners in voluntary and private sectors, other donors, and multilateral institutions, particularly in institutional strengthening;
  • Implemented the Agency's Knowledge Management Initiative;
  • Renewed efforts to engage and inform Canadians and youth about development, particularly Canada's ODA and OA programs;
  • Developed an Integrated Risk Management Framework;
  • Introduced performance measurement, evaluations, and internal audits at the program level and a new performance management framework for gender equality;
  • Work simplified to reduce 34 business processes to 3;
  • Implemented corporate strategy for managing human resources based on knowledge and continuous learning, increased retention, and renewal;
  • Emphasized Integrated Modern Management for improved management processes;
  • Complied with Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and created guide to carrying out strategic environmental assessments; and
  • Identified lessons learned in SDS 2001-2003 to better inform planning for SDS 2004-2006.



4.3 Lessons learned

CIDA's second SDS has made a major contribution to its ongoing process of renewal and reform to meet the challenges of the 21st century. It coincides with important changes in the Agency's external environment and the consolidation of more than thirty years' experience and reflection on development effectiveness, both within and outside the Agency. The SDS has naturally fit into this process and provided the following insights over the last six years:
  • The SDS process has provided CIDA with the opportunity to address a number of key issues related to achieving and measuring results. SDS 1997-2000, Our Commitment to Sustainable Development: The Strategy of the Canadian International Development Agency, contained CIDA's vision for self-sustaining development and committed the Agency to enhance its ability to learn from experience and acquire, share, and use knowledge; strengthen working relationships with our partners; build our partners' and our own skills; make efforts to improve the coherence of our policies and programs; contribute to improved coordination among donor initiatives; and develop the ability to demonstrate results. CIDA made progress in all of these areas, especially in developing approaches to measuring and reporting on results, particularly at the project level-the level of CIDA's main interventions at that time.
The SDS process has helped CIDA build the foundation for longer-term change. SDS 2001-2003 began to address development effectiveness in a more systematic way, with a focus on strengthening CIDA's capacity to deliver sound programming and improve its internal processes. SDS 2001-2003 also established a culture and an approach to continuous learning, knowledge sharing and management, and strengthened management processes to improve planning and accountability and ensure continued compliance with relevant environmental legislation.

  • The SDS has proven to be a model for the refinement of an Agency plan that integrates policy, programming, and management components. SDS 2001-2003 helped strengthen the Agency's efforts in the integration and coordination of CIDA's development programming with a set of sustainable development goals and objectives and a strategic and unifying business plan for CIDA. This results framework now serves as a basis for the Action Plan in SDS 2004-2006 and for CIDA's RMAF.
  • The SDS has been successfully integrated into CIDA's business planning cycle; this will continue. Now fully integrated into the RPP and the DPR, the SDS has proven to be an excellent start for improved effectiveness. It also provided a foundation for the public consultations on and development of CIDA's new policy on SAE.

Part II CIDA's Sustainable Development Action Plan 2004-2006

5. CIDA's Sustainable Development Action Plan

CIDA's goals and objectives for sustainable development CIDA's goal for sustainable development is its mandate: "to support sustainable development in developing countries in order to reduce poverty and contribute to a more secure, equitable, and prosperous world." Its objectives for sustainable development are the development results from its KARs:

Economic well-being
Social development
Environmental sustainability
Governance

These are supported by Enabling Results (strategies) and Management Results (approaches), also detailed in CIDA's KARs.

5.1 Overview of the Action Plan

The Action Plan of Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006: Enabling Change builds on the direction and commitments identified in CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2001-2003: An Agenda for Change and incorporates changes that have happened internationally and within CIDA since 2001. The Action Plan sets out some key directions for CIDA over the next three years against the backdrop of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Monterrey Consensus on Financing for Development, international principles of development effectiveness, and the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). Furthermore, it takes into consideration CIDA's evolving policy framework and the 8 percent annual increase in international development assistance to 2005. The Action Plan also builds on an international policy approach for Canada that aims to bring together "diplomacy, development, and defence" in a coherent, whole-of-government vision and effort. While the detailed Action Plan is grouped by Development Results, Enabling Results, and Management Results, the elements can be summarized according to eight broad themes.

Experience has shown that aid is more effective if it is locally owned. CIDA will strive for a greater alignment of aid with the plans and priorities of developing countries. The Agency will continue to align its programming and harmonize its procedures in keeping with locally owned plans and priorities, including using new program-based approaches and funding modalities involving multiple donors (consult box in Section 5.4.2: SWAps - An innovative programming approach). The ultimate goal is to enable partner countries to assume full control of their own development, and, to that end, CIDA will put increasing emphasis on building the capacity of such organizations as public sector institutions in developing countries and countries in transition, and working with other donors to reduce transaction costs and support local ownership through harmonization. Furthermore, the Agency's partnership programming mechanisms with Canadian and Southern civil society and the private sector will continue to focus on capacity building for local ownership, thereby contributing to aligning aid with the plans and priorities of developing countries.

CIDA's drive to increase its impact on poverty reduction means a sharpened poverty focus that includes better targeting of CIDA's resources to a smaller number of the world's poorest countries and fewer sectors in each country. Africa-the world's poorest continent-will continue to be a particular focus: at least 50 percent of CIDA's incremental new resources will be invested in Africa, in addition to the $500-million Canada Fund for Africa. A sharper poverty focus also involves the accelerated "graduation" of higher-income countries from traditional aid-focused relationships to ones based on broader economic, social, cultural, and governmental ties. CIDA will also reduce the number of sectors in which it is involved in most countries, aligning its sectoral concentration with Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), National Development Plans, or equivalent, where appropriate. For example, in the nine countries of focus selected in 2002, CIDA programming may be limited to three or four key sectors per country.

Aid is only one aspect of Canada's relationships with developing countries. In the past, there has been no systematic way of ensuring that policies in other areas, such as trade, did not undermine development efforts in a partner country. CIDA is increasing its efforts to enhance coherence between aid and non-aid policies. CIDA will work to improve consistency across the Government of Canada's approach to aid and non-aid policy issues of vital importance to developing countries such as trade, debt, investment, the environment, agriculture, and migration.

A government-wide approach to relations with developing countries will also be reflected in one of the most critical global issues today: security and development. Most of the world's conflict now takes place in developing countries, with devastating impacts-what the World Bank describes as "development in reverse." CIDA will contribute to the development of a more effective approach to security and development across the Government of Canada, working in particular with the Department of National Defence (DND) and the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT). CIDA will also develop innovative programming approaches for working with fragile states and countries in crisis.

In view of the importance of economic growth in generating income for the poor and creating revenues for social programs, CIDA is moving to complement its support to social development with an increased emphasis on economic well-being across its aid program. In collaboration with its partners, the Agency will meet its commitment to quadruple its resources between 2000-2005 for three7 of the four Social Development Priorities (SDPs) and double its investments in health and nutrition. At the same time, it will renew its emphasis on agriculture and rural development and pro-poor private sector development, key elements of CIDA's commitment to improve the economic well-being of poor women and men, girls and boys in the developing world.

CIDA will also continue to improve the management of development cooperation to ensure greater effectiveness and efficiency, in keeping with the principles of Integrated Modern Management (IMM). This includes implementing a new framework for managing the International Assistance Envelope (IAE, the portion of the federal budget for international assistance, which is shared among a number of departments); more strategic management of financial allocations; and putting in place better ways to manage risk and measure results and effectiveness, especially within the broader programmatic approaches now being adopted.

The Agency will also help strengthen the effectiveness of its institutional partners. This is critical because CIDA supports and delivers a significant portion of its international assistance through multilateral organizations, its Canadian partners (in collaboration with their local counter-parts), and institutions in developing countries. CIDA will help to strengthen the effectiveness of the multilateral system and institutions, including the global humanitarian assistance system, through funding and influence. The Agency will continue to help Canadian partners to improve their capacity to share knowledge, engage in policy dialogue, integrate gender equality and environmental sustainability in their programming, and make effective use of results-based management.

Finally, the support of the Canadian public is critical to sustain Canada's development assistance program. Engaging Canadians involves public information and awareness campaigns to inform the public about CIDA's programs and to enhance public appreciation of the importance of development cooperation. Youth are a particular focus. The Agency will also continue to work closely with its Canadian partners, engaging them in policy dialogue and collaborating with them in pursuit of common public engagement objectives.


5.2 Development of the Action Plan

The Action Plan of Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006: Enabling Change is constructed on the Key Agency Results (KARs) framework (consult Chapter 4) to facilitate integrated corporate planning, monitoring, and reporting. The Action Plan articulates the kinds of changes to which CIDA will contribute at the level of developing countries and countries in transition under each of the four elements of sustainable development-economic well-being, social development, the environment, and governance, with gender equality and the environment as crosscutting themes-and provides indicators to measure progress. Contributing to these Development Results will help achieve the MDGs. In order to achieve these results, the Agency will also work toward Enabling Results and Management Results. Similarly, the identification of targets and indicators for these results provides a clear basis for performance measurement and results-based decision-making. Full details of this Action Plan are contained in Chapter 6, with more details on targets and indicators in Chapter 7.

In developing this third strategy, CIDA took into consideration the results of several consultations with Canadian and developing-country partners over the past two years on major policies such as aid effectiveness, private sector development, and agriculture/rural development, as well as its regular and ongoing consultations at the program level related to the formulation of Country Development Programming Frameworks (CDPFs) and partnership programs. Key themes that emerged included the need for greater policy coherence, the importance of local ownership and capacity development, harnessing Canadian capacities, and the important role of Canadian partners in addressing local development priorities. Questions emerged around donor coordination, operational costs and the role of Canadian partners in promoting local ownership by developing countries (for details, consult Annex B).

CIDA also consulted with both its employees and other government departments on key elements of this Sustainable Development Strategy (SDS), using both in-person and electronic mechanisms. CIDA staff were supportive of having an Action Plan that is fully integrated with other corporate planning, resourcing, and reporting processes. They also stressed the importance of having a plan that is linked to the MDGs, is respectful of the ownership of developing countries, and can be easily communicated to staff and to Canadians. Other government departments commented that they supported the notion of this strategy being CIDA's business plan, CIDA's priorities need to be clearer, new forms of interdepartmental cooperation are needed to better deal with complex situations in developing countries, and departments should work together to more clearly delineate lead and supporting responsibilities with respect to development cooperation.


5.3 Development Results

5.3.1 Priorities

The following table sets out CIDA's corporate programming priority actions for the next three years toward the achievement of its Development Results-the long-term impacts of CIDA's programs in partner countries. CIDA will continue to work within its long-standing framework of the four key areas of sustainable development (economic, social, environmental, and governance, with gender equality and environment as crosscutting themes). However CIDA does not necessarily work in all these areas in each of its partner countries: CIDA will make strategic choices regarding programming priorities in individual countries in consultation with the partner country and other donors increasingly in alignment with locally owned development plans. The MDGs represent long-term targets for most areas of sustainable development-with the notable exception of governance, to which CIDA actively contributes.

Table 2: Priorities for achieving Development Results
Gender equality and the environment are themes that cut across all Development Results.
Key Agency Results
(Development Results)
Priorities
(will be adapted for country context)
D1. Economic Well-being
Equitable economic growth and improved standards of living of poor women and men, girls and boys.
  • Strengthen investments in agriculture and rural development.
  • Support private sector development that contributes to pro-poor equitable economic growth, and improved and sustainable standards of living of poor women and men, girls and boys.
  • Build capacity to make trade work for poor women and men, girls and boys.
  • Foster an enabling environment for economic growth and investment.
D2. Social Development
Improved quality of life of poor women and men, boys and girls through enhanced social services, management of the social impact of reform, progress toward gender equality, and humanitarian assistance.
Strengthen programming in basic education, HIV/AIDS, health and nutrition, and child protection.
  • Support and promote the integration of gender equality dimensions in all development policies, programs, and projects.
  • Provide humanitarian assistance in times of natural disaster and/or conflict.
D3. Environmental Sustainability
Improved environmental sustainability, through the protection, conservation, and management of the diversity and integrity of the environment.
Support and promote the integration of environmental considerations in countries' policies, programs and projects in support of the achievement of the MDGs.
  • Contribute to increasing capacities to address environmental issues such as desertification, climate change, and water and sanitation in ways that reflect the priorities and interests of women and men, girls and boys.
D4. Governance
Improved governance structures and institutional capacity, strengthened civil society, improved peace and security, and enhanced respect for human rights and democracy.
Promote public sector reform and greater use of rules-based systems to govern economic, political, environmental, and social affairs.
  • Build democratic institutions and processes that represent and engage all members of society.
  • Support the increased promotion and protection of human rights by institutions, governments, and civil society organizations.
  • Increase attention to conflict prevention, post-conflict reconciliation, peace-building, and security.


5.3.2 Development outcomes

The Action Plan identifies examples of expected outcomes of CIDA's programming in developing countries (at the country, regional, and/or institutional levels) for each of the priority action areas under each Development Result (consult Section 6.1 for the full set of examples). These outcome statements are based on CIDA's sustainable development policy framework. They integrate the indicative changes related to gender equality and the environment that are necessary for sustainable development. Further, the Action Plan attaches internationally acceptable indicators, including MDG indicators, to those anticipated outcomes that will help CIDA and other donors determine whether results are being achieved (these are described in greater detail in Chapter 7).


Table 3: Examples of development outcomes
Priorities Examples of development outcomes
Economic Well-being
  • Strengthen investments in agriculture and rural development.
  • Support private sector development that contributes to pro-poor equitable economic growth, and improved and sustainable standards of living of poor women and men, girls and boys.
  • Build capacity to make trade work for poor women and men, girls and boys.
  • Foster an enabling environment for economic growth and investment.
  • Poverty reduced and food and nutrition security improved.
  • Agriculture and natural resources management practices are environmentally sustainable and promote ecosystem health.
  • Increased incomes and improved productive capacities, including greater control by women over productive assets.
  • Strengthened business, social, and workforce adjustment programs and policies to address the variable effects of trade reform on poor women and men, girls and boys.
  • Sound and accountable private and public institutions to support well-functioning and competitive local and national markets and higher investment rates.
Social Development
  • Strengthen programming in basic education, HIV/AIDS, health and nutrition, and child protection.
  • Support and promote the integration of gender equality dimensions in all development policies, programs, and projects.
  • Provide humanitarian assistance in times of natural disaster and/or conflict.
  • Increased capacity of partner countries to provide equal access to, and completion of, basic education.
  • Increased capacity of partner countries to provide a comprehensive, multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS program across the continuum of care.
  • Improved health policies, programs, and systems in a variety of areas and that are especially responsive to the needs of women and girls.
  • Increased capacity of partners to promote and protect the needs of girls and boys in need of special protection measures.
  • Increased capacity of partners to design and implement development policies, programs, and projects that reflect the priority interests of both females and males.
  • Basic human needs met and human suffering alleviated during times of natural disaster and/or conflict.
Environmental Sustainability
  • Support and promote the integration of environmental considerations in countries' policies, programs, and projects in support of the achievement of MDGs.
  • Contribute to increasing capacities to address environmental issues such as desertification, climate change, and water and sanitation in ways that reflect the priorities and interests of women and men, girls and boys.
  • Countries with a strengthened ability to integrate environmental considerations in their policies, programs, and projects.
  • Increased capacity to address climate change and land degradation, and develop and implement sustainable integrated water management approaches.
  • More effective participation and decision-making and equitable access by women, the poor, and other underrepresented groups in the management of natural resources.
Governance
  • Promote public sector reform and greater use of rules-based systems to govern economic, political, environmental, and social affairs.
  • Build democratic institutions and processes that represent and engage all members of society.
  • Support the increased promotion and protection of human rights by institutions, governments, and civil society organizations.
  • Increase attention to conflict prevention, post-conflict reconciliation, peace-building, and security.
  • Governing structures and institutions are increasingly stable, accountable, transparent, and bound by the rule of law.
  • Civil society is enabled to organize, advocate, effect, and influence change.
  • Increased knowledge and recognition by the general public and decision-making of the human rights of women and men, girls and boys.
  • Improved local capacity to prevent or manage conflict and strengthened security sector.
  • More effective transition from complex emergency/crisis to sustained development.

5.3.3 CIDA and the World Summit on Sustainable Development

In light of the horizontal and integrated nature of the WSSD agenda, CIDA played an important role with Environment Canada and DFAIT in leading Canada's engagement in the WSSD. In partnership with other government departments, CIDA worked to ensure coherence between the domestic priorities and international aspects of Canada's commitments to sustainable development in preparation for the summit.

CIDA's role did not stop with the summit. The Agency is playing a major role in fulfilling commitments Canada made at WSSD. CIDA has identified nine key areas of action to help ensure that the promises of WSSD are kept. These action areas are consistent with CIDA's approach to sustainable development and are fully integrated into this Action Plan.


Commitments from the World Summit on Sustainable Development:
CIDA's key action areas

CIDA's key action areas for following up on the WSSD are fully integrated into this Action Plan, as referenced in brackets:

1. Water and sanitation: CIDA contributes to the achievement of the specific MDG target on access to safe water and the new goal, established at the WSSD, on access to basic sanitation. A new Agency Water Policy Framework is now in preparation. (consult Table 2, D3: Environmental sustainability.)
2. Land degradation: an Agency Sustainable Land Management Strategy is now in development, including new programming for desertification, mechanisms for interdepartmental collaboration, and strengthened partnerships. (consult Table 2, D3: Environmental sustainability)
3. Sustainable development in Africa: CIDA's focus on Africa is consistent with priority actions outlined in the WSSD Plan of Implementation. (consult Table 4, E3: Appropriate geographic focus)
4. Health and HIV/AIDS: CIDA contributes to the achievement of the MDGs on health, through emphasis on the SDPs, including HIV/AIDS. (consult Table 2, D2: Social development)
5. Education: CIDA is quadrupling its spending on basic education as one of the SDPs and is part of the Education for All Fast-Track Initiative. (consult Table 4, D2: Social development)
6. Sustainable rural development through agriculture: CIDA recently launched a new policy and programming initiatives to support agriculture and rural development. (consult Table 2, D1: Economic well-being)
7. Trade and development: CIDA is promoting innovative approaches to support trade-related capacity building. (consult Table 2, D1: Economic well-being)
8. Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change: CIDA assists developing countries to address climate change through the Canadian Climate Change Development Fund. (consult Table 2, D3: Environmental sustainability)
9. Governance, democratization, human rights, and corporate social responsibility: CIDA continues to support these priorities and is also working with many partners to strengthen enabling environments and political economies in developing countries, particularly in a way that promotes environmental and social sustainability, including corporate social responsibility. (consult Table 2, D4: Governance)


5.3.4 Examples of Initiatives

Within the context of the overall achievement of the Development Results, CIDA will put particular emphasis on four areas in the next three years. The following is a sample of the types of programming in which the Agency will be involved in a variety of countries (consult Section 6.1 for more examples):

D1. Economic well-being: In collaboration with its partners, CIDA will fully implement its new policies on rural development and agriculture and private sector development. For example, strengthening the agricultural sector and rural development to address food security issues will form the core of CIDA's interventions in Ethiopia and Ghana in the coming years. Developing the agricultural sector will also be a focus of attention in Mali, Senegal, and Rwanda. The Agency will be increasing its investments in this sector and, in numerous cases, using innovative methods to deliver aid through direct budgetary support and sector-wide approaches (SWAps), in countries where conditions are appropriate. In other instances, where country partnerships are more difficult, such as in Haiti, CIDA will implement a new local government model for rural development, poverty reduction, and food security that emphasizes the capacity of local organizations to manage development. In keeping with CIDA's new policy on private sector development, which focuses on pro-poor economic growth, the Agency will continue to support micro-enterprise programming in many parts of Africa, with particular attention given to women as well as financial institutions that serve the poor such as those that provide microfinance and development services to impoverished rural clients such as in Bangladesh and Haiti.

D2. Social development: In collaboration with its partners, CIDA will fulfil its commitment to quadruple its investments in three8 of the four SDPs and double its investments in health and nutrition between 2000 and 2005, guided by its action plans on basic education (2002), health and nutrition (2001), HIV/AIDS (2000), and child protection (2001), with gender equality as a crosscutting priority. A key strategy is the international Education for All Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI) to accelerate progress toward the education MDGs. Canada will double its investments in basic education in Africa to $100 million per year by 2005, making education a key sector in four of CIDA's six African countries of focus. Similarly, CIDA will continue to help lead international efforts to increase progress toward the health MDGs and work through local and international partners in such areas as improving family planning and reproductive health services, health promotion and prevention, nutrition, and immunization in many developing countries. HIV/AIDS is a particular area of focus: CIDA will continue to fund national HIV/AIDS programs in countries that have some of the highest infection rates in the world and foster regional efforts to halt the spread of the disease. CIDA will also increase its focus on care, treatment, and support in addition to HIV/AIDS prevention initiatives. Under child protection, CIDA will continue to put special emphasis on improving the situation of working girls and boys, and war-affected children.

D3. Conflict prevention, post-conflict reconciliation, peacebuilding, and security: A key strategic objective of CIDA's poverty reduction efforts over the next few years will be the promotion of peace and security, particularly in Africa, focusing on conflict prevention and building bridges from post-conflict reconciliation to long-term development. For example, CIDA will work to strengthen the capacity of a number of institutions in Africa, such as the new African Union, with respect to conflict prevention, management, and resolution and will enhance the capacity of the multilateral system to provide peacebuilding analysis and programming. A key component of CIDA's work in this area will be continued collaborative work with other government departments on a "3D" approach to global security-encompassing diplomacy, development, and defence, for example, in the post-conflict reconstruction of Afghanistan and Iraq.

D4. Integration of gender equality and environmental dimensions: Gender equality and the environment are considered themes that cut across all Development Results: without progress in these areas, none of the MDGs will be achieved. CIDA's development outcome statements in all areas now reflect this. Over the coming years, CIDA will continue to support and promote the integration of gender equality dimensions and environmental considerations in all policies, programs and projects. This includes continuing to build the capacity of the multilateral system and Canadian voluntary sector and private sector partners (as well as their local counterparts) to integrate these dimensions into their policies and programming.



5.4 Enabling Results

5.4.1 Priorities

The Enabling Results-arguably the most important part of this SDS Action Plan-represent the Agency's approach to achieving a well-chosen, optimal portfolio of international programs to enable the achievement of lasting Development Results. In tandem with the rest of the international donor community, CIDA has been rethinking its approaches to development to ensure that aid dollars are spent wisely, in keeping with the principles of development effectiveness. Many of the Enabling Results are informed by CIDA's work to strengthen its aid effectiveness. CIDA's 2002 policy statement on strengthening aid effectiveness has now been integrated into the Enabling Results portion of this plan to facilitate reporting on implementation of this policy. Targets have been established where appropriate, as have indicators (consult Section 6.2 and Chapter 7). The ultimate objective is to make the Agency a more focused, innovative, and effective organization. Table 4 sets out the Agency's priority strategies to enable the achievement of development results.

5.4.2 Examples of initiatives

Within the context of the above priorities, over the next few years, CIDA will put particular emphasis on the following initiatives to deliver on its Enabling Results, which will strengthen the impact of CIDA's development efforts:

Local ownership: Local ownership means that partner countries-both the governments and their people-decide how they will develop, and their priorities for development. For many developing countries, these priorities are spelled out in the national development plan, poverty reduction strategy, or equivalent, and/or in sectoral plans in such areas as health and education. CIDA, including its voluntary sector partners, has an important role to play in promoting local ownership by supporting participatory processes that engage civil society, which are essential for establishing clear, locally owned priorities for development cooperation. CIDA will increasingly align its programming with these plans and priorities, principally through its CDPFs. For fragile states without such frameworks, such as those emerging from periods of conflict, CIDA will develop new and innovative programming approaches. The Agency will also work to harmonize its operational policies, practices, and procedures with the systems and cycles of its partner countries, in concert with other donors.

Table 4: Priorities for achieving Enabling Results
Key Agency Results
(Enabling Results)
Priorities
E1. Appropriate programming orientation
  • Appropriate balance between directed and responsive programming.
  • Consensual and collaborative partnerships established between CIDA and its partners.
  • New programming approaches and funding modalities applied.
  • Policy-based programming and increased policy coherence between CIDA and its partners.
  • Facilitation of local ownership.
  • Greater untying of Canadian aid.
E2. Appropriate sectoral and
thematic focus
  • Increased focus on the SDPs: basic education, HIV/AIDS, health, and child protection.
  • Increased focus on economic development priorities, including agriculture/rural development and private sector development.
E3. Appropriate geographic focus
  • Enhanced CIDA presence in a small number of countries and institutions.
  • Graduation of maturing countries.
E4. Engaged Canadians
  • Improved perception of the value, efficiency, and effectiveness of the ODA and OA programs.
  • Strategic collaboration between CIDA and its partners to engage the Canadian public in development.
E5. Institutional strengthening of
CIDA's partners
Enhance the capacity and effectiveness of CIDA's partner institutions.

The use of new programming approaches and funding modalities: In concert with the rest of the international development community, CIDA has become increasingly engaged in new programming approaches, moving from a project-by-project orientation, such as providing training to teachers, to a more comprehensive, program-based approach, such as supporting a country's basic education development plan. Associated with these approaches are new funding modalities, like pooled funding and budget support. During the next few years, CIDA will more systematically gather and share information about its experiences with these new programming approaches to ensure their effectiveness and maximize learning. In particular, the Agency will examine the risks associated with this type of programming and develop appropriate strategies to manage identified risks.

SWAps - An innovative programming approach A Sector-Wide Approach, or SWAp, is an innovative programming approach that contributes to greater development effectiveness. Support using this approach is directed to comprehensive, locally-owned programs that encompass an entire sector, such as education or health. Partners in a SWAp include local institutions and the donor community who share a common vision, common objectives, and often, common systems and procedures. CIDA is involved in many SWAps, including in the education sector in Mali, Tanzania, and Uganda and in the health sector in Bangladesh and Malawi.

Untying aid: In keeping with the 2001 DAC Recommendation on Untying Official Development Assistance to the Least Developed Countries, Canada revised its own policy on untied aid, effective January 1, 2003. This new policy allows CIDA to open contracting to a spectrum of bidders, including Canadian, developing-country, and internationally competitive suppliers. In this way, CIDA aims to support increased local capacity and ownership, lower costs, and liberalization of trade.

Sharpened geographic/poverty focus: In order to increase its development impact, CIDA is focusing its incremental new resources on a small number of countries of the world's poorest countries with good potential for development. Africa will continue to be a particular focus: at least 50 percent of CIDA's new resources will be invested there-up to $6 billion over five years-in addition to the $500-million Canada Fund for Africa (CFA). The CFA is a key component of Canada's G8 Africa Action Plan (AAP), which supports the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), a plan developed by African leaders to end Africa's marginalization from the rest of the world. Programming under the CFA has focused on new consensual and collaborative partnerships based on a matched commitment between Canada and its African partners. In addition to sectoral and thematic programming identified in NEPAD, the CFA also has a multi-faceted and interdepartmental series of initiatives related to trade, aid, and debt. Combined, these areas underscore the importance that Canada places on working cohesively to help Africa, the world's poorest continent. At the other end of the spectrum, the Agency will also accelerate the graduation of a number of countries from a traditional aid-based relationship to a more comprehensive relationship.

Engaged Canadians: While public opinion regarding Canada's aid program is tempered by concerns about effectiveness and efficiency, and a lack of perceived relevance to Canada, Canadians have consistently supported Canada's work overseas. CIDA is revising its corporate Strategic Communications Framework, based on new polling data gathered in the fall of 2003, which will guide the development of more specific plans to promote better understanding and support for international development among Canadians, including key target groups such as decision makers, media, and youth. CIDA's partners can effectively mobilize public and media support through their work with volunteers (in Canada and overseas), youth interns, and local communities. Over the next three years, CIDA will develop and resource a renewed strategy for public engagement, which will guide CIDA's strategic collaboration with partners.

Institutional strengthening of CIDA's partners: The strengthening of institutions that are CIDA's partners in Canada at the multilateral level and in developing countries and countries in transition is of major importance to effective aid. CIDA is taking steps to enhance the capacity and effectiveness of its partners. Over the next three years, CIDA will increase support to the strengthening of the multilateral and humanitarian assistance systems. Through funding and influence, CIDA will work to help ensure that multilateral organizations-for example, UN development organizations, the Commonwealth, and international financial institutions such as regional development banks-are more focused and effective. CIDA will also continue to help Canadian partners to improve their capacity to share knowledge, engage in policy dialogue, integrate gender equality and environmental sustainability into their programming, and make effective use of results-based management.


Spotlight on the 3Cs: Horizontal policy coherence, coordination, and
collaboration for sustainable development

In CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2001-2003: An Agenda for Change, the Agency improved policy coherence for development. Since then, CIDA has added new policy resources in both number and seniority that have improved its ability to engage other departments by permitting more active and effective participation of CIDA in interdepartmental fora. It has been recognized within the Canadian government that CIDA has a key role to play in ensuring that the perspectives of developing countries are better factored in the design of Canadian policy positions. For example, six particular areas of strength for Canada were highlighted in Canada's Memorandum to the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC): 2002. These included trade, foreign direct investment, and broader economic and financial issues; food and agriculture; equality, human rights, and governance; conflict prevention and security; and social issues.

CIDA is implementing a new consultation process with other government departments on the allocation of the federal budget for international assistance activities (the IAE) to build greater coherence across government. New or emerging issues such as security sector reform and complex emergencies present new challenges to policy coherence and have demonstrated the inadequacy of ad hoc arrangements to address these issues in a timely and comprehensive fashion. As a result, new forms of interdepartmental cooperation and collaboration are being established. CIDA will also broaden the scope of its CDPFs to better integrate the work of other departments in various country strategies.

In the detailed Action Plan, Section E.1.4 details additional initiatives that will be implemented between 2004 and 2006 in support of policy-based programming and increased policy coherence between CIDA and its partners. CIDA will continue to assess opportunities to improve policy coherence (as outlined in SAE, including, but not limited to, the areas of environment, agriculture, security, health and immigration), including:
  • Supporting the formulation of Canadian trade policy and negotiating positions to ensure that human development and poverty reduction objectives are incorporated;
  • Contributing to the development of a more effective approach to security and development across the Government of Canada;
  • Developing new and innovative approaches to working with fragile states in crisis; and,
  • Participating actively in the Treasury Board international horizontal review planned for 2004.


5.5 Management Results

5.5.1 Priorities

Management Results cover the approaches that CIDA uses to achieve its Enabling Results, and consequently, its Development Results. Management Results are in the areas of people management; knowledge and information management; strategic planning and resource allocation; and management, processes, approaches and support activities. Through the development of this strategy, CIDA has updated its Management Results for closer consistency with federal government and Agency directions, for example, the application of modern management principles. Targets, where appropriate, and indicators for their achievement are outlined priority action areas for achieving Management Results.

Table 5: Priorities for achieving Management Results
Key Agency Results
(Management Results)
Priorities
M1. People management
  • Resourcing for a renewed, sustained, and representative workforce.
  • Development and training for a highly qualified workforce.
  • Retention increased through workforce well-being.
  • Enhanced field presence where necessary.
M2. Knowledge and information
management and technology
  • IM/IT approaches and systems support achievement of Agency priorities, effective interaction with partners and public information needs.
  • Knowledge management: Staff have ready access to the expertise and knowledge they need to continuously make improvement in Agency programs and policies. This expertise is shared widely with external partners and continuously stimulates improvements in Agency programs and policies.
M3. Strategic planning and resource allocation Strategic alignment of planning priorities, reporting, and resource allocation.
M4. Management, processes,
approaches, and support activities
  • Strengthening of a continual improvement management approach (IMM).
  • Transparent, consistent, and cost-effective business processes and operations.
  • The "greening" of CIDA: improved practice of stewardship and conservation in Canada and abroad.
  • CIDA's management and administrative activities support the objectives of international development assistance.


Allocation of resources to strategic priorities: A critical component of resource allocation will be the implementation of a new framework for managing the IAE in consultation with other government departments. CIDA will also continue to strengthen the corporate planning process to ensure the implementation of a rigorous budgetary planning and resource allocation process and continue to enhance risk management and results measurement systems.

  • People management: Against the backdrop of changes in approach to international development, CIDA's Strategy for Managing its People2001-2004 will be updated and re-launched in 2004 to help guide human resources planning and retention activities as well as the promotion of workplace well-being.

  • Knowledge management activities are geared toward making CIDA a knowledge-based, continuous-learning organization. The implementation of CIDA's Knowledge Management Action Plan (2002-2005) will facilitate the generation and sharing of knowledge and information throughout the Agency and will contribute to CIDA's improved effectiveness.

6. Detailed Action Plan

6.1 Development Results (Gender equality and the environment are themes that cut across all Development Results.)
D1. Economic Well-Being
Equitable economic growth and improved standards of living of poor women and men, girls and boys.
Priority
D.1.1 Strengthen investment in agriculture/rural development.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Poverty reduced and food and nutrition security improved for women and men, girls and boys.
  • Strengthened capacity of national, regional, and multilateral agricultural development organizations.
  • Improved livelihoods of women and men, girls and boys in rural, farm, and non-farm areas.
  • Improved management of natural resources (land and water) used by agriculture.
  • Agricultural and natural resources management practices are environmentally sustainable and promote ecosystem health.
  • Proportion of population whose income is less than $1 per day (MDGs).
  • Prevalence of underweight girls and boys (under five years of age) (MDGs), as well as adult women and men.
  • Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (MDGs).
  • Poverty gap ratio (incidence and depth of poverty) (MDGs).
  • Extent of country compliance with the obligation to promote and protect the right to food (e.g. through concluding observations of treaty bodies).
  • Extent of soil loss and degradation.
  • Annual rate of deforestation and degradation as a percentage of total forest loss.
  • Proportion of population affected by drought.
  • Susceptibility to erosion.
  • Country- and regional-level investments, including: strengthening the agricultural sector and rural development to address food security issues in Tajikistan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, and Ghana; using innovative methods such as direct budgetary support and SWAps to develop the agricultural sector in Senegal and Rwanda; improving opportunities for both women and men in rural areas of China and Vietnam; implementing a new local development model for rural and agricultural development in Haiti; and supporting environmental sustainability and the sustainable management of natural resources integrated with agriculture through initiatives such as those proposed in countries of focus.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: programming with Canadian volunteer and private sector partners, in concert with their local counterparts, to support CIDA's agricultural programming objectives, principles and priorities; supporting civil institutions providing technical and logistical support to agricultural producers in Central America; supporting small- and large-scale food fortification programs; and supporting multilateral organizations such as the IFAD, and initiatives under the Canada Fund for Africa, such as Africa-specific research on agricultural productivity by the CGIAR.
Priority
D.1.2 Support private sector development that contributes to pro-poor, equitable, and economic growth, and improved and sustainable standards of living of poor women and men, girls and boys.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and priorities) Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
Increased incomes and improved productive capacities, including greater control by women over productive assets and increased access to decent work.
Sustainable enterprise expansion and the equitable creation of more and better jobs.
  • Proportion of population whose income is less than $1 per day (MDGs).
  • Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector (MDGs).
  • Growth in private sector activity/SME start-ups, including number, competitiveness, and sustainability of women's micro-enterprises, businesses, and farms.
  • Number of women accessing credit/financial- and productivity-enhancing services and related training and the quality of those services and training.
  • Extent of male/female income gap.
  • Growth in job creation and new employment opportunities for the poor, as well as increased income-generation capacity.
  • Country- and regional-level investments, including: supporting the private sector development components of partner country PRSPs, such as micro-enterprise programming with particular attention to women in Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, Senegal, South Africa, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Cameroon; continuing to facilitate revitalization of financial and agricultural cooperatives, such as in Haiti; facilitation of Canadian trade and investment links in CEE to aid in that region's transition to a market economy; establishing linkages with other programming to enhance economic opportunities, especially for those affected by conflict; and promoting economic reforms and strengthened governmental and institutional capacities for economic management in CEE and Asia, taking into account lingering effects from the 1997 economic crisis.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: working with multilateral partners to encourage the development of a secure investment climate in partner countries by strengthening regulatory frameworks and streamlining legal environments; and facilitating the establishment of long-term partnerships between Canadian private sector partners and their counterparts in developing countries to promote investment, foster growth through innovative programming, provide infrastructure services, and to strengthen institutions related to the private sector.
Priority
D.1.3 Build capacity to make trade work for poor women and men, girls and boys.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
Strengthened business, social and workforce-adjustment programs and policies to address the variable affects (potential and real) of trade reforms on poor women and men, girls and boys.
  • Number of PRSPs or national development plans and policies which take trade liberalization into account.
  • Number of LDCs successfully engaged in an integrated framework for trade
  • Trade volumes and market access for developing countries.
  • Development interests reflected in trade agreements.
  • Number of trade-related policies and programs taking into account the impacts on poor women and men, girls and boys.
  • Country- and regional-level investments, including: supporting a comprehensive program to assist the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) in preparing its national and regional trade capacity-building strategies to support the negotiation and implementation of trade agreements; helping partner efforts in CEE to establish and strengthen market economies and build capacity in policy, regulatory, and institutional frameworks required for successful reform and for integration into organizations such as the WTO and the E.U.; assisting in building the capacity of selected Asian countries to negotiate their accession to the WTO and/or implement their specific WTO commitments; providing practical assistance to enhance the capacity of Africans to promote their products, access international markets, and better participate in the multilateral trading system; and integrating gender equality in trade-related capacity-building initiatives.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: encouraging the IFIs, the UN, and the Commonwealth to intensify their capacity-building work to help developing countries become full and equal partners in the global trading system; and supporting the initiatives of Canadian private sector partners and their local counterparts for trade facilitation and trade-related capacity building.
Priority
D.1.4 Foster an enabling environment for economic growth and investment.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Sound and accountable private and public institutions to support well-functioning and competitive local and national markets.
  • An enabling business climate conducive to supporting savings, investment, and the development of socially and environmentally responsive enterprise.
  • Reduced inequalities between women and men in access to and control over the resources and benefits of development.
  • Broad indicators of economic performance reflecting sound and productive business environment (e.g. economic growth rates and unemployment rates).
  • Indicators of sound monetary policy (e.g. inflation rates and real interest rates).
  • External ratings of economic environment (e.g. international and domestic interest rate spreads vs. U.S. dollar, and Transparency International ratings on corruption).
  • Levels of foreign direct investment (FDI).
  • Extent of policies, laws, and practices that support women's access to and control over productive assets.
  • Extent to which policies, laws, and practices promote environmentally responsible enterprise.
  • Extent to which laws for the protection of the environment are enforced and obligations under ratified Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) are fulfilled.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: strengthening the capacity of governments, institutions, private sector firms, and voluntary sector organizations to develop equitable economic policies that incorporate poverty analysis and extend the benefits of growth to women and men, girls and boys, living in poverty; supporting the efforts of specific government institutions to develop and implement policies and regulations that are conducive to private investment and trade; establishing, through the Canada Fund for Africa, the Canada Investment Fund for Africa to leverage private sector investment in support of Africa's development; using technology, as appropriate, such as through sharing and adapting of Canadian expertise, to support social development, public sector reform, water management, and municipal restructuring in El Salvador; supporting, through a detailed study, a capital project to provide electricity to small, rural villages in Jordan using renewable energies such as wind and solar energy; empowering rural/indigenous communities in the Americas to become active participants in the development of hydrocarbon resources and to benefit from the implementation of small-scale gas projects; and enhancing the economic well-being of women and men, boys and girls, living in poverty by influencing policy making and high-level decisions on national policies such as taxation, foreign investment, and state-owned enterprise reform in countries such as China, India, and Indonesia.
  • Institutional initiatives, including supporting efforts of IFIs to better target investment on economic policy, public-sector management, and private- and financial-sector development; and supporting the HIPC initiative to relieve poor countries of debt.
D2.Social Development
Improved quality of life for poor women and men, girls and boys, through enhanced social services, management of the
social impact of reform, progress toward gender equality, and humanitarian assistance.
Priority
D.2.1a Strengthen programming in basic education.
  • Increased capacity of partner countries to provide equal access to, and completion of, quality basic education which calls for universal access to and completion of a free and compulsory primary education of good quality, the elimination of gender disparities in education, the improvement of the quality of basic education for learners of all ages, and the implementation and strengthening of cross-sectoral education programs that address the HIV/AIDs pandemic.
  • Net enrolment ratio in primary education (MDGs).
  • Proportion of pupils (male/ female) starting Grade 1 who reach Grade 5 (MDGs).
  • Literacy rate of 15-24-year-olds (MDGs).
  • Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education (MDGs).
  • Drop-out rates of girls and women.
  • Ratio of literate females to males of 15-24-year-olds (MDGs).
  • Number of countries having completed EFA/Education Sector Development Plans.
  • Number of countries engaged in EFA-FTI policy dialogue, including use of the Indicative Framework Benchmarking Tool for EFA/Education Sector Development Plans.
  • Number of countries where annual joint education sector reviews are held with donors and civil society.
  • Number of at-risk countries prepared to respond to the impact of HIV/AIDS on access to and quality of education according to global indicators.
  • Number of curricula that promote gender equality.
  • Ratio of girls and boys from ethnic minority groups to girls and boys from majority group in primary, secondary, and tertiary education.
CIDA will support basic education through ongoing implementation of its Action Plan on Basic Education (2002), which calls for access to and completion by all of a free and compulsory primary education of good quality, the elimination of gender disparities in education, the improvement of the quality of basic education, and the implementation and strengthening of cross-sectoral education programs that address the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, such as: working in close cooperation with the national government and other donors; active participation in the implementation of the EFA-FTI, which includes doubling Canada's investment in basic education in Africa to $100 million per year by 2004-2005 and funding the Montréal-based UNESCO Institute of Statistics to help the international community to track results; supporting basic education in Haiti, Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Niger, Tanzania, Mozambique, Uganda, Egypt, Morocco, and Jordan; paying increasing attention to eliminating gender disparities in educational access and promoting gender equality via education systems; supporting countries and civil society organizations working to improve the readiness of ministries of education, through Canada's participation in a global network of organizations looking at education and HIV/AIDS; addressing issues of access to education when services are biased toward middle- and upper-income classes, including in urban areas where unequal access to education compromises efforts to eradicate poverty; and emphasizing better integration of health, nutrition, and early education to help ensure that cognitive capacity is not destroyed through hunger or lack of micronutrients.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: continuing to support the initiatives of Canadian and international partners in the volunteer and private sectors, together with their local counterparts, to contribute to the achievement of basic education objectives; and supporting a more effective multilateral system and component institutions.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Increased capacity of partner countries to provide equal access to, and completion of, quality basic education which calls for universal access to and completion of a free and compulsory primary education of good quality, the elimination of gender disparities in education, the improvement of the quality of basic education for learners of all ages, and the implementation and strengthening of cross-sectoral education programs that address the HIV/AIDs pandemic.
  • Net enrolment ratio in primary education (MDGs).
  • Proportion of pupils (male/ female) starting Grade 1 who reach Grade 5 (MDGs).
  • Literacy rate of 15-24-year-olds (MDGs).
  • Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education (MDGs).
  • Drop-out rates of girls and women.
  • Ratio of literate females to males of 15-24-year-olds (MDGs).
  • Number of countries having completed EFA/Education Sector Development Plans.
  • Number of countries engaged in EFA-FTI policy dialogue, including use of the Indicative Framework Benchmarking Tool for EFA/Education Sector Development Plans.
  • Number of countries where annual joint education sector reviews are held with donors and civil society.
  • Number of at-risk countries prepared to respond to the impact of HIV/AIDS on access to and quality of education according to global indicators.
  • Number of curricula that promote gender equality.
  • Ratio of girls and boys from ethnic minority groups to girls and boys from majority group in primary, secondary, and tertiary education.
CIDA will support basic education through ongoing implementation of its Action Plan on Basic Education (2002), which calls for access to and completion by all of a free and compulsory primary education of good quality, the elimination of gender disparities in education, the improvement of the quality of basic education, and the implementation and strengthening of cross-sectoral education programs that address the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, such as: working in close cooperation with the national government and other donors; active participation in the implementation of the EFA-FTI, which includes doubling Canada's investment in basic education in Africa to $100 million per year by 2004-2005 and funding the Montréal-based UNESCO Institute of Statistics to help the international community to track results; supporting basic education in Haiti, Burkina Faso, Mali, Senegal, Niger, Tanzania, Mozambique, Uganda, Egypt, Morocco, and Jordan; paying increasing attention to eliminating gender disparities in educational access and promoting gender equality via education systems; supporting countries and civil society organizations working to improve the readiness of ministries of education, through Canada's participation in a global network of organizations looking at education and HIV/AIDS; addressing issues of access to education when services are biased toward middle- and upper-income classes, including in urban areas where unequal access to education compromises efforts to eradicate poverty; and emphasizing better integration of health, nutrition, and early education to help ensure that cognitive capacity is not destroyed through hunger or lack of micronutrients.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: continuing to support the initiatives of Canadian and international partners in the volunteer and private sectors, together with their local counterparts, to contribute to the achievement of basic education objectives; and supporting a more effective multilateral system and component institutions.
Priority
D.2.1b Strengthen programming in HIV/AIDS.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Increased capacity of countries and regions (as they work to meet the goals articulated in the UN Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS) to provide a comprehensive, multi-sectoral HIV/AIDS program across the continuum of care that responds to those living with HIV/AIDS and affected by the epidemic, and appropriately incorporate the gender and human rights dimensions of the epidemic.
  • HIV prevalence among 15-24-year-old pregnant women (MDGs).
  • Percentage of HIV-infected pregnant women receiving a complete course of antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce the risk of mother-to-child-transmission.
  • Percentage of patients (male/ female) with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at health-care facilities, who are appropriately diagnosed, treated, and counselled.
  • Percentage of young people (male/female) aged 15-24 reporting condom use during sexual intercourse with a nonregular sexual partner.
  • Percentage of people (male/ female) with HIV infection receiving antiretroviral combination treatment.
  • Percentage of intravenous drug users (male/female) who have adopted behavioral changes that reduce the transmission of HIV.
  • Number of reported cases of discrimination based on HIV/ AIDS status.
  • Number of at-risk countries with implemented strategies aimed at reducing the spread of HIV/AIDS.
CIDA's efforts to combat HIV/AIDS will be guided by its HIV/AIDS Action Plan (2002), which calls for HIV/AIDS to be linked to other development priorities, focusing on the promotion and protection of human rights and the support of vaccine and micro-biocide research and development. In all its efforts, CIDA will be enhancing the gender dimension in its HIV/AIDS projects and programs.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: supporting research toward development of an HIV/AIDS vaccine through the Canada Fund for Africa; funding national HIV/AIDS programs, including prevention and/or care, treatment, and support programs in the Balkans, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Mozambique, Tanzania, South Africa, Rwanda, and Cameroon, as well as in Malawi-countries with some of the highest HIV infection rates in the world; fostering regional efforts to halt the spread of HIV/AIDS, including regional strategies in South Asia, West Africa, and the Caribbean; and developing new initiatives to support improved AIDS awareness and government policy capacity, in countries such as China, India, and Pakistan.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: supporting the initiatives of Canadian and international partners in the volunteer and private sectors, together with their local counterparts, to contribute to the achievement of HIV/AIDS objectives; ongoing financing of UNAIDS and the GFATM; and supporting a more effective multilateral system and component institutions.
Priority
D.2.1c Strengthen programming in health and nutrition.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Improved health policies, programs and systems in areas including nutrition, sexual and reproductive health, communicable and non-communicable diseases, and water and sanitation, and that are especially responsive to the needs of women, girls and boys.
  • Under-5 mortality rate (male/ female) (MDGs).
  • Maternal mortality rate (MDGs).
  • Infant mortality rate (male/ female) (MDGs).
  • Incidence of malaria and tuberculosis (male/female) (MDGs).
  • Children (male/female) immunized against measles (MDGs).
  • Level of access to primary health care in rural and urban areas.
  • Levels of malnutrition in girls and boys.
  • Levels of contraceptive use (male/female).
  • Prevalence of smoking.
  • Proportion of population with sustainable access to improved potable water sources (MDGs).
  • Proportion of people with access to improved sanitation (MDGs).
CIDA will continue implementation of its Action Plan on Health and Nutrition (2001), which recognizes the importance of promoting and protecting the right to the highest-attainable standard of physical and mental health and identifies several priority areas.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: continued support for the successful multidonor program for control of river blindness in 19 countries in east, west, central, and southern Africa; strengthening health-sector reform in countries such as Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Indonesia, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Uruguay, including knowledge transfer related to regulatory work, health financing and planning, district health and public governance, data collection, and human resource development; enhancing health promotion and prevention strategies with respect to non-communicable diseases in the Americas; improving family planning and reproductive health services in countries such as Malawi, Mali, Tanzania, Zambia, Nicaragua, and Bangladesh; supporting the multi-country DOTS (Directly Observed Treatment Short Course) expansion programs in high tuberculosis-burdened countries; contributing to reconstruction efforts for health and nutrition in Iraq; supporting country-led sectoral approaches, such as in Malawi, that will contribute to reducing waterborne diseases; and addressing the problem of access to water and sanitation services and related health risks through major projects in Cameroon, Ghana, Morocco, Jordan, Benin, Malawi, Mozambique, Mauritania, and Ethiopia.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: supporting the GFATM and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), both of which are public/private partnerships formed to help spur momentum to reach health-related MDGs; maintaining efforts to promote global progress in immunization and reduce mineral and vitamin deficiencies; improving family planning and reproductive health services through support to multilateral institutions; following up on G8 Summit commitments, including through the Canada Fund for Africa, with support for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in Africa (e.g. Nigeria) in an effort to eradicate polio by 2005; supporting the initiatives of Canadian and international partners in the volunteer and private sectors, together with their local counterparts, to contribute to the achievement of health and nutrition objectives; and supporting a more effective multilateral system and component institutions.
Priority
D.2.1d Strengthen programming in child protection.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Increased capacity of partner institutions, governments, and civil society organizations to promote and protect the rights of girls and boys in need of special protection measures.
  • Increased participation of girls and boys in planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating development programs and policies carried out by partner institutions, governments, and civil society organizations.
  • Number of policies, programs, activities, and plans of partner institutions, governments, and civil society organizations that reflect a child-rights-based approach (as provided for in the Convention on the Rights of the Child).
  • Number of policies, programs, activities, and plans of partner institutions, governments, and civil society organizations that reflect input given through the meaningful participation of girls and boys.
CIDA will implement its Action Plan on Child Protection (2001), that articulates a rights-based approach which recognizes the rights of girls and boys to participate in decisions affecting their lives, analyses the structural causes that lead to violations of girls' and boys' rights, and advocates a holistic response for working with girls and boys in need of special protection from exploitation, abuse, and discrimination.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: focusing on child trafficking and war-affected girls and boys in Africa (e.g. Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, and Rwanda) and supporting the role of girls and boys as peace builders; investing in child protection and youth participation in education, health, and HIV/AIDS programming in CEE, with a focus on war-affected girls and boys; improving national- and community-level capacity in the Americas to fulfil the rights of girls and boys, and to ensure that girls and boys benefit from regional economic integration; fostering better employment opportunities through SME development by endeavouring to improve the conditions (health, safety, and access to education) of work for economically active girls and boys; and reducing child labour and trafficking in Asia, through advocacy and programming.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: supporting the initiatives of Canadian and international partners in the volunteer and private sectors, together with their local
counterparts, to contribute to the achievement of child protection objectives; and supporting more effective multilateral systems and component institutions.
D.2.2 Support and promote the integration of gender equality dimensions in all development policies, programs, and projects.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Changes in policies and programs that support gender equality (responding to the different needs of women and men, girls and boys).
  • Increased capacity of partner institutions, governments, and civil society organizations to design and implement development policies, programs, and projects that reflect the priorities and interests of both females and males.
  • Increased capacity of women and women's organizations for advocacy and participation in public life and decision making.
  • Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments (MDGs)
  • Number of policies, programs, and projects of partner institutions, governments and civil society organizations that reflect the priorities and interests of both females and males.
  • Knowledge/skills of women and women's organizations for advocacy and participation in decision making.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: enhancing the two-pronged approach to gender equality programming in Asia through specific initiatives to promote women's rights and empowerment such as Gender Fund projects (e.g. in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and the Philippines) and strengthening integration of gender equality issues across a variety of sectors (e.g. Kenya for HIV/AIDS); continuing funding of women's enterprise projects such as those in Rwanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Cameroon; maintaining and extending support for specific initiatives related to women's empowerment in Kenya, Ethiopia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Cameroon, Mali, Egypt, Morocco, and Senegal; enhancing capacity for gender analysis and gender-sensitive programming by governments and increasing the participation of women in decision making at local, regional, and national levels in the Americas; ensuring that effective training on gender equality is provided, including via Promoting Gender Equality - An Online Learning Course; and ensuring that gender equality is integrated in program-based approaches (e.g. SWAps) and national development plans (e.g. PRSPs).
  • Institutional initiatives, including: mainstreaming gender equality in multilateral development institutions and their programming; programming in multilateral institutions focused on gender equality (e.g. UNIFEM); and continuing to build the capacity of the Canadian volunteer and private sector partners, as well as their local counterparts, to integrate gender equality in their programming.
Priority
D.2.3 Provide humanitarian assistance in times of natural disaster and/or conflict.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Basic human needs (food and non-food) met and human suffering alleviated during times of natural disaster and/or conflict.
  • Quantity and destination of emergency food and non-food aid decided according to humanitarian principles, including on a needs basis.
  • Emergency assistance delivered in a timely, efficient, and effective manner.
  • Early-warning systems in place in vulnerable countries.
  • Crude mortality rate and levels of acute malnutrition (wasting) during times of natural disasters and/or conflict.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including contributions to basic human needs (e.g. Iraq). CIDA's programming strikes an appropriate balance between emergency food and non-food humanitarian assistance and long-term development assistance. CIDA is also working on the transition process from relief to development, and the creation of early-warning systems for disaster prevention and preparedness (e.g. Ethiopia).
  • Institutional initiatives, including CIDA chairing the Good Humanitarian Donorship Implementation Group.
D3. Environmental Sustainability
Improved environmental sustainability through the protection, conservation, and management
of the diversity and integrity of the environment.
Priority
D.3.1 Support and promote the integration of environmental considerations in countries' policies, programs, and projects in support of the achievement of the MDGs.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Countries have strengthened their ability to integrate environmental considerations in their policies, programs, and projects.
  • Number of country policies, programs, and projects that take environmental considerations into account.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: promoting the integration of environmental considerations in the many sectors addressed in PRSPs (e.g. health, agriculture, forestry, education, etc.); strengthening the capacity of industry to incorporate environmental and social issues in doing business in countries such as India; and strengthening the capacity of government departments and agencies to manage nature reserves to support sustainable development opportunities for poor populations in countries such as China.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: integrating environmental considerations in multilateral development organizations and their programming; and supporting the initiatives of Canadian volunteer and private sector partners, together with their local counterparts, to integrate environmental considerations in their programming.
Priority
D.3.2 Contribute to increasing capacities to address environmental issues such as desertification, climate change, and water and sanitation, in ways that reflect the priorities and interests of women and men, girls and boys.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
Increased capacity to address climate change in support of sustainable development.
Increased capacity to address land degradation through the development and implementation of sustainable land-management approaches that benefit the poor, including in agriculture and forestry.
Increased capacity to develop and implement sustainable integrated water resources management approaches, including equitable access to clean water and sanitation.
More effective participation, decision making, and equitable access by women, the poor, and other underrepresented groups, in the management of natural resources.
  • Number of country policies, programs, and projects addressing climate change which may lead to decreases in:
    • GDP per unit of energy used (as proxy for energy efficiency); and
    • carbon dioxide emissions, per capita, (plus two measurements of global atmospheric pollution - ozone depletion and the accumulation of global warming bases) (MDGs).
  • Number of country initiatives integrating sustainable land-management approaches which may lead to increases in:
    • proportion of land area covered by forests;
    • land area protected to maintain biological diversity; and
    • proportion of people with access to secure tenure (MDGs).
  • Number of country initiatives incorporating sustainable integrated water resources management approaches that may lead to an increase in the:
    • proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source; and
    • proportion of people with access to improved sanitation.
  • Urban/rural desegregation of the above indicators may be relevant for monitoring improvements to the lives of slum dwellers (MDGs).
  • Participation rates of women and marginalized groups in the management of natural resources.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: addressing the problem of access to water and sanitation services and related health risks through major projects in Cameroon, Ghana, Morocco, Jordan, Benin, Malawi, Mozambique, Mauritania, and Ethiopia; strengthening the capacity of governments, NGOs, and communities to manage land and water in a sustainable manner that promotes soil conservation in countries affected by desertification, such as Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, Zambia, Mozambique, and Tanzania; supporting adaptation planning in 12 countries in the Caribbean to reduce the adverse effects anticipated as the result of global climate change, and strengthen private sector institutional capacities to respond to climate change; supporting improved water resources policies and proper watershed management in countries such as Ghana, Mozambique, and those in the Nile Basin region; supporting the sustainable management of peat swamp forests to improve livelihoods, and to maintain and increase carbon storage in Indonesia; and helping to supply clean, renewable energy to isolated areas of Cuba.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: building the capacity of Canadian volunteer and private sector partners, together with their local counterparts, to plan and manage environmentally sound programming (including environmental policies and management systems); supporting the GEFas the single largest funding mechanism for global environmental issues (e.g. the African Stockpile Program in Nigeria, aimed at eliminating obsolete pesticides); and supporting a more effective multilateral system and its component institutions.
D4. Governance
Improved governance structures and institutional capacity, strengthened civil society, improved peace and security, and enhanced respect for human rights and democracy.
D.4.1 Promote public sector reform and greater use of rules-based systems to govern economic, political, environmental, and social affairs.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Governing structures and institutions are increasingly stable, accountable, transparent, and bound by the rule of law.
  • Transparent and representative lawmaking processes and fair, accessible and independent legal systems that conform to internationally accepted standards.
  • Transparency and equality in the resolution of disputes, conflicts, complaints, appeals, and redresses.
  • Increased transparency and accountability of public sector institutions such as modern comptrollership, financial probity, and budgetary oversight.
  • Strengthened government policy capacity and coordination among government departments.
  • Open and fair market environment and a predictable regulatory system.
  • Improved environmental and natural resource stewardship through efficient, equitable, and sustainable management, and use of environmental and natural resources.
  • KKZ composite indicators for Rule of Law, Government Effectiveness, Control of Corruption, and Regulatory Quality.
  • Extent of country compliance with obligations under international treaties relating to economic, social, and cultural rights (e.g. via concluding observations of treaty bodies).
  • Number of national institutions with a monitoring function, including national human rights institutions, ombudsman offices, and auditors general.
  • Evidence of areas, groups, or individuals above or beyond the law and outside its protection.
  • Data on exclusions, loopholes, impunities on executive use of exceptional or emergency powers, and on personal relations systematically determining decisional outcomes.
  • Evidence of systematic discrimination or inequalities in legal protection, failures of justice, and use of secret or special tribunals.
  • Progress with respect to Country Procurement Assessment Reports (CPARs), Country Financial Accountability Assessments (CFAAs), and Public Expenditure Reviews (PERs).
  • Effective institutions (e.g. water resources authorities) responsible for the environment and natural resources through improved regulation and management, the nature and proportion of national coverage by such institutions, and the number of authorities and subregional bodies and the average area they cover.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: supporting programs to help reform, redesign and/or rebuild legal and judicial institutions (e.g. Iraq, Mali, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Bangladesh, South Africa, and the Balkans); supporting Russia's administrative reform agenda, including federalism and transparency in decision-making in the civil service; supporting centralized priority setting and decision making, including policy and budget deliberations in Lithuania; strengthening local community-based institutions to serve rural areas in Asia, while also supporting democratic local governance and responsive, accountable governance at all levels; developing new arrangements through public and private partner-ships focused on promoting sustainable livelihoods for women and men, girls and boys living in poverty in Asia and the Americas; increasing the capacity, transparency, accountability, and use of participatory approaches in the African civil service, parliaments, and local governments; supporting central and regional policy-management processes in Africa (e.g. Ghana central government, Benin, and Ethiopia regional); supporting decentralization processes in West Africa (Burkina Faso, Senegal, Ghana, and Mali), Ethiopia and Mozambique; and supporting the government of Peru to elaborate and test new models for the management and regulation of water and sanitation services for small towns.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: working with international financial and non-governmental institutions to improve the governance performance of borrowers and to promote anti-corruption activities; supporting initiatives of Canadian and international partners in the volunteer and private sectors, together with their local counterparts, to promote and monitor public sector reforms and rules-based systems of governance; and supporting UN-Habitat to help selected African cities establish integrated urban water resource management strategies that bring together the three critical elements of urban, environment, and water/sanitation.
Priority
D.4.2 Build democratic institutions and processes that represent and engage all members of society.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Civil society is enabled to organize, advocate, effect, and influence change.
  • Equal participation of women and men as decision-makers in shaping the sustainable development of their societies.
  • Voter participation in regular, free, and safe elections, particularly by women and marginalized groups.
  • Political representation and leadership increasingly reflect a pluralistic society and a wide variety of interests and identities.
  • Media increasingly free and supportive of public debate.
  • KKZ composite indicators for Voice and Accountability, and Political Stability.
  • Level of participation by civil society in national issues (e.g. measured by consultation efforts by government).
  • Number and proportion of women in decision-making positions, including legislature, judiciary, etc.
  • Number of free and fair elections.
  • Indicators related to ownership, control, and censorship of the media.
  • Availability of small arms and light weapons.
  • Number of community-based policing initiatives.
  • Number of civilians trained as peacekeepers.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: enhancing partner governments' capacity for gender analysis and gender-sensitive programming; increasing the participation of women and girls in decision making at local, regional, and national levels; helping reform institutions that perpetuate inequalities and power relations detrimental to poverty reduction and the promotion of sustainable livelihoods; enhancing civil society organizations' capacity to monitor and engage the public to participate in the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election; increasing the capacity, transparency, and participatory approaches of the African public sector, local governments, parliaments, and civil society associations; and emphasizing modernization of the state, working to extend the benefits to the whole population, and ensuring that civil society is able to participate in government in the Americas.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: continuing to support the initiatives of Canadian and international partners in the volunteer and private sectors, together with their local counterparts, to contribute to strong and healthy democracies (including strengthening civil society, participation in governance processes, and improving the capacity of developing-country organizations and institutions to influence processes that define, promote and protect human rights); and working with international financial institutions to improve the governance performance of borrowers and to heighten anti-corruption activities.
Priority
D.4.3 Support the increased promotion and protection of human rights by institutions, governments, and civil society organizations.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Increased knowledge and recognition by general public and decision makers of the human rights of women and men, girls and boys.
  • Strengthened legal and judicial systems that are accessible to all and that are based on human rights' norms and standards.
  • Strengthened promotion and protection of the human rights of women and girls in law and in the actions of police, prosecutors, judges, and courts.
  • Improved services and mechanisms responding to gender-specific constraints on rights or rights' violations (e.g. violence against women, trafficking, sexual violence, and conflict zones).
  • Extent of country compliance with international human rights' instruments (e.g. via treaty body Concluding Observations).
  • Extent of dissemination of human rights' information by government and civil society.
  • Number of laws and policies based on human rights.
  • Number of media reports on human rights violations.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: supporting national and international human rights organizations (e.g. China, Yemen, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Haiti); supporting national human rights institutions, including ombudsman offices and national human rights commissions (e.g. Peru, Bolivia, Indonesia, Cameroon, and Nepal); providing legal and judicial capacity-building initiatives and human rights training (e.g. China, Sri Lanka, Russia, Afghanistan, and South East Asia); helping to realize women's human rights in seven southeast Asian countries; promoting the principles of inclusion, participation, non-discrimination, and accountability as foundations of development at national and international levels, including the promotion of dialogue between government and civil society (e.g. Pakistan, Côte d'Ivoire, and China); and assisting the poorest of the marginalized populations through the Indigenous Peoples Partnership Program (IPPP) in the Americas to improve their quality of life.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: continuing to support the initiatives of Canadian and international partners in the volunteer and private sectors, together with their local counterparts, to promote human rights education and to monitor compliance with human rights instruments.
Priority
D.4.4 Increased attention to conflict prevention, post-conflict reconciliation, peace building, and security.
Anticipated development outcomes at country, regional, and institutional levels (based on CIDA's policies and
priorities)
Sample indicators at country, regional, and institutional levels
(for the achievement of stated
development outcomes)
Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Improved local capacity to prevent or manage conflict.
  • Improved and harmonized regional and donor responses to conflict.
  • A strengthened and more professional security sector, including police, judiciary, penal institutions, and civil control of the military.
  • Improved democratic governance of the security system, including increased transparency and accountability.
  • More effective transition from complex emergency/crisis to sustained development.
  • Increased capacity of institutions to develop and implement policies, programs, and projects in peace building and conflict resolution that integrate gender-equality dimensions and the special protection needs of war-affected girls and boys, including helping to increase the scope and effectiveness of women and war-affected young people's contributions to peace building and conflict-prevention work.
  • Increased capacity to develop and implement sustainable natural resources management approaches, including sharing, management, and development of transboundary waters that contribute to the resolution and/or prevention of conflict.
  • Number of violent conflicts/threats to security.
  • Number of projects that reflect improved analysis and delivery of conflict prevention and transition programming in post-conflict areas.
  • Number of harmonized operational decisions about security by international organizations (e.g. UN and OECD), representing a more coordinated and effective regional/international response to conflict prevention and post-conflict reconstruction.
  • Evidence of joint work among and between riparian countries in managing shared waters.
  • Number of organizations addressing gender-equality dimensions in their peace building and conflict-resolution policies, programs, and projects.
  • Proportion of females/males participating in decision making in peace- and conflict-related institutions, mechanisms, and processes.
  • Extent to which the rights and differing needs of females and males affected by conflict are taken into account in peacekeeping and reconstruction policies and programming.
  • Country- or regional-level investments, including: supporting the reconstruction process in Afghanistan and post-conflict initiatives in Iraq, employing an approach involving diplomacy, development, and defence; supporting the involvement of Canadian police in developing countries in efforts to restore human security, social stability, and the rule of law as preconditions for more substantial, sustainable development (e.g. Sierra Leone and Guinea); supporting the ministries of justice and police services in the Balkans to better understand, appreciate, and enforce human rights' norms and standards; reinforcing pan-African and regional conflict prevention, management, and resolution efforts through strengthening the capacity of the new African Union (AU) (e.g. the Canada Fund for Africa) and economic regional communities (e.g. Intergovernmental Authority on Development in East Africa and ECOWAS in West Africa); continuing to help eliminate the use of landmines, including through mine-action strategies; increasing programming to address the special protection needs of war-affected girls and boys, including helping to increase the scope, effectiveness, and credibility of war-affected young people's contributions to peace building and conflict-prevention work (e.g. Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, and Rwanda); fostering the integration of gender equality in all aspects of conflict prevention, peacemaking, peacekeeping, and post-conflict reconstruction; working with Colombia on two mutually reinforcing sectors, governance/human rights and integrated assistance to people affected by conflict; and supporting the development of skills, both in the identification of potential water-related conflicts and the ability to negotiate and resolve water conflicts using a peacebuilding approach, in El Salvador.
  • Institutional initiatives, including: strengthening the capacity of the multilateral system (particularly the UN and OECD) to provide emergency conflict-prevention, peacebuilding, demining, and post-conflict programming, analysis, and lessons learned; participating in global efforts to reduce the linkage between armed conflict and the exploitation of natural resources (e.g. blood diamonds, minerals, etc.) and work toward stronger international regimes (e.g. Nile River Basin); and supporting the efforts of Canadian and international partners in the volunteer and private sectors, together with their local counterparts, to promote dialogue within developing countries about conflict, reconciliation, and peacebuilding.


6.2 Enabling Results

E1. Appropriate programming orientation
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
Priority
E.1.1 Appropriate balance between directed and responsive programming.
Percentage and amount of program disbursements in the following modalities:
  • directed;
  • responsive;
  • core programming; and
  • uncoded.
  • Appropriate programming orientation and modalities will be determined in accordance with the CDPFs and country-specific needs.
  • Branches may determine targets for the appropriate mix of directed, responsive, and core funding.
  • CIDA will equip staff with tools and processes to enable delivery of different types of programming.
  • CIDA will ensure that partner projects fit within a corporate CDPF while allowing for diversity, experimentation, and flexibility.
Priority
E.1.2 Consensual and collaborative partnerships established between CIDA and its partners.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Assessment of the collaborative and consensual partnerships already established (Canadian Partnership and Multilateral Programs Branches' initiatives are particularly pertinent).
  • Strengthened multilateral humanitarian assistance and development systems.
  • Alignment of partnership programming with CIDA's strategic objectives.
  • CIDA will make contributions to key multilateral institutions and initiatives to enhance their capacity to reduce poverty and reach internationally agreed development targets, recognizing their role in defining the agenda, delivering programming, complementing Canadian programming, and committing to reform.
  • CIDA will use coherence, focus, selectivity, and comparative advantage to determine how best to work with CIDA's multilateral partners. The Multilateral Programs Branch Task Force will refine these systems and criteria. It will work to better coordinate CIDA's multilateral and bilateral channels of assistance.
  • Promote more effective partnerships with the volunteer and private sectors by: developing a common understanding of CIDA's strategic objectives across the Agency; communicating these objectives effectively to its partners; ensuring its partners align their programming to CIDA's strategic objectives; working with partners to build on SAE principles; exploring opportunities for innovative partnerships; and strengthening partner relations by improving funding arrangements and other administrative processes.
Priority
E.1.3 New programming approaches and funding modalities (PBAs) applied.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Number, scope, and assessment of PBAs and overview of changes (e.g. sectors, types, and quality of PBAs in focus countries).
  • Percentage of development assistance disbursed via PBAs.
  • Share of funding under PBAs.
  • Other budget support (non- PBA).
  • Other pooled support (non-PBA).
  • Each branch of CIDA will determine where PBAs are most effective, concentrating on the poorest countries (e.g. in Africa, by 2005, approximately 75 percent of incremental, new resources will be channelled through direct budget support, SWAps, and common funds).
  • Develop a coding scheme for PBAs, budget support, and pooled funding.
  • Develop sound risk-management strategies for PBAs (including risk assessment, monitoring, and mitigation).
  • CIDA will reorient programming in the poorest countries toward new approaches based on the principles of effective development. Over time, resources in these countries (of focus) will be well above threshold levels of funding for effective participation in programmatic approaches to development assistance.
  • CIDA will continue to develop a portfolio of initiatives that reflect effectiveness principles, which will be used to inform and shape the future work of CIDA so that best practices are more firmly integrated across the breadth of the Agency's work.
  • CIDA will move from relatively small projects in agriculture to much larger ones. Progressively, the Agency will move to a more programmed approach as it adapts to these new modalities and gains experience with them.
  • CIDA's voluntary sector partners, with their local counterparts, will continue to play a role in programmatic approaches, particularly as implementing agencies or monitoring bodies.
Priority
E.1.4 Policy-based programming and increased policy coherence between CIDA and its partners.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Assessment of policy coherence with other government departments which manage non-aid policies including, but not limited to, international trade, environment, agriculture, security, health, and immigration.
  • Number and scope of specific initiatives to be undertaken.
  • Proportion of CDPFs in which other government departments have been involved (also consult M.3.1).
  • CIDA's sectoral policies are developed in consultation with other government departments.
  • Other government departments have greater involvement in the planning of CIDA's country programming (e.g. through CDPFs).
  • CIDA will continue to assess opportunities to improve policy coherence in the Government of Canada's policies affecting developing countries and work with other government agencies toward this end. These policies include, but are not limited to, international trade, environment, agriculture, security, health, and immigration. For example:
    • CIDA will contribute to the development of a more effective approach to security and development, across the Government of Canada, including continued support to and review of the efforts of Canadian police in developing countries to restore human security, social stability, and the rule of law;
    • CIDA will develop new and innovative approaches to working with fragile states in crisis, in the face of new global realities (e.g. by collaborating with partners such as DFAIT and IDRC); increase efforts to mainstream conflict-prevention/post-conflict reconciliation programming in the Agency and to strengthen the Agency's ability to deal with the root causes of conflicts, such as through strengthened capacity to analyse, design, and deliver conflict and post-conflict programming;
    • In concert with other government departments, CIDA will support the formulation of Canadian trade policy and negotiating positions to ensure that human development and poverty reduction objectives are incorporated into trade and investment negotiations to help realize the commitment made at Doha of launching a 'development round' of multilateral trade negotiations; and
    • CIDA, in consultation with other government departments, will update its Policy on Environmental Sustainability and develop a Policy Framework on Water and Sanitation, and a Sustainable Land Management Strategy.
  • CIDA will continue to share its knowledge of the volunteer and private sectors in order to add value to Government of Canada policies and CIDA's relationships with other government departments. CIDA will also continue to participate in the government-wide Voluntary Sector Initiative, which aims to establish more effective policy dialogue and funding relationships between the Government of Canada and Canadian voluntary sector organizations.
  • CIDA will participate in the Treasury Board's International Horizontal Review in 2004.
Priority
E.1.5 Facilitation of local ownership.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Number of CDPFs aligned with PRSPs or equivalents.
  • Extent and assessment of involvement with PRSPs or equivalents in partner countries or with partner institutions.
  • Extent and assessment of support directed at partner countries to increase capacity in local ownership.
  • Assessment of CIDA's efforts to achieve better co-ordination with other donors.
  • Assessment of explicit efforts to address local capacity-development issues under PBAs.
  • Proportion of funding going to capacity-building projects.
  • CDPFs are aligned with PRSPs or equivalent wherever possible (this may exclude fragile states, countries in crisis, etc.)
  • CIDA will develop an approach which will prioritize responsive programming that is supportive of nationally owned poverty-reduction strategies.
  • CIDA will firmly situate its country programming orientations within the locally owned frameworks identified by developing countries, particularly through the PRSP process, where CIDA is satisfied that this process involves a legitimate participatory approach. Alternative approaches will be developed for fragile states, countries in crisis, etc.
  • CIDA will redouble its efforts to achieve better coordination with other donors, including through improved harmonization of donor practices and procedures.
  • Voluntary sector partners have an important role to play in promoting local ownership by supporting participatory processes that engage civil society. This is essential for establishing clear, locally owned priorities for development cooperation.
Priority
E.1.6 Greater untying of Canadian aid.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Percentage of tied and untied aid (current and planned).
  • Monitor and report yearly on progress on untying aid.
  • In 2004, establish and publicize numerical targets for untying aid in the future.
  • CIDA clearly demonstrates progress in untying aid by the time of the next OECD-DAC Peer Review in 2006.
  • Strict application of the DAC recommendation on untying of ODA to LDCs.
  • More PBAs and more projects open to utilize capacities and resources from developing countries.
  • CIDA will enable the increased transfer of procurement responsibilities to its recipient countries.
E2. Appropriate Sectoral and Thematic Focus
Priority
E.2.1 Increased focus on the SDPs of basic education, HIV/AIDS, child protection, and health and nutrition.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Program disbursements in each of the SDPs
  • Quadruple CIDA's investment in basic education, HIV/AIDS and child protection, and double investments in health and nutrition (2000-2005).
  • Meet the G8 Kananaskis Education for All objective in Africa by 2005
  • CIDA, in collaboration with its partners, will meet its commitment for increased resources to the four SDPs of health and nutrition, HIV/AIDS, basic education, and child protection, with gender equality as a crosscutting theme, with the objective of quadrupling its overall investments in most of these areas over a five-year period (2000-2005).
Priority
E.2.2 Increased focus on economic development priorities, including agriculture/rural development and private sector development.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Number of sectors in which programs are involved.
  • Percentage of program disbursements by key sector, including agriculture/rural development and private sector development.
  • Extent and assessment of the integration of gender equality in policies and programming (using the Gender Equality Performance Assessment Framework).
  • Increase CIDA's investment in agriculture fivefold (from $95 million to $500 million) between 2002-2003 and 2007-2008.
  • Reduce the number of sectors in which CIDA is involved in each developing country.
  • CIDA, in collaboration with its partners, will implement its 2003 policy on agriculture/rural development.
  • CIDA, in collaboration with its partners, will implement its 2003 policy on private sector development.
  • Canadian partners will continue to carry out training and capacity-building activities with their local counterparts. An increased emphasis will be placed on sectors in which Canadians have a comparative advantage (e.g. good governance, peacebuilding, security, social development, gender equality, and environmental management). CIDA will also explore options for supporting local, private sector capacity-building initiatives that focus on institutional strengthening.
E3. Appropriate Geographic Focus
Priority
E.3.1 Enhanced CIDA presence in a smaller number of countries and institutions.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Percentage of CIDA's overall program disbursements in the nine focus countries.
  • Value and percentage of program disbursements in Africa.
  • Current and planned number of programming countries and/or institutions or partners with whom CIDA works.
  • CIDA increasingly concentrates its resources in fewer countries. These countries will have a high level of poverty and a commitment to development effectiveness, as evidenced through efforts to improve governance and make effective use of aid monies.
  • 50 percent of CIDA's new resources will be dedicated to Africa (excluding the Canada Fund for Africa).
  • the end of 2005, 60 percent of CIDA's bilateral programming in Africa will be concentrated in 10 countries (reduced from the current 15). Average monetary ceilings will more than triple, from $14 million to $54 million.
  • CIDA will increasingly concentrate its resources in a limited number of the world's poorest countries. Special consideration may be given to countries with the potential to exercise regional leadership.
  • CIDA will establish a strategic focus on Africa, with an increased emphasis on governance and security.
  • Renewed partnerships with the Canadian volunteer and private sectors will help tailor partnership approaches to country situations by being responsive to the different levels of social, economic, and political development in particular countries.
Priority
E.3.2 Graduation of maturing countries.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Number of countries that CIDA will graduate in proportion to total number of countries where CIDA is active.
  • CIDA expects to end its programming in eight CEE countries in 2005.
  • CIDA will end its bilateral programming in Thailand and Malaysia, starting in 2003-2004.
  • Eight countries in CEE will become E.U. members in 2004, and two countries in Asia (Malaysia and Thailand) will graduate starting in 2004. CIDA will assist these countries in their transition from recipients of aid to donors and equal partners.
  • CIDA will develop a corporate strategy to guide the graduation of additional countries over the next few years (to 2010).
  • Countries that are graduating from a bilateral aid relationship with CIDA may look favourably upon continued partnerships with groups such as Canadian educational institutions and private sector companies. Preparing a menu of graduation options, including a phased approach to graduation from an aid relationship, may help maintain Canadian visibility and linkages.
E4. Engaged Canadians
Priority
E.4.1 Improved perception of the value, efficiency, and effectiveness of the ODA and OA programs.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Interest and receptivity of government decision makers to CIDA activities.
  • Results of public opinion polls on the value, efficiency, and effectiveness of Canada's foreign aid.
  • Reach and results of CIDA's public engagement and education projects, particularly among youth.
  • Reach and results of consultations with Canadians.
  • Government decision makers more informed and supportive of CIDA activities.
  • Greater volume of and more positive media coverage.
  • Public opinion polls show improved perception over previous years.
  • Improved reach and results for CIDA's public engagement and education projects over time.
  • Broader range of Canadians involved in consultations
  • CIDA will promote greater public understanding and support for development issues.
  • CIDA will fund an increased number of public education projects to reach a larger audience, especially among youth.
  • CIDA will provide timely, accurate information to the media and other interested parties about CIDA's activities and international development issues of the day.
  • CIDA will work more collaboratively with other internationally engaged government departments to promote greater public understanding of and support for international development issues.
  • CIDA's renewed Corporate Communications Strategy will guide all communications and public engagement strategies and plans.
Priority
E.4.2 Strategic collaboration between CIDA and partners to engage the Canadian public, particularly youth, in development.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Closer collaboration between CIDA and partners, especially those working with youth, in pursuit of common public-engagement objectives.
  • Size and scope of contributions of Canadian networks, knowledge, and funds to international development initiatives.
  • An increased number of Canadian youth have opportunities to become better informed and involved.
  • Increased public-engagement coherence, mutually reinforcing efforts in pursuit of common objectives.
  • Improved reach and results for CIDA's public-engagement and education projects over time.
  • Canadian partners' leverage of Canadian networks, knowledge, and funds will remain stable or increase.
  • Increased number of youth participate in the butterfly 208 program.
  • The number of submissions to the Global Classroom Initiative (Development Information Program) from NGOs, schools, and school boards continues to grow.
  • In consultation with partners, CIDA will develop and resource a renewed strategy for public engagement through partners, to guide CIDA's strategic collaboration with partners in improving support for Canada's aid program. CIDA's partners can effectively mobilize public and media support through their work with volunteers (in Canada and overseas), youth interns, and local communities. CIDA will continue to encourage partners to involve youth in public-engagement initiatives. Likewise, CIDA's Youth Action Program will continue to encourage the participation of youth in international development, and will continue to collaborate with partners and youth interns to improve the effectiveness of outreach activities. CIDA's regional offices will play a major role in this effort to engage Canadians.
  • The Global Classroom Initiative will offer a greater number of teachers the knowledge and tools to incorporate international development into curricula.
  • The butterfly 208 program will directly provide youth with tools and incentives that lead to active support for Canada's development efforts.
  • CIDA will continue to support the programming and policy contributions of the Canadian voluntary sector engaged in humanitarian assistance, peace building and demining activities in countries suffering from natural disasters and/or conflict.
E5.Institutional Strengthening of CIDA's Partners
Priority
E.5.1 Enhance the capacity and effectiveness of CIDA's partner institutions.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Results of multi-donor assessments of performance of multilateral institutions.
  • Results of institutional assessments and program evaluations of Canadian partners.
  • CIDA will increase support to the strengthening of the multilateral development and humanitarian system.
  • CIDA will continue to ensure that Canadian partners have the capacity to manage aid effectively and to align their programming with CIDA's strategic objectives.
  • CIDA will help ensure that multilateral institutions are more effective and efficient through funding and influence (e.g. UN development organizations, Bretton Woods Institutions, and the Commonwealth).
  • CIDA will develop institutional development planning frameworks with several key partners, including the Asian Development Bank, the UNDP, UNICEF, UNHCR, and UNAIDS.
  • CIDA will work to improve donor cooperation on monitoring of multilateral institutions, including both UN and Bretton Woods Institutions, by participating with likeminded donors in the Multilateral Organizations Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN).
  • Capacity-development initiatives for effectiveness of regional and national institutions dealing with such issues as agriculture, private sector development, water, land, regulatory affairs, financial stability, legal and judicial reform, economic development, social development (including health, education and child protection), trade, human rights, gender equality, indigenous peoples, resource management, conflict resolution, and security sector reforms.
  • Enhancing research and policy development capacity of partner institutions to address crosscutting issues such as gender equality and environmental sustainability, and to integrate them in national planning, budgeting, and allocation exercises.
  • CIDA will continue to help Canadian partners to improve their capacity to: share knowledge; engage in policy dialogue; integrate gender equality in their programming; ensure environmental sustainability in their programming; and make effective use of RBM.


6.3 Management Results

M1. People Management
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
Priority
M.1.1 Resourcing for a renewed, sustained, and representative workforce.
  • Level of progress in all branches in the areas of renewal and representativeness of CIDA's workforce (including official languages). Measurement tools include demographic profile and EE data analysis, and PS survey.
In all CIDA branches:
  • maintain or increase external recruitment (new Development Officers, assignments, etc.) while ensuring CIDA staff have opportunities for career advancement;
  • maintain progress toward the achievement of EE representation of all four designated groups, with focus on occupational groups where under-representation is observable; and
  • maintain progress toward ensuring mutual respect of employees at all levels regarding the use of official languages in the workplace.
  • CIDA's Strategy for Managing its People 2001-2004, the EE Action Plan 2002-2005, and the Official Languages Act, will continue to guide HR planning and resourcing activities. CIDA's Strategy for Managing its People will be updated and released in 2004. The proposed legislation on HR modernization will also guide the Agency's HR-related activities.
Priority
M.1.2 Development and training for a highly qualified workforce.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Level of relevance and investment (time and money) in the development and training of all employees. Measurement tools include Learning Annual Report and budget allocated for development and training.
In all CIDA branches:
  • invest time and money related to development and training for all CIDA employees;
  • individual learning plans are available to all employees who have requested them;
  • discussion and preparation of learning plans are integrated in the performance feedback cycle; and
  • in consultation with stakeholders, corporate training is developed according to current and future organizational requirements and vision.
  • CIDA's Strategy for Managing its People 2001-2004 and the Continuous Learning Policy will continue to guide HR planning and learning activities. CIDA's Strategy for Managing its People will be updated and released in 2004. The proposed legislation on HR modernization will also guide the Agency's HR-related activities.
Priority
M.1.3 Retention increased through workforce well-being.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Satisfactory workplace environment (work/life balance, anti-harassment and anti-discrimination, career development, learning environment, fairness, supportive supervision, and accommodations). Measurement tools include PS survey and reports on counselling services, ombudsman, labour relations, policies and regulations governing health, safety, and security, etc.
  • Departures not linked to wellbeing of organization (e.g. exit interviews, demographic profile, etc.).
In all CIDA branches:
  • Increased employee satisfaction with workplace environment:
    • promotion and provision of harassment- and discrimination- free environment;
    • sustained support of PS values and ethics;
    • increasing health, safety, and security awareness by CIDA workforce and management accountability;
    • ergonomics standards met and optimal space allocation including repatriation of HQ staff to one location;
    • enhanced dialogue between supervisors and employees;
    • promotion of work/life balance.
  • Reduction in number of employees leaving the Agency because of issues of well-being.
  • CIDA's Strategy for Managing its People 2001-2004, the Code of Values and Ethics, and the guidelines on the prevention and resolution of harassment in the workplace, will continue to guide HR planning and retention activities as well as promotion of workplace well-being. CIDA's Strategy for Managing its People will be updated and released in 2004. The proposed legislation on HR modernization will also guide the Agency's-HR related activities.
  • Develop, update, and publish policies and programs related to health, safety, and security.
  • Well-being of employees enhanced through ergonomics and optimal space allocation.
Priority
M.1.4 Enhanced field presence where necessary.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Extent of decentralization of responsibilities and decision making.
  • Better matching of skill sets with field requirements.
  • Resourcing matched to needs.
  • CIDA will enhance its field presence where necessary in countries selected for enhanced partnerships so that it can effectively deliver new program approaches.
  • Strengthen management of CIDA's field presence, both in missions and program support units.
  • Deepen collaboration in the field with other donors and multilateral organizations.
  • Improve communications, collaboration, and coordination between CIDA field offices and various delivery channels and branches at CIDA HQ.
  • New delivery agreement between CIDA and DFAIT for corporate services overseas, with performance standards.
  • Undertake corporate review of enhanced field presence issues.
  • Negotiate a new MOU with DFAIT covering costs and standards for corporate services for CIDA field offices.
  • Participate in Treasury Board's review of Canadian representation overseas.
  • Review management and risk issues related to CIDA's program-support units.
M2. Knowledge and IM/IT
Priority
M.2.1 IM/IT approaches and systems support achievement of Agency priorities, effective interaction with partners, and public information needs.
  • IM: Progress in managing information effectively and efficiently, in support of service delivery, government accountability, public trust, and the preservation of the national historical record, as it relates to the federal Management of Government Information policy.
  • IT: Automated systems and tools are developed in response to Agency requirements to support Knowledge management (M.2.2), Strategic planning and resource allocation (M3), and Management processes, approaches, and support activities (M.4).
  • Infrastructure: Access and connectivity to CIDA's corporate technical infrastructure is available to authorized personnel.
  • The Agency will develop and begin implementation of an IM Action Plan, based on the IM Capacity Check results, by early 2004.
  • All CIDA branches will have adopted the functional organization structure consistent with the Branch Information Offices model, by 2006.
  • The Enterprise Document and Records Management System pilot will be implemented in 2005, testing system functionality and work processes.
  • The initial deployment, in 2004, of e-business functionality through two pilot projects.
  • The IT infrastructure is maintained at 98 percent availability.
  • The Agency has a secure technological environment.
  • An IM Action Plan will be developed resulting from the IM Capacity Check undertaken in 2003-2004.
  • The Branch Information Offices are being structured to provide centres of IM skill and knowledge, while providing a career path for IM personnel.
  • CIDA is developing an Enterprise Document Records Management System for the life-cycle management of documents and records.
  • CIDA's e-business initiative is creating web-based program delivery tools, including project management functionality and information and knowledge sharing at the project and program levels.
  • Increased security measures through installation of best tools and practices to protect CIDA's informatics environment.
Priority
M.2.2 Knowledge management: CIDA staff have ready access to the expertise and knowledge they need to continuously make improvements in Agency programs and policies. This expertise and learning is shared widely with external partners and continuously stimulates improvements in Agency programs and policies.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
Knowledge Management Action Plan 2002-2005:
  • Leadership: Perception of staff with respect to the time allocated by supervisors and managers to knowledge-sharing activities and training related to knowledge sharing.
  • HR: Extent to which knowledge-sharing behaviour and competency are used as criteria for promotion, redeployment, overseas postings, and recruitment.
  • Innovation: The quality and usage of the methods and tools being tested and the impact of these on the ability of staff to share their knowledge.
  • Integration: Number, type, and quality of systems, processes and tools that have been integrated in Agency corporate systems, and their level of use.
Knowledge Management Action Plan 2002-2005:
  • Leadership: Managers and supervisors will actively encourage and promote sound knowledge sharing among their staff.
  • HR: By June 2005, all promotion and recruitment exercises will include knowledge sharing as a key competency.
  • Innovation: A number of pilots will have been developed, tested, and evaluated by June 2005.
  • Integration: All pilots that have proven to be useful knowledge-sharing tools will have been integrated in Agency-wide systems. All those that proved to be less than useful will be discontinued by June 2005.
Knowledge Management Action Plan 2002-2005:
  • Leadership: The demonstration and promotion of sound knowledge-sharing practices by CIDA supervisors and managers.
  • HR: HR practices change to support and reward employees for knowledge-management competencies and behaviour.
  • Innovation: Tools and methods to bring about a change toward knowledge sharing and collaboration in the working culture of staff are developed and piloted.
  • Integration: Tested and proven knowledge-sharing and collaboration tools and methods are integrated in Agency business processes.
M3. Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation
Priority
M.3.1 Strategic alignment of planning priorities, reporting, and resource allocation.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Improvements in the IAE allocation-management process with other government departments.
  • Extent to which financial and non-financial performance information is integrated for corporate decision making.
  • Strategic allocation of incremental new resources.
  • More rigorous process for allocating CIDA's operating budget.
  • Reduction in the overall operating costs as a percentage of program budget.
  • Greater coherence and interdepartmental collaboration in the management of the IAE
  • Integrated financial and non-financial performance information used in corporate decision making.
  • Improved alignment of corporate and program policies and priorities with aid and operating budgets and the cost of delivering programs.
  • Improved ability to measure, report, and make decisions on operating budget allocations.
  • Preparation, by end of 2004, of a long-term business plan for operating expenditures.
  • A new framework for the management of the IAE is being put in place, in consultation with other government departments.
  • New systems in place for management to use integrated financial and non-financial performance information.
  • CIDA will continue to strengthen the corporate planning, budgeting, and reporting process to ensure implementation of a rigorous budgetary and resource-allocation process (e.g. integrated financial and non-financial information).
  • Costed work plans introduced for two-year forward planning.
  • Detailed long-term business plan for containment of operating expenses, including comparisons with other donors.
M4. Management, Processes, Approaches,
and Support Activities
Priority
M.4.1 Strengthening of a continual improvement management approach (e.g. IMM).
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Progress in the development and implementation of measures to address gaps in the Agency's management practices.
  • Ongoing, improved, and better integrated management practices.
  • Progress in using assurance information for decision making and accountability purposes.
  • IMM Action Plan completed in 2003-2004 and updated on a yearly basis.
  • IMM Progress Report produced twice each year.
  • Completion of approved audit plan.
  • Tools for management/audit to establish criteria for self-evaluation or audit-based assessment.
  • CIDA's Integrated Management Action Plan will be developed in 2003-04.
  • Implementation of audit recommendations in management action plans.
  • Develop RBAFs for various programs and self-assessment audit guides.
  • Strengthened audit and evaluation functions and committee processes.
Priority
M.4.2 Transparent, consistent, and cost-effective business processes and operations.
Indicators/measures Targets Examples of initiatives at country, regional, and institutional levels
  • Number of process steps (contractual, financial, and operational) reduced or eliminated.
  • Number of staff receiving training and/or familiarization sessions with respect to the application of CIDA's business delivery models.
  • Number of program delivery units benchmarking existing practices to generic process models.
  • Reduction of existing process variants for program delivery to a more manageable number (from 34 to three).
  • Generic business process models are defined for ODA and OA program delivery.
  • An Agency-wide guide to the program delivery models is developed and implemented.
  • All program delivery staff exposed to generic business models and supporting tools.
  • Current program delivery methodologies are reviewed and revised in relation to generic models.
  • Standardized contracting documents and guides available, including the need to address anti-corruption clauses.
  • Financial and contracting service standards developed, applied, and monitored.
  • Support the implementation of untied aid.
  • Articulation and implementation of three generic models for program delivery (core funding, responsive programming, and directive programming).
  • Development and implementation of an Agency-level business process "RoadMap" for ODA and OA program delivery.
  • Information sessions, coaching, and support provided to program staff.
  • Support provided to program delivery units in benchmarking and rationalizing current mechanisms against generic models.
  • Continue to increase effectiveness, efficiency, transparency, and simplicity of corporate service functions.
  • Publication of a Guide to Transfer Procurement to Recipient Countries.
Priority
M.4.3 The greening of CIDA: improved practice of stewardship and conservation in Canada and abroad.
  • Extent (percentage) of compliance with the CEAA and the SEA.
  • CIDA HQ operations: Extent of compliance with the Environmental Policy on CIDA's Internal Operations.
  • 100 percent compliance with CEAA and SEA.
  • CIDA HQ operations: Reduce the environmental impact of CIDA's HQ operations by maintaining at least 70 percent or more of solid-waste recycling and maintaining the 75 percent usage of alternative fuel in CIDA vehicles.
  • Continued compliance of CIDA's programming with the CEAA and the SEA.
  • CIDA HQ operations:
    • continue to develop the Environmental Management System (EMS) related to internal greening and implement the Agency's Action Plan;
    • develop/modify strategies and action plans to increase solid-waste recycling and assist Agency personnel in green purchasing; and
    • explore options to deliver training of the best practices in greening CIDA
Priority
M.4.4 CIDA's management and administrative activities support the objectives of international development assistance.
  • Key products and services.
  • Key contributions and main requirements.
  • Ongoing services in the areas of contracts, finance, HR, and administration.
  • Provision of quality services, advice, and tools to facilitate and support Agency objectives.
  • Improvement of Agency's normative environment (guidelines, policies and practices) pertaining to activities, programs, and products delivered by corporate services sectors.


M1. People Management

7. Measuring and Reporting on CIDA's Third Sustainable Development Strategy

7.1 CIDA's approach to performance measurement

CIDA is accountable to the Government of Canada, to Canadians, and to its partner countries and institutions for the resources it uses and the results it obtains. As a Canadian government agency, CIDA manages according to Government of Canada requirements for results-based management(RBM), in keeping with the principles of modern comptrollership. In the delivery of its programs, the Agency focuses on the achievement of results, and aims to demonstrate discipline, due diligence, and value for money in the use of public funds.

The core of CIDA's accountability framework with Canadians-its Results-Based Management and Accountability Framework (RMAF)-is the Key Agency Results (KARs) (consult Chapter 4). An important aspect of the RMAFis the recognition that CIDA shares accountability with developing countries and the rest of the global development community for the achievement of development results, just as CIDA is jointly accountable with developing countries and many other development agencies for progress on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Development results are achieved in partnership with others, and CIDA's accountability regime recognizes this fact. The RMAFalso recognizes the program level (e.g. country, regional, or institutional) as a critical "unit of measurement" for CIDA, in addition to the project level, as in the past. CIDA is, however, accountable for the achievement of the Enabling and Management Results employed to achieve Development Results.

The concepts of joint responsibility and accountability for development results are well-illustrated in the new program-based approaches (PBAs), which involve multi-donor funding of programs led by developing countries. These approaches include joint implementation, monitoring, and evaluation, making it difficult to attribute program results to any single donor. However, an individual donor, such as CIDA, remains responsible for its contribution to programming in a given country. This includes, for example, its decision to support a program-based approach, the choice of financial instruments, its contribution to the strengthening of local capacity, ownership, control, and accountability to local stakeholders, its contribution to policy dialogue, the harmonization of its procedures with those of other funding agencies or the host government, and its assessment of whether a program-based approach is achieving its objectives.

As part of its accountability framework, CIDA employs three distinct, complementary internal review functions for overall performance management and reporting to Canadians: performance measurement, evaluations, and internal audits. These reviews involve both CIDA and its Canadian and international partners as a matter of course. They help the Agency meet its mandate and objectives, demonstrate achievements to Canadians, and continue learning and improving. In addition to these internal reviews, there are periodic independent Agency-level reviews conducted by external bodies such as the Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Once every four years, the DAC undertakes peer reviews of its members' Official Development Assistance (ODA) programs. Canada's ODA program underwent such a peer review in 2002. CIDA will reinforce its efforts to ensure that the results from all reviews are fed into the development and management of future programming strategies.

7.1.1 Performance measurement

Performance measurement, which includes ongoing monitoring and other forms of self-assessment undertaken by line managers, is a vital component of the RBM approach. This kind of measurement focuses on tracking financial and non-financial resources, risks, and progress made toward intended results. It enables CIDA to better measure and assess its development interventions from a country perspective, foster dialogue among all stakeholders on intended results, and enhance decision making and results reporting.

CIDA has traditionally had strong performance measurement mechanisms at the project level. An elaborate monitoring and reporting system is already in place as part of the Agency's RBM approach. Over the next three years, CIDA will continue to improve its project-level performance measurement, while broadening its focus to the program level, and building the linkages between results at the project, program, and Agency levels. A new program-level performance measurement framework (PMF) was introduced in 2003. As part of program planning in a given partner country or institution, CIDA will use the PMF to identify results statements, monitoring targets, and core indicators consistent with a partner country's Poverty Reduction Strategy, National Development Plan, or equivalent, wherever possible. The PMF will facilitate the tracking and aggregation of project and non-project information and help capture the full range of CIDA's interventions in a given country. Yearly program progress reports will also be required, based on results tracked through the PMF. Use of PMFs will allow CIDA to better capture, over time, progress toward program results and facilitate tracking and the contribution of such results to the broader Agency results and to the MDGs. The issues and results to be included in the program-level PMFs are consistent with the core issues to be covered in evaluations (consult Section 7.1.2), and the program-level PMFs will provide a solid performance basis or benchmark to support further program-level evaluation and audit work.

7.1.2 Evaluations

CIDA conducts evaluations of its projects and programs with partners to ensure both transparency and ownership, and with other donors to learn and share lessons. The driving force behind evaluations at CIDA is learning-about the results and benefits that are being achieved by programs, how these results and benefits are contributing to the Agency's overall goals and objectives, and why initiatives have, or have not, been successful. The evaluation process is also one of the management practices in place at CIDA, which leads to continuous improvement within the Agency.

CIDA's evaluation approach is also broadening its focus from the project level to the program level. This means evaluating the results CIDA is achieving at the country level and the institutional level, focusing on a few countries and institutions (Canadian and international partners) each year. More broadly, it also means evaluating the contribution CIDA is making to development in a country. This shift will involve working more closely in partnership with recipient countries and other donor agencies on joint evaluations. This will also enable CIDA to continue to play a constructive role in orienting the direction of strategic and large-scale evaluations, overseeing the quality of the evaluation and its products, and building valuable relationships with other donor agencies.

7.1.3 Internal audits

Internal auditing provides assurances of the soundness of risk management9, management controls, and information for decision making/reporting, thereby contributing to the Agency's continuous improvement of programs, successful delivery of services, and accountability for results. In the context of Integrated Modern Management (IMM), the internal audit function is focused on influencing the quality of financial and non-financial performance information to improve the Agency's risk-management processes and systems. In addition, the internal audit function promotes advances in governance and accountability. Internal audits also focus on the program-based approach because it is reflective of international trends, consistent with the way in which CIDA's branches plan their activities, and more adaptive to a hybrid or matrix approach which allows for a focus on high-risk programming priorities and high-risk funding mechanisms. In addition, the program-based approach makes it possible to conduct an audit and an evaluation at the same time.

Where programs are based on partnerships, multilateral cooperation, or CIDA's corporate operations, a more traditional or "functional'' audit approach is considered to be most appropriate. In addition, where significant risks are identified at the project or initiative level, internal auditing provides support to management to help mitigate these risks.


7.2 How CIDA will report on progress in implementing its third Sustainable Development Strategy

CIDA's third Sustainable Development Strategy is built on the Agency's planning, resourcing, and reporting architecture: KARs. CIDA will, therefore, report on SDS 2004-2006 progress annually through the Departmental Performance Report, based on performance information gathered using the mechanisms described above (performance measurement, evaluations, and audits). However, SDS 2004-2006 introduces a number of targets and indicators to improve CIDA's performance management and reporting on sustainable development, some of which require the development of new information systems to track performance. These new performance measures are described as
follows:

7.3 Development Results

The measurement of Development Results presents a number of challenges. First, development impacts can only be measured within a longer time frame (at least 5-10 years). Second, CIDA shares accountability for the achievement of Development Results with many others in the international development community, including developing country partners, international organizations, other donors, and CIDA's Canadian partners in government, civil society, and the private sector.

CIDA has, therefore, included a menu of internationally accepted, macro-level indicators of development (including appropriate MDG indicators) at the country/regional/institutional level for each Development Result area (consult Section 6.1). The selected indicators are intended to demonstrate progress toward the achievement of the stated development outcomes for each result area. The information sources for these indicators are mainly from international agencies and the countries themselves rather than internally generated by CIDA. In measuring results such as increases in enrolment rates or decreases in the incidence of disease, for example, CIDA uses a number of well-established sources, including UN bodies such as the UNDP, UNICEF, and the World Health Organization (WHO), or international financial institutions (IFIs) such as regional development banks. This approach is consistent with measuring progress toward the attainment of the MDGs.

The new country/program-level PMF (consult Section 7.1.1) will include some of these development indicators, depending on the sector and nature of CIDA's programming. Increased emphasis on joint programming by donors, such as pooled funding or budget support, will facilitate the selection among donors of common indicators of development results.

It also needs to be recognized that CIDA's Development Results are closely linked to and rely on its Enabling and Management Results. For example, demonstrating progress against Development KAR 2 (social development) depends, in part, on achieving progress on Enabling KAR 2.1 (increased focus on the social development priorities) and Management KAR 3.1 (strategic alignment of planning priorities, reporting, and resource allocation).

7.4 Enabling Results

CIDA is accountable for the achievement of its Enabling Results, which in turn contribute to the realization of Development Results. CIDA has control over its programming orientation and strategies it selects to improve development effectiveness, as well as the management approaches it pursues. Enabling Results are more possible and demonstrable than Development Results in the shorter term.

The Action Plan sets out a number of performance targets and indicators for the achievement of Enabling Results which reflect the Agency's capacity to deliver sound development programming, to improve the effectiveness of its programs, and to improve policy coherence (consult Chapter 6). The achievement of these targets will be particularly critical to the successful implementation of SAE. These targets and indicators have the following characteristics:

  • They are based on CIDA inputs and activities;

  • They represent a change in state or behaviour and allow CIDA's commitment to SDS 2004-2006 to be assessed;

  • They are scoped to reflect what is realistically attainable within the time frame of SDS 2004-2006;

  • They contain elements that are both quantitative and qualitative; and

  • They provide milestones for clear deliverables. Examples of targets include:

  • Financial targets for increasing CIDA's investments in the Social Development Priorities, agriculture and Africa;

  • Numerical targets for increasing country concentration in Africa;

  • Targets for greater alignment of programming with Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and National Development Plans;

  • Plans for greater involvement with other government departments; and

  • More qualitative targets for the selection of appropriate programming orientation, given the wide range of developing countries in which CIDA works.


Effort and progress made by CIDA to support implementation of the international harmonization and alignment agenda will also be assessed through self-reporting on implementation of CIDA's Action Plan to Promote Harmonization and the next DAC Peer Review of Canada's aid program in 2006. In some cases, new information systems or data-collection mechanisms will need to be established to collect the required data, such as the number of new PBAs.


7.5 Management Results

Like Enabling Results, which are internal to the Agency, CIDA is also fully accountable for the achievement of its Management Results, which in turn contribute to the realization of Development Results. CIDA has full control over the management approaches it pursues. Results are possible and demonstrable in the shorter term.

The targets and indicators for the Management Results have many of the same characteristics as those for the Enabling Results (consult Section 7.4). Many of the targets relate to the development, monitoring, and implementation of Agency Action Plans in areas including: people management, information and technology, and knowledge management. Others are linked to CIDA's compliance with legislation such as the Employment Equity Act and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. A critical target under Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation will be to achieve greater coherence and interdepartmental collaboration in the management of the International Assistance Envelope (IAE). The development of CIDA's Integrated Management Action Plan will build on these Management Results, including targets and indicators, linking it to Treasury Board Secretariat's 2003 Management Accountability Framework.

CIDA will continue to consolidate lessons and use findings to improve program design and delivery, contributing to both Enabling and Management Results.

Since the publication of CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2001-2003: An Agenda for Change, the Agency has made significant progress against its objectives. Below is a summary of CIDA's achievements, current to October 2003. For further information, consult Highlights of Progress in the Implementation of CIDA's Second Sustainable Development Strategy, February 2001- January 2003, available on CIDA's website.



Annex A: Summary of progress against the objectives of CIDA's second Sustainable Development Strategy

Policy/Program Objectives


Objective 1: Reinforce CIDA's capacity to contribute to equitable and environmentally sustainable growth in developing countries and countries in transition (CITs) that strengthens the economic, political, and socio-cultural capabilities of women and men, girls and boys.

CIDA fully implemented its strategy of conducting a long-term review of key policy, program, and institutional changes needed to meet the development challenges of the 21st century. On September 24, 2002, the Minister for International Cooperation launched Canada Making a Difference in the World: A Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness10.This landmark policy statement, developed after extensive public consultations, outlines CIDA's plans to implement the principles of effective development and to change the way the Agency works. Many of these commitments are already being implemented and are reflected in SDS 2004-2006, along with appropriate indicators.

CIDA learned from a peer review of its performance. In 2002, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) reviewed the Canadian development assistance program. The Peer Review Team broadly supported Canada's plans to increase Official Development Assistance (ODA) volume, liberalize trade, untie aid, and implement the aid-effectiveness principles-all of which are being done. Canada was also encouraged to improve policy coherence for development including analysis of impact of non-aid policies and to better engage Canadians, although as these issues cut across departments, progress will be more gradual than immediate. The Peer Review Team also cautioned CIDA about higher administration costs in comparison with other donors and a need to review the role of Canadian partners in Canada's aid program. CIDA is currently addressing both issues.

Objective 2: Improve programming approaches for poverty reduction as a concrete expression of Canada's commitment to the developing world's fundamental preoccupation.

The Social Development Priorities (SDPs) were translated into achievable action plans. In 2000, CIDA identified four SDPs-basic education, basic health and nutrition, HIV/AIDS, and child protection, with gender equality as an integral part of these priority areas-and pledged to double its investments in these areas. Action plans for each of the priority areas were completed by June 2002 and are currently being implemented. The financial targets set in 2000 for increased programming investment have been met, with the exception of HIV/AIDS. Key achievements in the implementation of these plans include:

  • support to the primary education development program in Tanzania, resulting in an increase in enrolment of more than 45 percent, construction of 16,000 classrooms and recruitment of more than 7,000 teachers;
  • saving of more than half a million children's lives over the last five years thanks to the Canadian International Immunization Initiative; and
  • being a key player in the establishment of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), which has mobilized more than $4.7 billion worldwide.

The table below details CIDA's progress on meeting its spending targets for the SDPs.


Table 6: Social Development Priorities spending from 2000 to 2003
  FY 2000-2001
($M)
FY 2001-2002
($M)
FY 2002-2003
($M)
Three-year
Cumulative ($M)
  Target Actual Target Actual Target Actual Target Actual
Basic health and
nutrition
182 220 203 248 248 217 633 685
(108.06%)
Basic education 49 52 82 81 110 105 241 238
(98.82%)
HIV/AIDS 22 28 36 37 62 43 120 108
(89.13%)
Child protection 10 23 18 32 27 27 55 82
(148.91%)
Integrated basic human needs 90 91 101 121 101 108 292 321
(109.47%)
Core UN SDP 26 43 26 27 32 29 84 99
(118.10%)
Totals 379 457 466 298 580 528 1,425 1,533
(107.36%)

Complementing social development with economic development. Sustainable poverty reduction is not possible without economic growth to create income-generating opportunities and finance social services for the poor. Because 75 percent of the world's poorest people live in rural areas and earn their living in agriculture, increased support in this sector will have a major impact on poverty reduction. In April 2003, CIDA released its new policy, Promoting Sustainable Rural Development Through Agriculture, following public consultations. The policy focuses on strengthening policies and competitiveness, creating new knowledge, enhancing food security, agricultural productivity and incomes, improving natural resource management, and developing healthy markets. In July 2003, CIDA released Expanding Opportunities Through Private Sector Development, a new policy statement focused on increasing incomes, creating more and better jobs, supporting sound and well-functioning markets, supporting the local business climate, and increasing participation in international markets. Public consultations also preceded the release of this policy statement. These policies are intended to help guide programming, as was the case for the SDPs and Action Plans.

Recognizing the need to focus its aid efforts geographically for greater impact, and to concentrate its resources in countries which are poor but committed to improved governance and effective use of funds, in late 2002, CIDA identified nine of the world's poorest countries11 in which it will focus more resources in the coming years. Six of these countries are in Africa, and are part of CIDA's efforts to increase the focus on Africa, the poorest continent. At the G8 Summit in Kananaskis in June 2002, the Prime Minister announced $6 billion in new and existing resources for Africa's development over five years, including the $500 million Canada Fund for Africa, Canada's contribution to the implementation of the G8 Africa Action Plan. This Fund is grounded in the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), a made-in-Africa plan based on equal relationships, determined by priorities identified by Africans them-selves, and that identifies good governance as a prerequisite for progress. By March 31, 2003, the Canada Fund for Africa had already delivered on its commitments and disbursed $70 million. At least half of the new funding announced for CIDA in the 2003 federal budget will be dedicated to Africa.

Aligning with locally owned poverty strategies. CIDA is increasingly situating its country programming orientations within the locally owned frameworks identified by developing countries, such as poverty reduction strategies promoted by the World Bank, and national development plans or the equivalent, where CIDA is satisfied that the development of these plans has involved a legitimate participatory approach and where such an approach is possible (this might exclude, for example, fragile states or countries in crisis).

Objective 3: Constructively engage developing countries and CITs in key global challenges-a clean environment, human rights and gender equality, economic prosperity, good health and education, and human security.

CIDA is working closely with its partners to help them improve their capacity to address global challenges. As the lead federal department on the implementation of the Convention to Combat Desertification, a key international agreement for a number of developing countries, CIDA is working closely with other government departments to identify ways in which Canada can help strengthen developing countries' capacity to implement multilateral agreements, while also meeting Canadian objectives for these agreements.

In addition to funding organizations such as the Global Environment Fund, CIDA supports the efforts of vulnerable communities to adapt to the impacts of climate change, through such initiatives as the Canada Climate Change Development Fund. CIDA also supports the efforts of developing countries to enter the global marketplace, especially through technical assistance to help them negotiate trade agreements more effectively and to develop appropriate national policies. Canada is the single-largest contributor to Caribbean countries in trade policy development and significant support has also been provided to African countries. As a recognized leader in the promotion of gender equality, CIDA continues to support the strengthening of women's organizations and networks. For example, in Pakistan, CIDA funding has enabled local groups to become more effective advocates and providers of essential services to women and men and to plan, manage and, in part, fund their own activities.

Objective 4: Strengthen CIDA's policy influence, in Canada and internationally, to bring perspectives gained from working with developing countries and CITs to bear on key global challenges.

Policy coherence and corresponding policy-based programming have become central elements of CIDA's new programming orientation. CIDA worked to ensure policy coherence, horizontal management of issues and related implementation matters across a range of policies within the federal government, including trade, agriculture, environment, and immigration. This ensures that the interests of developing countries are considered in the formulation of Canadian policy. For example, on January 1, 2003, Canada increased duty-free and quota-free access for most imports from least developed countries (LDCs). In the past few years, CIDA has increased its own capacity for policy analysis by developing new policy positions and recruiting expertise in new areas, including trade and development.

Supporting Team Canada: CIDA and policy positions on key issues CIDA is actively working toward the goals of the Doha Round of WTO trade talks. Among the objectives are to provide training and technical assistance to support developing country participation in trade negotiations, and discussions that include issues important to developing countries, such as agricultural subsidies and foreign investment. The Agency also played an important role in the Canadian position at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in September 2002, and is following up on commitments made there in a number of priority areas (consult Chapter 5).

Policy dialogue is becoming a major element of CIDA's assistance program with its partner countries and its partner institutions. This is linked to the increasing importance of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers, National Development Plans and sectoral plans (such as education or health) as the policy foundation for development cooperation. It also reflects the growing trend away from projects to more programmatic types of interventions that require donors to understand the full policy context in a given developing country and to work within this context with other donors. CIDA is also engaged in policy dialogue to help improve the focus, quality, and efficiency of multilateral institutions.

Objective 5: Establish CIDA as a leading sustainable development, knowledge-based, continuous-learning organization in Canada and internationally.

In 2000, CIDA put in place a Knowledge Management Initiative under the President's Office to make the changes necessary for its evolution into a knowledge-based organization. CIDA is currently implementing its Knowledge Management Action Plan (2002-2005), which is intended to result in sound knowledge-sharing practices, enhanced knowledge-management competencies, and improved business processes, tools, and systems. The Agency has introduced new mechanisms for learning, using and adapting lessons learned (such as the e-lessons learned database), knowledge fairs, and knowledge-sharing networks in various areas (such as gender equality, poverty reduction, capacity development, and program-based approaches (PBAs)). It has also improved access to this knowledge for both field personnel and development partners in Canada and abroad.

Objective 6: Build on and strengthen public understanding, support, and informed action by Canadians with respect to Canada's international development program.

Improved perception of the value, efficiency, and effectiveness of ODA and OA programs is an important part of the enabling environment for the delivery of Canadian assistance. Canadians believe in aid. In a March 2002 Environics poll, more than 85 percent of Canadians interviewed indicated their support for development and humanitarian assistance. However, this support is tempered by concerns about aid effectiveness and the lack of perceived relevance to Canadians. CIDA has renewed efforts to better inform Canadian citizens-especially young people-of the challenges associated with development cooperation. CIDA is revising its corporate Strategic Communications Framework, based on new polling data, gathered in the fall of 2003, which will guide the development of more specific plans to promote better understanding of and support for international development among Canadians.

Under the theme "Celebrating Canadians Making A Difference in the World," CIDA is localizing and putting a "human face" on international development issues, while promoting an aid-effectiveness message grounded in results. Another major initiative, the butterfly 208 contest, involves young people in an essay/art/web product competition to illustrate development themes. The winners will travel to a developing country to see Canada's programs in action. CIDA also provides support for the development awareness activities and products of broadcasters, educators, filmmakers, journalists, writers, and other media.

CIDA is also working more closely with its partners to raise awareness and encourage engagement of Canadians in development. CIDA's current Public Engagement Strategy and Action Plan is nearing completion and a new strategy, involving partners, is in development. This includes providing support for partners' development awareness activities and cooperating on joint projects. Finally, CIDA's youth internship program, and support for organizations with youth exchange programs, helps actively engage young people in development activities in Canada and abroad.


MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES

Objective 7: Strengthen Agency strategic planning and integrated decision-making.

In 2002, CIDA developed a Results-Based Management and Accountability Framework (RMAF), which integrates corporate planning, resourcing, and reporting. CIDA now plans and reports to Canadians using this framework, the core of which are the Key Agency Results (KARs). While KARs helped strengthen integrated planning at the corporate level, new guidelines for preparing results-based country development programming frameworks (CDPFs) helped to improve planning and reporting at the country or regional level. Since CIDA works in some of the highest-risk situations in the world, it is taking a more systematic approach to risk management through the development of an Integrated Risk Management Framework (see Section 3.3). This framework is designed to identify, prioritize, and mitigate risks at the corporate level, as well as international and country levels.

Objective 8: Strengthen accountability and align corporate services to achieve CIDA's sustainable development mandate.

CIDA continues to be considered a leader in the international donor community in Results-Based Management (RBM), including performance measurement. CIDA uses three internal review instruments as part of its overall performance management and reporting approach- performance measurement, evaluation, and internal audit (consult Chapter 7). Among recent initiatives are the development of an annual country report and the development of a performance measurement framework at the program and institutional levels, in addition to the project level, which will better link the two. In addition, a performance assessment framework for CIDA's Gender Equality Policy has been developed which may provide a model for addressing the implementation of other policies.

Work simplification continues. A review in 2001 of all 34 of CIDA's business processes led to the reduction in the number of processes to three. Reforms in contract administration are also underway, including removal of roadblocks to implement the aid untying policy. In addition, in line with current public service-wide initiatives, CIDA is also implementing a corporate strategy for managing its people, which has three priorities-strengthening CIDA as a knowledge-based, continuous learning organization, increasing retention through workplace well-being, and promoting renewal through ongoing recruitment. The Agency is also implementing Government On-Line, with special attention to e-business, e-collaboration, and e-human resources transformation.

Objective 9: Strengthen CIDA management processes, ensuring continued compliance with relevant environmental legislation.

CIDA is continually improving its management processes. The Agency launched Integrated Modern Management in 2002 and is now developing an integrated management action plan following a capacity assessment, analysis of current management practices and skills, and employee feedback.
A rigorous review of CIDA's budgetary requirements and pressures has led to a new strategy for allocations and the creation of a new Operating Budget Review Committee. Work is ongoing to modernize financial management practices, information systems, and planning instruments to better support performance monitoring and measurement, continuous learning, and reporting.

With respect to environmental legislation, CIDA is subject to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. All CIDA programs and projects must be reviewed to determine the applicability of the CEAA to these programs and projects. A guide for carrying out strategic environmental assessments for project and programs was developed in 2003.

CIDA also ensures that its internal operations are consistent with the Government of Canada's Code of Environmental Stewardship, such as the green procurement standards.


Annex B: Public consultations related to CIDA and sustainable development

CIDA has undertaken public consultations over the past few years on a number of key areas related to sustainable development that have informed the preparation of CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2004-2006: Enabling Change.

Consultations with CIDA's national and international stakeholders are an important aspect of policy development and program design and delivery at CIDA. Consultations seek to fulfil six primary objectives, which includes:

  • The incorporation of the knowledge and expertise of stakeholders;
  • The constructive collaboration of stakeholders in the promotion and implementation of Canadian aid policy;
  • Increasing the transparency and credibility of the Agency's decision making and policy formulation processes; and,
  • The promotion of continued learning and change on the part of the Agency and its stakeholders.

Since 2001, CIDA policies such as Canada Making a Difference in the World: A Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness (September 2002), Promoting Sustainable Rural Development Through Agriculture (April 2003), and Expanding Opportunities Through Private Sector Development (July 2003) have been developed through extensive consultation with stakeholders. The Agency also carries out regular and ongoing consultations at the country, institutional, and program levels, on such activities as the development of CDPFs. In addition, CIDA ensures ongoing collaboration with its partners in Canada and developing countries during the delivery of development programs, often leading to policy refinement, adaptation, and evolution. It is important to note that the continuous consultative process in which CIDA has been engaged since the release of CIDA's Sustainable Development Strategy 2001-2003: An Agenda for Change has created a constant influx of new ideas and an ongoing evolution of policy making and programming.

Additionally in 2002, the Canadian development assistance program was the subject of a regular development cooperation peer review by OECDDAC. The goals of such reviews are to monitor the policies and programs of member states, analyze their efficiency and effectiveness, exert pressure to improve both the quality and volume of their development cooperation, and provide a credible analysis for wider audiences in member countries, as well as the international community at large. There was broad support by the DAC Peer Review for Canada's plans in several areas, including increasing ODA volumes, liberalizing and untying trade, implementing the principles announced in Canada Making a Difference in the World: A Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness, the use of new PBAs, and focusing new resources both geographically and sectorally.

Consultation processes

Generally, CIDA consultations are conducted through in-person dialogues in the form of national and international round tables, and electronically through websites designed to reach more people and partners. The development of a secure, moderated, password-protected extranet known as the "Partners Forum" has further helped to facilitate communications and knowledge sharing between the Agency and its partners. Through these various processes, national and international stakeholders in developing countries are consulted as are CIDA staff at headquarters and in the field.

Over the past two years, CIDA has received 20,000 visits to its consultation websites, conducted 36 cross-country round tables, and received more than 250 reports, briefs, and submissions through consultation. These figures serve as a testament to the significant level of public interest in CIDA's work and the important role the consultative process plays in improving the work the Agency does in developing countries. Consultations also improve the Agency's relationships with its developing country partners and its Canadian partners in government, civil society, and the private sector.

Policy consultations

CIDA's consultations in 2001 on the development of its new policy on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness were particularly important for CIDA's new directions. They included on-line and cross-Canada consultations, as well as written submissions to the Minister. More than 6,000 participants logged on to the website and 160 briefs and reports were submitted. Non-governmental organizations were particularly involved in the process, comprising more than half of those who participated and submitted their views.

The development of CIDA's new policy on agriculture and rural development in 2002 included a unique consultation mechanism that brought together experts and stakeholders from around the world. An international workshop, held in Canada, focused on creating a common understanding of the main challenges and promoting a shared vision of the opportunities for promoting sustainable rural development through agriculture. It was attended by senior-level officials from donors, developing country partners, and multilateral organizations such as the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The consultative process for this policy also included small, domestic round tables with key stakeholders, chaired by the Minister for International Cooperation and held in Western Canada and Quebec as well as Eastern and Central Canada. In addition, CIDA ensured that other government departments, such as Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, were involved in consultation processes for relevant policies. For example, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency were extensively involved in the development of Promoting Sustainable Rural Development Through Agriculture.

The formulation of CIDA's 2003 policy on private sector development, Expanding Opportunities Through Private Sector Development, was also informed by on-line consultation, with more than 12,000 visits to the consultation website set up for this exercise. A further 320 people participated in round-table discussions during cross-Canada consultations in early March 2003.

Consultations on CDPFs

CIDA's CDPFs articulate the corporate vision of the Agency's relationship with partner countries (individual countries or regions). A CDPF is consistent with the plans and priorities of partner countries, defines the implementation strategy for CIDA's contribution to the objectives of its partners' plans, and is the basis for CIDA's policy dialogue with its partners and other donors. The development of CDPFs involves consultation at a number of levels, including discussions with partner governments as well as civil society in Canada and the country concerned in most cases. CIDA also consults with Canadian stakeholders and other government departments to ensure that it is developing an appropriate programmatic orientation and that programming goals and policies are coherent across government departments in a given country.

Key themes

Despite the diversity of the recent consultations, there are a number of key themes which have emerged throughout discussions such as policy coherence between CIDA and other government departments, local ownership and capacity building, donor coordination, and the harnessing of Canadian capabilities.

Policy coherence

In all three major policy consultations, participants encouraged greater policy coherence within CIDA, with other government departments, and among donors. It was also recommended that the emphasis on policy coherence should move beyond federal government departments to include the voluntary-sector, the private sector, and academia. However, it was emphasized that coherence must be grounded in development objectives. Government departments were encouraged to collaborate with CIDA and focus on Canada's areas of expertise such as agriculture, small business development, environment, policy development, and governance. In the case of CIDA's consultations on agriculture, participants expressed concern over continued Canadian subsidies to agricultural products. Policy coherence in this sector was viewed to be a major obstacle to poverty reduction. Most of the issues raised in the consultations are reflected in CIDA's approach to policy coherence, including its contributions to Canadian positions on trade, environment, agriculture, aid untying, and conflict.

The OECD-DAC Peer Review encouraged Canada to do more in the areas of policy coherence for development, including giving poverty reduction a central role in the foreign policy update of 2002-2003; conducting a more proactive analysis of the impact of non-aid policies (trade, agriculture, immigration); developing a clearer delineation of responsibilities with greater delegated authority to the field; making RBM more strategic (i.e. at the program level) to track CIDA's contribution to the Millennium Development Goals; to have more structured collaboration between government departments; and engaging Canadians for a more informed discussion of Canada's ODA program. Many of these elements present a greater challenge as they crosscut departments. Policy coherence will be served by the forthcoming framework for managing the International Assistance Envelope (IAE) and better integration of the work of other government departments into CDPFs, but progress will be more gradual than immediate.

Local ownership and capacity development

It was highlighted by participants in the consultative processes on Canada Making a Difference in the World: A Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness, Promoting Sustainable Rural Development through Agriculture, and Expanding Opportunities Through Private Sector Development that local ownership is imperative for projects and programs to be sustainable, and for the effective and efficient use of resources. Suggested methods include the involvement of women and youth, supporting partnerships with social organizations, ensuring gender equality, and strengthening the internal capacity of communities to guide their own development. It is however, important to ensure that local ownership is defined through consultative processes involving government and civil society in developing countries. Therefore the plans and priorities of developing countries, which are locally owned and have been developed in participatory ways, must be respected. CIDA has been encouraged to consider ways in which local ownership can be strengthened by Canadian partners and executing agencies. In 2003, CIDA continued its dialogue with the voluntary sector by co-sponsoring a round table with the Canadian Council for International Cooperation (CCIC) on the issue of local ownership as it relates to CIDA's policy statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness.

Donor coordination

Participants in the consultations on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness welcomed CIDA's increased commitment to donor coordination and noted its inherent challenges, particularly in contexts where CIDA represents a small proportion of aid and where the question of a lead agency remains unanswered. However, the Agency was cautioned against unequal power relationships between powerful donor alliances and individual governments of developing countries. Participants noted that Sector-Wide Approaches and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers could serve as effective vehicles to promote donor coordination where appropriate conditions permit.

Harnessing Canadian capabilities

Canadian development partners have frequently reminded CIDA of the enormous knowledge and expertise that exists in Canada, and that it should be harnessed to support the Agency's development efforts. Furthermore, it was felt that CIDA should better reflect the role and expertise of Canadian civil society in the development of its policies and the delivery of its aid programming.

Cautionary notes on Canada's aid program

The OECD-DAC Peer Review Team made two cautionary statements about the structure and delivery of Canada's aid program that the Agency is taking into account. First, the team cautioned Canada about potentially higher administration costs in comparison with other donors. While the data are not completely comparable between donors because of structural and reporting differences, there was some indication that CIDA's operations were too labour-intensive and, therefore, costly. Secondly, the Peer Review Team raised some questions about the role of Canadian partners in promoting local ownership by developing countries. In response, CIDA is demonstrating the role and value of Canadian voluntary sector and private sector partners in Canada's ODA program, as well as the rationale for collaboration. The Agency is looking to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of this collaboration so that CIDA's co-investment with partners can be more supportive of the aid effectiveness principles, policy coherence, and local ownership.

Annex C: CIDA's organization chart

Chart of CIDA's organization

End notes:

1. The IAE funds assistance to both developing countries and countries in transition in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It includes spending by CIDA, the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, and a number of other departments that administer development programs. CIDA's share of the IAE is more than 80 percent. | Back |

2. ODA is defined as funding transferred to developing countries and multilateral institutions provided by official (government) agencies that is administered with the promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing counties as its main objective and is concessional in character and conveys a grant element of at least 25 percent. OA is funding provided to countries that are not eligible to receive ODA. | Back |

3. Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Honduras, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania. | Back |

4. In FY 2002/2003, the top five recipients for all channels of delivery were Afghanistan, India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and China. | Back |

5. UN Human Development Reports, 2002 and 2003; UNAIDS, AIDS Epidemic Update, December 2002. | Back |

6. Integrated Risk Management Framework, Treasury Board Secretariat, 2001. | Back |

7. Basic education, HIV/AIDS, and child protection. | Back |

8. Basic education, HIV/AIDS, and child protection. | Back |

9. Internal audits include the use of the Integrated Risk Management Framework to support continuous improvement at all levels of CIDA's operations (consult Section 3.3). | Back |

10. Please consult: http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/aideffectiveness | Back |

11. These countries are Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ethiopia, Ghana, Honduras, Mali, Mozambique, Senegal, and Tanzania. | Back |


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